Category Archives: c_review_articles

Review Articles

African traditional medicine: relevance, regulation, potential challenges and possible remedies

Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju

Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry Group, Oxidative Stress Research Centre, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, 7535, South Africa


There is no doubt that advances have been made and significant improvement reported on the application of orthodox therapies in the management and treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. However, different reports seem to show that orthodox therapies are restricted by mechanisms of action, which tend to focus on the symptoms of the disease instead of the main cause. On the other hand, throughout history, African traditional medicine (ATM) using products majorly from medicinal plants have been applied to alleviate symptoms of various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, infertility, parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Globally, information in respect of certain medicinal plants and their activities has been passed on from generation to generation. Fortunately, scientific studies have been able to confirm some of these claims and established the importance of medicinal plants in health care. Although African traditional medicine has contributed significantly to health care in Africa with over 80% of the population using African traditional medicine for their primary health service, it is faced with some challenges in term of its regulation and practice. Indiscriminate or non-regulated applications of various herbal medicines has put the health of people especially in African countries at the risk of toxicity or adverse effects or even death. It is for this reason that this paper examines the relevance of African traditional medicine, its regulation, the challenges associated with its regulation and the way forward.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Diseases, Treatment, Management, Tradition, Africa

Bridelia cathartica Bertol. f. (Phyllanthaceae): a review of its pharmacological properties and medicinal potential

Alfred Maroyi*

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa



Bridelia cathartica is an important medicinal plant throughout its distributional range in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the botany, ethnomedicinal uses, chemical and biological properties of B. cathartica. Information on the medicinal, phytochemistry and biological properties of B. cathartica was undertaken using electronic databases such as Medline, Pubmed, SciFinder, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EThOS, ProQuest, OATD and Open-thesis. Pre-electronic literature was sourced from the University library. Literature search revealed that B. cathartica is mainly used as a charm and to cast spells, as herbal medicine used by women during child bearing and pregnancy, remedy for fever and malaria, gastro-intestinal, headache, haemorrhoids, menstrual problems, pain, sores and wounds, reproductive, respiratory disorders and sexually transmitted infections. Pharmacological studies of B. cathartica extracts revealed that the species has antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antioxidant properties. Based on its wide use as herbal medicine in tropical Africa, B. cathartica should be subjected to detailed phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations aimed at elucidating its chemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties.

Keywords: Bridelia cathartica, Ethnopharmacology, Phyllanthaceae, Traditional medicine, Tropical Africa

Dicoma capensis less: a review of its botany, ethno medicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology

Alfred Maroyi*

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa







Dicoma capensis is widely used as traditional medicine in southern Africa. The potential of D. capensis as herbal medicine, its botany, phytochemistry and biological activities are reviewed. The literature relevant to the botany, phytochemistry and biological activities of D. capensis was obtained from the main online scientific sites including ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and SCOPUS. Searches were also undertaken in the University of Fort Hare library, dissertation and thesis search engines like ProQuest, Open-thesis, OATD, and EthOs. Dicoma capensis is used as herbal medicine against colds, fever, influenza, cancer, stomach problems, high blood pressure, back pain and diarrhoea in southern Africa. The chemical composition of D. capensis is made up of melampolides, germacranolides, eudesmanolides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alcohol precipitable solids (APS), amino acids and phenolic acids. The biological activities demonstrated by the species include antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and bitterness properties. The traditional ethnomedicinal usage of D. capensis highlights the importance of detailed information on botanical, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicological reports on the species. 


Keywords: Antibacterial, Anticancer, Antifungal, Asteraceae, Dicoma capensis, Southern Africa






Effect of insecticides on Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae); A review

Aqsa Sattar1, Iqra Azam1*, Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar1, Afifa Amjad1, Muhammad Faheem Malik2

1 Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Sub-Campus Narowal, Narowal, Pakistan

2 Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan


Coccinella septempunctata is the generalist, representative predator that is potentially used as biological control agent in many crop pest management programs. A comprehensive and critical review of published and formerly unpublished studies was accomplished to evaluate the effects of insecticides such as imidacloprid, hexaflumuron, dimethoate, deltamethrin, pyriproxyfen, spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, acetamiprid, fenazaquin, quinalphos and neemix on C. septempunctata. Data generated clearly indicates severe effects of used insecticides on its neurophysiological and behavioral responses indicating loss of co-ordination, paralysis as well as reduce fecundity, longevity and growth. Further studies are required to focus mainly on the measure to evaluate their real effects under field conditions

Keywords:  C. septempunctata, Biological control agent, Predatory efficacy, Imidacloprid, Pyriproxyfen

A review: risk assessment of pesticides on honey bee and pollination of agriculture crops in Pakistan

Saboor Ahmad*, Muhammad Asif Aziz

Department of Entomology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan



This paper reviews the importance of honey bee as pollinator of agriculture crops, fruit, vegetables, seeds etc. and losses in agriculture, honey bee and honey production due to use of chemical pesticides. Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is economically important insect. Honeybees are existing all around world excluding extreme Polar Regions.  Honey bees (Apis mellifera) add approximately US $200 billion to the global economy every year, mainly through crop pollination. Productivity worth of pollination dependent crops equal to US$ 1590 million in Pakistan where 61 main pollinate crops are considered as foodstuff  (26 fruits, 19 vegetable, 7 oilseeds, 4 grain legumes, 2 flavoring crops and 3 nut shrubs) depend on  honey bee pollination. Honey bee population is declining with alarming speed all around the world and it is endangering global food security because one third of agriculture production depend upon on pollination particularly by honey bee. Current reduction in honey bee population for agriculture pollination is threatening to nuts, fruit, vegetable and seed production in Pakistan. Several factors responsible for decline of honey bee colonies including climate change, predation by other insects, air pollution, ecosemiotic collapse, the alteration of the bee microbiome, electromagnetic radiation from the sun, expose to initial life stress, nano materials, and biochemical pesticides, diseases, parasites surroundings of honey bees. The toxic chemicals are transported in hive through the pollen and nectar which may destroy the entire honey bee colony. Pesticides pattern applied in agriculture have been changed in last decade. This review research indicates how pesticide is used in agricultural crops for control of pests affecting on honey bee health and decline of bee populations. Then concludes with intensive studies on current management protocols would support in procedure formulation and resolution making polices regarding to shelter honey bees and management of pollination for agriculture purpose, which is lacking.

 Keywords: Honey bee, Agriculture crops, Pollination, Beekeeper, Pesticides

Eco-Friendly Management of Pulse Beetle (Callosobruchus Chinensis) By Using Different Plant Materials

Rukhsana Kausar1, Muhammad Amjad Bashir1,*, Muhammad Shahid Nisar1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani2, Muhammad Sadiq Hashami3, Sagheer Atta1

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University DG Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University DG Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

3Department of Economics, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan




Legumes (pulses) are ancient crops of the Sub-continent, Middle East and various parts of the Africa. These provide high quality protein and considered to be the best food for vegetarian population in India, South Asia, West Asia and Southern European countries. Chickpea is valued for its nutritive grains with high protein content of 25-29%. These grain legumes are, however, susceptible to different species of beetles of the family Bruchidae in storage commonly known as Dhora. At current, insect manage procedures frequently rely on synthetic insecticides and fumigants. Other than substance safety actions may be result as like numerous severe drawbacks. Insecticides have wide and unsystematic application causes natural imbalance confrontation to insect, insect recovery and epidemic of secondary insect creates phyto-toxicity. Insecticide residues in diet and nourish. Furthermore, non-stop use of insecticides leads to harmful result on insect pollination, biological agent like different Predators, parasitoids and too become cause of the ecological contamination. Owing to these drawbacks, internationally scientists are annoying to approve substitute methods of insect manage. The make use of close by obtainable native place resources in the management of harmful insects are a primeval technology.  Now in modern world, in numerous parts of the earth a range of crop of vegetation have been tried lately by researchers with an elevated amount of achievement as granule. Protestants next to pulse beetle to decrease plague in storage space. Observance these views in brain, the in attendance learning was conducted to examine the pesticide efficiency of a number of native botanicals powders as granule protestant next to Callosobruchus. chinensis legumes grains. Reviewed shows that different plant material which are friendly with ecosystems have significant results against pulse beetle and serve as an alternative methods for the pest control.

KeywordsDhora beetle; pulse beetle; pest management; environment friendly pest control

Pharmacological Screening of Annona Muricata: A Review

Uzma Saleem*1, Muhammad Ejaz-ul-Haq1, Zunera Chudary1 and Bashir Ahmad2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, G.C. University, Faisalabad-Pakistan. 
Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore campus-Pakistan
Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae family) is a tropical plant and most prominently known for its edible fruit which has more medicinal properties but some effects are toxic. This review most commonly represents the phytochemical contents, pharmacological and biological actions and at some extent toxicological effects which depends on dose, solvent for extraction and part of plant used. More than 200 compounds have been isolated and identify from different parts of this plant. Phenols, alkaloids and acetogenins are the most important and effective compounds. Traditionally, Annona muricata is being used to treat diverse ailments such as inflammation, fever, pain, hypertension, diabetes, liver damage, bacterial infection and cancer. Pharmacologically, plant possessed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, anti-pyretic, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antiviral phyto-chemicals and extracts of this plant have been characterized as hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and wound healing activities and cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral activities. It could be concluded that the use of Annona muricata fruit would be beneficial for having good health.
KeywordsPharmacological activities, Soursoap, Annona muricata

Review on Toxic Effects of Arsenic with relation to Clinical Signs in Different Animals

Muhammad Zubair

Faculty of veterinary sciences, University of Poonch Rawalakot Azad Kashmir


Arsenic is natural metalloid which is present in the universe everywhere. It is used for different insecticides and pesticides preparation. Poisoning of arsenic is a major issue that affects different species. Its occurrence is related to contamination of feed and water; therefore, it is matter of concern globally. However, its level of toxicity is increasing very rapidly in Asian countries especially Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Its increasing level of arsenic in ground water is the major source of poisoning to human and animals. In addition, the contact of animals to arsenic lead to absorption body and accumulation in vital organs like liver and kidneys that may resulted to carcinogenic development. Elimination of absorbed arsenic in environment through excretions of animals is also one way to increase its level in water/soil. The objective of this review is to gather the information about arsenic toxicity occurrence by natural or experimentally ways and changes occurred in suffered animals related to pathological or biochemical.
Keywords: arsenic, lab animals, livestock and toxic effects


Qudsia Nazir1, Azhar Hussain2, Muhammad Imran3, Sajid Mahmood4,

Maqshoof Ahmad2 Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal5,


1Provincial Reference Fertilizer Testing Laboratory, Lahore, Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab-Pakistan.

 2Department of Soil Science, University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

3Department of Soil Science, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan. 4Department of Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-80208, Saudi Arabia.

 5Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research, Chiniot, Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab-Pakistan.




Zinc (Zn) is a micronutrient, essentially required by plants, animals and humans. Zn deficiency in humans due to the consumption of food with inadequate Zn content is of global concern. Approximately, one third of poor world’s population is at high risk of Zn deficiency due to its reliance on cereals for daily caloric requirements. The cereals, generally grown on calcareous soils have low grain Zn. The major reason of lower Zn content in cereals is poor Zn bioavailability induced by various soil and/or crop management factors.  The factors responsible for low grain Zn are high soil pH, low organic matter, salinity/alkalinity, water logging, and poorly managed soil fertility. Due to its critical role in growth and development of humans, food with adequate Zn content is mandatory. This situation demands some effective strategies for the enhancement of grain Zn content to overcome human Zn deficiency. Zinc supplementation of food, Zn pills, breeding of high Zn uptake species, and biofortification through fertilizers are being employed to address the issue. Among all strategies, Zn biofortification through fertilizers is an effective and economical technique. Mineral Zn fertilizers are applied alone or in combination with organic and biofertilizers. Integrated use of mineral, organic and biofertilizers improves Zn uptake and assimilation in cereals grains. Nanotechnology and enrichment/coating techniques are also effective to enhance grains Zn. This review critically discuss the efficiency of various strategies to promote Zn availability and uptake by plants that assure food and nutrition security.  Zn enriched/coated urea is considered an effective tool to ensure crops with optimum concentration of Zn for human consumption.  


Keywords: Zinc; Bioavailability; Cereals; Biofortification; Biofertilizers; Food Security


Muhammad Zubair*, Mubashir Ali Khalique

Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, The University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan




The use of poly unsaturated fatty acids has pronounced significant effects on the efficiency of male reproductive system. Poly unsaturated fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid, omega 3, Omega 6, oleic and linolinic acid are rich in diets like flaxseed oil, soybean oil, fish oil, sunflower oil. These diets have the capability to increase serum testosterone level, fertility rate, ejaculation period, sperm motility, semen volume, sperms concentration and sexual behavior. Similarly, these fatty acids reduce the oxidative stress and maintain membrane integrity. In this review, some of the basic information regarding the importance of poly unsaturated fatty acids on semen quality parameters of male is summarized.

Keywords: poly unsaturated fatty acids, Semen quality