Category Archives: c_review_articles

Review Articles

Cultivation and utilization of “Greek mountain tea” (Sideritis spp.): current knowledge and future challenges

Alexandra D. Solomou1*, Elpiniki Skoufogianni2, Christos Mylonas2, Rafailia Germani2, Nicholaos G. Danalatos2

1Institute of Mediterranean and Forest Ecosystems, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter”, N. Chlorou 1, 11528, Ilisia, Athens, Greece

2Laboratory of Agronomy and Applied Crop Physiology, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytokou Str., 38446, N. Ionia, Magnesia, Volos, Greece


The Greek ecosystems consist of a variety of plant species, of which a large percentage have aromatic and medicinal properties. Aromatic and medicinal plants play an important role in the health of people worldwide, especially in developing countries. The present review focuses on Sideritis spp. that is an important plant with an increased attention in the last years for its wide range of uses and especially due to its medicinal properties. The location and conditions of the areas that can be used for its cultivation should be similar to those of its natural habitat in order to keep the product quality. It is important to mention that both the yield and the lifetime of the crop depend to a large extent on cultivation care. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that Sideritis spp. fetch an auspicious potential for improvement of memory in healthy adults as well as in dementia patients. Currently, the demand for these plants and their derivatives has increased because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products with high economic value. Therefore, it comprises an important commodity for extensive cultivation in Greece in the near future. Hence, this emphasizes the need of extensive study for reporting the additional information on the aromatic and medicinal importance of Sideritis spp.

Keywords: Cultivated practices, Ecology, Diversity, Compounds, Essential oil, Sideritis

Croton species in Madagascar: their ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities

Alfred Maroyi

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa


Croton species collected from the wild have always been used as herbal medicines for various diseases in Madagascar. The objective of this investigation was to review the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Croton species that are endemic to Madagascar. Relevant literature search was carried out using internet sources such as ACS, Web of Science, Wiley, SpringerLink, Scopus, Mendeley, Google Scholar, Pubmed, SciFinder, BioMed Central, Science Direct and Elsevier. Other literature sources were conference papers, book chapters, books, theses and websites. Literature sources revealed that leaves, bark, roots and twigs of Croton species are commonly used as traditional remedies for 38 human diseases and ailments in Madagascar. Cough, malaria, stomach problems, hypertension, asthma, colic and fever are the most commonly treated human diseases, including use of leafy branches of Croton species as insect and lice repellents. Phytochemical compounds isolated from Croton species include alkaloids, diterpenoids, essential oils, flavonoids, furanoditerpenoids and triterpenoids. Preliminary pharmacological studies indicate that crude extracts and compounds isolated from these species have antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. In as much as the medicinal potential of Croton species should be evaluated, more intensive phytochemical and pharmacological assessments should be conducted to enhance the pharmaceutical potential of the species.

Keywords: Croton, Endemic species, Madagascar, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological properties

African traditional medicine: relevance, regulation, potential challenges and possible remedies

Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju

Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry Group, Oxidative Stress Research Centre, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, 7535, South Africa


There is no doubt that advances have been made and significant improvement reported on the application of orthodox therapies in the management and treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. However, different reports seem to show that orthodox therapies are restricted by mechanisms of action, which tend to focus on the symptoms of the disease instead of the main cause. On the other hand, throughout history, African traditional medicine (ATM) using products majorly from medicinal plants have been applied to alleviate symptoms of various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, infertility, parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Globally, information in respect of certain medicinal plants and their activities has been passed on from generation to generation. Fortunately, scientific studies have been able to confirm some of these claims and established the importance of medicinal plants in health care. Although African traditional medicine has contributed significantly to health care in Africa with over 80% of the population using African traditional medicine for their primary health service, it is faced with some challenges in term of its regulation and practice. Indiscriminate or non-regulated applications of various herbal medicines has put the health of people especially in African countries at the risk of toxicity or adverse effects or even death. It is for this reason that this paper examines the relevance of African traditional medicine, its regulation, the challenges associated with its regulation and the way forward.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Diseases, Treatment, Management, Tradition, Africa

Bridelia cathartica Bertol. f. (Phyllanthaceae): a review of its pharmacological properties and medicinal potential

Alfred Maroyi*

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa



Bridelia cathartica is an important medicinal plant throughout its distributional range in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the botany, ethnomedicinal uses, chemical and biological properties of B. cathartica. Information on the medicinal, phytochemistry and biological properties of B. cathartica was undertaken using electronic databases such as Medline, Pubmed, SciFinder, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EThOS, ProQuest, OATD and Open-thesis. Pre-electronic literature was sourced from the University library. Literature search revealed that B. cathartica is mainly used as a charm and to cast spells, as herbal medicine used by women during child bearing and pregnancy, remedy for fever and malaria, gastro-intestinal, headache, haemorrhoids, menstrual problems, pain, sores and wounds, reproductive, respiratory disorders and sexually transmitted infections. Pharmacological studies of B. cathartica extracts revealed that the species has antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antioxidant properties. Based on its wide use as herbal medicine in tropical Africa, B. cathartica should be subjected to detailed phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations aimed at elucidating its chemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties.

Keywords: Bridelia cathartica, Ethnopharmacology, Phyllanthaceae, Traditional medicine, Tropical Africa

Dicoma capensis less: a review of its botany, ethno medicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology

Alfred Maroyi*

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa







Dicoma capensis is widely used as traditional medicine in southern Africa. The potential of D. capensis as herbal medicine, its botany, phytochemistry and biological activities are reviewed. The literature relevant to the botany, phytochemistry and biological activities of D. capensis was obtained from the main online scientific sites including ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and SCOPUS. Searches were also undertaken in the University of Fort Hare library, dissertation and thesis search engines like ProQuest, Open-thesis, OATD, and EthOs. Dicoma capensis is used as herbal medicine against colds, fever, influenza, cancer, stomach problems, high blood pressure, back pain and diarrhoea in southern Africa. The chemical composition of D. capensis is made up of melampolides, germacranolides, eudesmanolides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alcohol precipitable solids (APS), amino acids and phenolic acids. The biological activities demonstrated by the species include antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and bitterness properties. The traditional ethnomedicinal usage of D. capensis highlights the importance of detailed information on botanical, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicological reports on the species. 


Keywords: Antibacterial, Anticancer, Antifungal, Asteraceae, Dicoma capensis, Southern Africa






Effect of insecticides on Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae); A review

Aqsa Sattar1, Iqra Azam1*, Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar1, Afifa Amjad1, Muhammad Faheem Malik2

1 Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Sub-Campus Narowal, Narowal, Pakistan

2 Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan


Coccinella septempunctata is the generalist, representative predator that is potentially used as biological control agent in many crop pest management programs. A comprehensive and critical review of published and formerly unpublished studies was accomplished to evaluate the effects of insecticides such as imidacloprid, hexaflumuron, dimethoate, deltamethrin, pyriproxyfen, spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, acetamiprid, fenazaquin, quinalphos and neemix on C. septempunctata. Data generated clearly indicates severe effects of used insecticides on its neurophysiological and behavioral responses indicating loss of co-ordination, paralysis as well as reduce fecundity, longevity and growth. Further studies are required to focus mainly on the measure to evaluate their real effects under field conditions

Keywords:  C. septempunctata, Biological control agent, Predatory efficacy, Imidacloprid, Pyriproxyfen

A review: risk assessment of pesticides on honey bee and pollination of agriculture crops in Pakistan

Saboor Ahmad*, Muhammad Asif Aziz

Department of Entomology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan



This paper reviews the importance of honey bee as pollinator of agriculture crops, fruit, vegetables, seeds etc. and losses in agriculture, honey bee and honey production due to use of chemical pesticides. Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is economically important insect. Honeybees are existing all around world excluding extreme Polar Regions.  Honey bees (Apis mellifera) add approximately US $200 billion to the global economy every year, mainly through crop pollination. Productivity worth of pollination dependent crops equal to US$ 1590 million in Pakistan where 61 main pollinate crops are considered as foodstuff  (26 fruits, 19 vegetable, 7 oilseeds, 4 grain legumes, 2 flavoring crops and 3 nut shrubs) depend on  honey bee pollination. Honey bee population is declining with alarming speed all around the world and it is endangering global food security because one third of agriculture production depend upon on pollination particularly by honey bee. Current reduction in honey bee population for agriculture pollination is threatening to nuts, fruit, vegetable and seed production in Pakistan. Several factors responsible for decline of honey bee colonies including climate change, predation by other insects, air pollution, ecosemiotic collapse, the alteration of the bee microbiome, electromagnetic radiation from the sun, expose to initial life stress, nano materials, and biochemical pesticides, diseases, parasites surroundings of honey bees. The toxic chemicals are transported in hive through the pollen and nectar which may destroy the entire honey bee colony. Pesticides pattern applied in agriculture have been changed in last decade. This review research indicates how pesticide is used in agricultural crops for control of pests affecting on honey bee health and decline of bee populations. Then concludes with intensive studies on current management protocols would support in procedure formulation and resolution making polices regarding to shelter honey bees and management of pollination for agriculture purpose, which is lacking.

 Keywords: Honey bee, Agriculture crops, Pollination, Beekeeper, Pesticides

Eco-Friendly Management of Pulse Beetle (Callosobruchus Chinensis) By Using Different Plant Materials

Rukhsana Kausar1, Muhammad Amjad Bashir1,*, Muhammad Shahid Nisar1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani2, Muhammad Sadiq Hashami3, Sagheer Atta1

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University DG Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University DG Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

3Department of Economics, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan




Legumes (pulses) are ancient crops of the Sub-continent, Middle East and various parts of the Africa. These provide high quality protein and considered to be the best food for vegetarian population in India, South Asia, West Asia and Southern European countries. Chickpea is valued for its nutritive grains with high protein content of 25-29%. These grain legumes are, however, susceptible to different species of beetles of the family Bruchidae in storage commonly known as Dhora. At current, insect manage procedures frequently rely on synthetic insecticides and fumigants. Other than substance safety actions may be result as like numerous severe drawbacks. Insecticides have wide and unsystematic application causes natural imbalance confrontation to insect, insect recovery and epidemic of secondary insect creates phyto-toxicity. Insecticide residues in diet and nourish. Furthermore, non-stop use of insecticides leads to harmful result on insect pollination, biological agent like different Predators, parasitoids and too become cause of the ecological contamination. Owing to these drawbacks, internationally scientists are annoying to approve substitute methods of insect manage. The make use of close by obtainable native place resources in the management of harmful insects are a primeval technology.  Now in modern world, in numerous parts of the earth a range of crop of vegetation have been tried lately by researchers with an elevated amount of achievement as granule. Protestants next to pulse beetle to decrease plague in storage space. Observance these views in brain, the in attendance learning was conducted to examine the pesticide efficiency of a number of native botanicals powders as granule protestant next to Callosobruchus. chinensis legumes grains. Reviewed shows that different plant material which are friendly with ecosystems have significant results against pulse beetle and serve as an alternative methods for the pest control.

KeywordsDhora beetle; pulse beetle; pest management; environment friendly pest control

Pharmacological Screening of Annona Muricata: A Review

Uzma Saleem*1, Muhammad Ejaz-ul-Haq1, Zunera Chudary1 and Bashir Ahmad2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, G.C. University, Faisalabad-Pakistan. 
Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore campus-Pakistan
Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae family) is a tropical plant and most prominently known for its edible fruit which has more medicinal properties but some effects are toxic. This review most commonly represents the phytochemical contents, pharmacological and biological actions and at some extent toxicological effects which depends on dose, solvent for extraction and part of plant used. More than 200 compounds have been isolated and identify from different parts of this plant. Phenols, alkaloids and acetogenins are the most important and effective compounds. Traditionally, Annona muricata is being used to treat diverse ailments such as inflammation, fever, pain, hypertension, diabetes, liver damage, bacterial infection and cancer. Pharmacologically, plant possessed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, anti-pyretic, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antiviral phyto-chemicals and extracts of this plant have been characterized as hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and wound healing activities and cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral activities. It could be concluded that the use of Annona muricata fruit would be beneficial for having good health.
KeywordsPharmacological activities, Soursoap, Annona muricata

Review on Toxic Effects of Arsenic with relation to Clinical Signs in Different Animals

Muhammad Zubair

Faculty of veterinary sciences, University of Poonch Rawalakot Azad Kashmir


Arsenic is natural metalloid which is present in the universe everywhere. It is used for different insecticides and pesticides preparation. Poisoning of arsenic is a major issue that affects different species. Its occurrence is related to contamination of feed and water; therefore, it is matter of concern globally. However, its level of toxicity is increasing very rapidly in Asian countries especially Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Its increasing level of arsenic in ground water is the major source of poisoning to human and animals. In addition, the contact of animals to arsenic lead to absorption body and accumulation in vital organs like liver and kidneys that may resulted to carcinogenic development. Elimination of absorbed arsenic in environment through excretions of animals is also one way to increase its level in water/soil. The objective of this review is to gather the information about arsenic toxicity occurrence by natural or experimentally ways and changes occurred in suffered animals related to pathological or biochemical.
Keywords: arsenic, lab animals, livestock and toxic effects