Category Archives: c_review_articles

Review Articles

Syntenic mapping: A powerful tool for comparative genomics in plants

Ikhlaq Ahmad1, Azeem Iqbal Khan2, Safdar Ali3, Rashid Mehmood Rana1*

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Comparative genomics has emerged as a great tool in understanding variations/similarities among various species at molecular level. In classical genetics synteny was used to show that two or more loci are present on same chromosome. Now a day’s synteny is being used to answer questions concerning homeology (the remains of completely homologous chromosomes). Chromosome/genome synteny has been observed in closely related species, having several genes with similar map orders. Synteny is helpful in comparing different genomes. It is used in the study of evolution of genomes, observe functional conservation, help in genome annotation and observe genome assembly errors. Synteny among different genomes can be detected by identification of conserved sequence elements among genomes, comparing the conserved proteins with the help of BLASTP or by the combination of both. Numerous tools are available for the detection of synteny among different genomes. Synteny analysis has been used largely to study complex genomes and helped in discoveries at genomic, chromosomal and gene levels. Syntenic mapping in plant breeding holds promising future prospects.


Keywords: Comparative genomics, Synteny, Homeology, Chromosome, Genome, Gene

Exploring the relationship between ABO blood groups and vulnerability to different diseases

Muhammad Imran1&, Ramna Zia2&, Muhammad Aqib Fareed3&, Benish Javed1&, Ali Ahsan4&, Kiran Jalil4, Muhammad Umer Khan5, Hassan Shabbir Chaudhry6, Muhammad Subaan Fareed7, Muhammad Muddassir8, Chaudhry Ahmed Shabbir9*, Zahra Kalim10*

1University Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

3Allama Iqbal Medical Collage, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

4Graduate School of Science, Osaka Metropolitan University, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi Ward Osaka-558- 0022, Japan

5Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

6Department of Medicine and Surgery, Hijaz hospital Gulberg, Lahore, Pakistan

7School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, West Donggang Road 199, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. China

8Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan

9School of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, The University of Adelaide, Australia

10Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

&These authors contributed equally to this work


The ABO grouping of blood, comprising the four main types A, B, AB, and O, has been widely recognized for its significance in establishing the suitability of organ transplants and blood transfusions. Recent research has revealed the potential influence of ABO blood types on susceptibility to certain diseases. The current study uses an extensive review of the body of literature and epidemiological investigations to explore the relationships between ABO blood types and disorders that impact various organ systems. The focus lies on chronic ailments, encompassing certain types of cancer as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and infectious disorders. For example, those with A blood group may exhibit a higher susceptibility to developing peptic carcinoma, whereas individuals with blood type O may demonstrate a lower propensity for cardiovascular issues. The fundamental mechanisms of these interactions remain incompletely understood. The potential causes for the impact of ABO antigens on immunological responses, coagulation factors, inflammation, and interactions with pathogens are still under investigation. The presence of genetic and molecular variations within ABO blood types may contribute to differing susceptibilities to illnesses. This review examines the correlation between ABO blood types and susceptibility to diseases.

Keywords: ABO blood groups, Cardiovascular disease, Cancer, Hypertension, Infectious disease, Malaria

Nanobiosensors: application in healthcare, environmental monitoring and food safety

Qaisar Mahmood1*, Shahida Shaheen2, Muhammad Azeem1

1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir 32028, Bahrain

2Department of Environmental Sciences, Kohsar University, Murree, Pakistan


This review article summarized the diverse kinds of nanobiosensors along with their uses in healthcare, environmental monitoring, and food safety, while also defining present challenges and opportunities for future investigation and augmentation. In healthcare, for instance, they have been employed for glucose monitoring, cholesterol detection, antibiotic monitoring, and the production of new types of antibiotics that are effective against resistant strains. This enables a highly efficient method that is both accurate and reliable when detecting biomarkers. Nanobiosensors have been overwhelmingly successful in aiding in environmental monitoring. With its ability to effectively screen groundwater, detect pollutants, and monitor toxicity, this emerging technology has become a force to be reckoned with for detecting hazardous substances. Similarly, the food industry has seen remarkable benefits from nanobiosensors as well. The use of nanobiosensors for dynamic food safety monitoring enables prompt detection of dangerous foodborne pathogens and spoilage issues while providing real-time data on the quality of consumables. Even though nanobiosensors possess enormous potential, there are still numerous limitations to overcome.

Keywords: Nanobiosensors, Healthcare, Environmental monitoring, Food safety, Diagnosis, Monitoring, Antibiotics, Pollution

A review on stingless bee (kelulut) honey composition and its contribution to quality of honey products

Muhammad Nur Shazwan Jamzuri, Muhammad Amirun Che Hassan, Fisal Ahmad, Amir Izzwan Zamri, Muhamad Fauzi Mahmud, Shamsul Bahri Abdul Razak, Tuan Zainazor Tuan Chilek*

Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia



The kelulut farming industry in Malaysia has experienced exponential growth, driven by the increasing demand for kelulut honey, which can be attributed to the widespread dissemination of information about its benefits. Previously, many researchers worked out on factors responsible on improving the quality of honey. However, the data of honey as a food ingredient and its functions is lacking and should be retrieved in order to have a clear picture on the importance of the specific composition of honey-based products.  The composition of kelulut honey such as sugar contents, acidity, antioxidants, water content, minerals and Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) play an important role in determining the quality of kelulut honey. The illustrious Malaysian Standard MS2683: 2017 was firmly established with the noble objective of safeguarding the pristine purity and unparalleled excellence of both raw and processed kelulut honey, assuring their unwavering compliance with the exalted guidelines and unrivalled standards set forth. Generally, the utilization of kelulut honey as a preservative in food products are not fully discovered yet. In addition, the presence of good bacteria such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributes to a special attribute in kelulut honey. However, kelulut honey is also highly susceptible towards harmful bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus and Shigella as reported in previous work. This may occur due to inappropriate handling of the kelulut honey during harvesting. Furthermore, kelulut honey as food ingredient which contains antibacterial value is very useful and can be used in food preservation due to its function in prolonging the shelf life. Therefore, the shelf life of honey and honey-based products are related with the composition, handling practice and the method of storage implementation throughout the food supply chain.

Keywords: Composition, Food ingredient, Food preservation, Kelulut honey, Shelf life

A review of current aspects of sars family, genome, database, drug, vaccine and its pathogenic member SARS-CoV-2

Rawaa AlChalabi1, Basma Kh. Alani1, Taisir K. Ibrahim2, AhmedAbdul Jabbar Suleiman3 

1Al-Nahrain University, College of Biotechnology, Baghdad, Iraq

2Tikrit University, College of Science, Biology Department, Saladin, Iraq

3Biotechnology Department, College of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Anbar, Iraq


The coronaviruses (CoV) show great diversity with respect to their genomic structures and the ability to infect animals and human beings. Multiple omics studies have been conducted to understand and identify the genome organization, immunological responses, and molecular markers for vaccine and drug development. However, due to constant mutational changes in the CoV-2 genome, the drug and vaccine development is becoming a challenge to target new variants. A tremendous amount of research is being carried out for vaccine development by utilizing bioinformatics and immunoinformatics, however, most of the developed vaccines are under trial. In this review, SARS family members are systematically illuminated for their differences, infections and mechanism of action along with recommendations to counter the new variants of CoV-2 through multi-omics, machine learning and structural bioinformatics techniques.

Keywords: SARS, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pandemic, Coronaviruses, RNA viruses, MERS-CoV

Breeding wheat for leaf rust resistance: past, present and future

Muhammad Ijaz1, Amir Afzal1, Ghulam Shabbir2, Javed Iqbal1, Muhammad Rafique1

1Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan


Leaf rust of wheat caused by (Puccinia triticina Eriks) proliferate under optimum weather conditions and causes severe damage. Diseases appeared in form of epidemics pose a real threat to food security rising the cost of food production. Breeding for development of resistant varieties against disease has advantages for ecological and monetary reasons, predominantly for peasants in the developing world. Sufficient research work has been conducted regarding pathogen host interaction mechanism. Two mechanisms of resistance are acquainted very well. Complete resistance function from seedling to adult growth stages whereas partial resistance becomes effective at the pre-booting stage and is more durable. Eighty leaf rust-resistant genes have been documented. Among these leaf rust-resistant genes Lr12, Lr13, Lr22a, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr46, Lr48, Lr49, Lr67, Lr68, Lr74, Lr75, Lr77, and Lr78 are adult plant resistant (APR) genes. Fear of genetic erosion is also well known. It means cultivars grown on a wide range with narrow genetic backgrounds and this situation is undesired as it may invite an epidemic. It has been experienced repeatedly in past decades. Wide genetic diversity in parents can promise to achieve maximum output from the breeding programmes. Sources of resistance other than Triticum aestivum are rich in diversity and consequently have been addressed adequately. Usage of relatives of wheat plant as a source of novel genes belonging to genera Triticum, Aegilops, Thinopyrum and Secale has generated more desired output. Molecular markers are being applied to explore diversity in pathogen as well as in host effectively although conventional approaches are being used as well. Status of research work carried in Pakistan has also been discussed in abridged form. This review has been conducted with an objective to summarize research work academic as well as applied, carried to develop strategies to incorporate genetic resistance in wheat against leaf rust.

Keywords: Leaf rust, Brown rust, Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Pt), Disease resistance, Molecular markers, Genetic erosion

Metabolomics approaches for early cancer diagnosis: a review

Ali Zineddine Boumehira1,2, Yasmine Fatima Akchiche2, Wissam Cherfi2, Oualid Talhi3, Reda Djidjik4,5, Daniel Joe Dailin6, Ting Ho7, Hesham Ali El Enshasy6,8*

1Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique – ENSA, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria

2University of Algiers, Faculty of Sciences, LVBRN, Algiers, Algeria

3Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses Physico-Chimiques CRAPC, Bou-Ismail, Tipaza, Algeria

4University of Algiers, Faculty of Medicine, LVBRN, Algiers, Algeria

5Department of Immunology, Issaad Hassani Hospital, Beni Messous, Algiers, Algeria

6Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor, Malaysia

7Global Agro Innovation (HK) Limited, Hong Kong

8City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Burg Al Arab, Alexandria, Egypt


Cancer remains a major burden on global public health with high mortality rates worldwide. Current diagnosis can detect cancer in late stages when therapy options become limited. Early diagnosis is broadly recognized as the key to a better treatment to save lives. The metabolomics approach provides a better understanding of the different types of cancer. They offer promising and potential interventions in biomarkers discovery which eventually will be better suited for individualized medicine. It elucidates endpoint products for other omic processes while significantly improving the understanding of pathogenesis and mechanisms yet to be discovered. Metabolomics offers a less-invasive, cost-effective for predicting, screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring therapeutic responses of the disease. There are two methods to study the metabolism and metabolites: targeted and untargeted. The workflow of these approaches requires different analytical platforms, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Mass Spectrometry (MS), and different bioinformatic tools. This review provides a systematic summary of metabolomics methods in identifying metabolic biomarkers of cancers (colorectal, prostate, breast, bladder, pancreas, lung, and buccal cancers). In addition, the current review will try to shed light on DNA lesions as a potential metabolic biomarker for cancer.


Keywords: Cancer, Metabolomics, NMR, Early diagnosis, DNA lesions

Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on livestock industry and food security: A review

Sharmeen Islam1, Md. Tanvir Rahman2, Syed Md. Ehsanur Rahman1, Md. Rokibul Islam Khan1*

1Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

2Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh


COVID-19 is a worldwide pandemic that spread over 192 countries and caused more than 3 million people deaths by 2021. It arises a concern on livestock cultivation, their production, and maintaining the supply chain to sustain the existing economy worldwide. The prediction of potential consequences on livestock production and food security is unexpected. Numerous cases among workers in animal farms and product processing plants are evolved during the panic situation, leading to a negative impact on livestock management, and the distribution of products to human doors simultaneously. One of the significant contributions to the drastic decline in livestock operation is the high cost of animal feed. Social distance also slows down all regular activities in livestock farms, resulting in a considerable upset on outcomes. Not only that shutting down transportation flexibility leads to be a burden for farmers in case of high production costs. In the context of consumers, the sublime price of meat, milk, and eggs has addressed the exacerbating risk to worldwide nutrition security. Hence, the world is experiencing an outbreak challenge in resilient, fair, and flexible animal production systems and ensuring food safety globally.

Keywords: COVID-19, Food security, Livestock production, Supply chain, Economy

Recent advances in molecular characterization of Sarcocystis species in some meat producing animals: an updated review

Sara Omar Swar1, Bushra Hussain Shnawa2, 3*

1College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Salahaddin University, Kurdistan, Iraq

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Soran University, Kurdistan, Iraq

3Scientific Research Center, Soran University, Kurdistan, Iraq


Sarcocystosis is a parasitic disease caused by Sarcocystis species that infect humans and animals. It is prevalent in small ruminants like sheep and goats worldwide and causing pathogenic impacts that lead to economic losses owing to carcass condemnation, abortion, and death. Recently, several molecular and phylogenetic analyses have been developed to differentiate Sarcocystis species including, the 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, 18S rDNA, and ITS-1 region. In recent years, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox-1) was successfully used for this purpose. The DNA barcoding using the cox1 gene is a reliable tool to distinguish and identify the main Sarcocystis genotypes. Therefore, several studies confirmed that the cox1 gene is a promising DNA marker for studying the genus Sarcocystis. The current review aims to highlight the molecular methods that exist for the identification of Sarcocystis species. The results showed that the Sarcocystis species of sheep and goats were genetically close related and may be considered as sibling strains, as well as the cross-infection may happen among them. Consequently, the host specificity of several Sarcocystis species is questionable. The findings additional emphasized that experimental transmission investigations within the proposed definitive host are required to confirm the characteristics and host ranges of the Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats. The current review represents updated knowledge about molecular discrimination of Sarcocystis species in small ruminants by reviewing and analyzing the recent articles in this aspect.

Keywords: Sarcocystis species, Small ruminants, Molecular identification, PCR

Antimicrobial disinfectants and sanitizers: An effective tool for breaking the circle of pandemic disease

Nur Izyan Wan Azelee1,2*, Hesham El-Enshasy1,2,3, Daniel Joe Dailin1,2, Nor Hasmaliana Abdul Manas1, Roslinda Abd Malek2, Mohd Akmali Mokhter3, Nurrulhidayah Salamun3, Roshanida A. Rahman2

1Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

2School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

3Bioprocess Development Department, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications (CSAT), New Burg Al Arab, Alexandria, Egypt

4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia


The recent outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic has triggered the world in finding and developing efficient disinfectants and sanitizers. This deadly contagious virus has urged all scientist to study the natural characteristic of the virus and thus, to be able to produce the suitable antiviral drug. As developing vaccine is long time-consuming process, the development of disinfectants and sanitizers are necessary to reduce the spread of this pandemic disease. Many types and version of these products have developed and marketed. Several issues, such as the high percentage of alcohol, the high flammability of the product, and many more have arisen. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the type of chemicals used as antimicrobial in general and antiviral in specific agents. In addition, it also discusses the chemical and herbal formulations, factors affecting the performance of antimicrobial agents, the safety precautions, and the future trend of sanitizers and disinfectants. Ultimately, the choice for the best disinfectants and sanitizers formulation would depend on the sensitivity of the surfaces regardless of on skin or other surface materials.

 Keywords: Sanitizer, Disinfectant, Pandemic, Antimicrobial, Antiviral