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Development of an IoT-based kit to monitor environmental parameters for use in indoor agriculture

Uğur Yegül*

Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technologies Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06135 Ankara, Türkiye


The present study aimed to develop a kit to collect data on important parameters for cultivation in a hydroponic farming environment and send and store these data online. This Study was carried out between February and August 2022. The area where the experiment was conducted is fully controlled (coordinates 39.962013 and 32.867491) and established within Ankara University, Ankara, Türkiye. The kit developed for indoor use in agriculture consisted of a microcontroller, different sensors, and hardware components. For all the hardware to be combined and work properly, a closed box was designed using SolidWorks solid modeling software and fabricated with a 3D printer. The code developed for the kit to fulfill the desired function was written in C++ and transferred to the microcontroller via Arduino software using a personal computer. This kit can measure T (temperature), H (humidity: %), carbon dioxide (CO2), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), LUX (luminous intensity: lux), Ultra-violet (UV) W m-2, P (air pressure: pascal), and AQ (air quality: ppm). The developed kit can transmit and store the data simultaneously on the Internet. IoT technologies need further agricultural studies, and more data to be obtained can contribute to resolving more problems. The kit obtained in the study can be used in domestic agriculture and various agricultural activities.

Keywords: Internet of things, Indoor farming, Arduino, Sensor, Environmental parameters

Zinc-coated urea and zinc-solubilizing microbes: synergistic strategies for improving zinc bioavailability in dry region soils

Hammad Anwar1, Moazzam Jamil1, Azhar Hussain1*, Abubakar Dar1, Maqshoof Ahmad1, Saleh H. Salmen2, Mohammad Javed Ansari3, Rashid Iqbal4*

1Department of Soil Science, the Islamia University, Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan

2Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

3Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, India

4Department of Agronomy, the Islamia University, Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan


Zinc (Zn) is the most limiting micronutrient responsible for malnutrition. World Health Organization (WHO) reported deficiency of Zn is the 5th most significant cause of death and disease in underdeveloped world. However, 70% Pakistani soils are Zn deficient and responsible for Zn deficiency in crops. The present study aimed to mitigate Zn deficiency and improve them a nd Zn use efficiencies through synergizing dry region Zn solubilizing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) by coating on Zn coated urea. Pre-isolated dry region Zn solubilizing isolates were evaluated for zinc solubilization, urease activity, siderophores production, organic acid production and ACC-deaminase activity. Four effective strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (IUB-34), Klebsiella variicola (IUB-96), Klebsiella variicola (IUB-80) and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (IUB-93) and their consortium coated on Zn coated urea. This improved product was tested for N and Zn release pattern, growth promotion and Zn biofortification in pot trial on wheat. Results showed that SPAD chlorophyll value, root, shoot length and their dry weight was significantly improved (p≤ 0.05) by 19.4, 20.3, 45.9, 27.3 and 39.5%, respectively, over control. Similarly, N, P, K, Zn, Fe in grains and 100-grain weight was significantly increased (p≤ 0.05) by 97.5, 23.5, 61.1, 63, 32 and 50.5%, respectively, over control. The results confirmed that dry region Zn solubilizing bacterial consortium coated on Zn coated urea is an efficient method for the biofortification of Zn in wheat grains and can effectively overcome Zn deficiency in humans.

Keywords: Zinc, Dry region, Wheat, Consortium, Zn coated urea, Biofortification

The therapeutic effects of Hexuetongbi formula to combat the oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy using network pharmacological methods in rat model

Jingyu Feng1,2, Li Yang1, Jiguo Wang1,2, Jing Zhang1,2, Lizhu Lin2,3*

1Department of Oncology, Shenzhen Bao’an Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shenzhen 518133, China

2The First School of Clinical Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, Guangdong, China

3Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, Guangdong, China


The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the Hexuetongbi formula in treating Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy (CIPN) using network pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, and mechanistic approaches in an oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy rat model. Network pharmacology is crucial for understanding the multi-target effects of the Hexuetongbi formula on CIPN. This approach allows for a comprehensive mapping of the complex interactions between the formula’s constituents and the biological pathways involved in CIPN, revealing potential synergistic effects and enhancing the formula’s pharmacological validation. The Hexue Tongbi formula’s impact was analyzed on rats undergoing peripheral neuropathy, observing changes in the morphology of L4-6 dorsal root ganglion neurons through hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Simultaneously, a network pharmacology approach was employed, utilizing TCMSP and GeneCards databases to identify common targets between CIPN and Hexue Tongbi’s therapeutic entities. These core targets were scrutinized through GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis. To validate the findings, mRNA and protein expression levels in the L4-6 dorsal root ganglion were examined using quantitative PCR and Western Blot assays. Significant modifications were observed in the frequency of cold stimulus withdrawal reflexes and the L4-6 dorsal root ganglion neurons, while the mechanical withdrawal reflex threshold displayed a considerable decrease. In rats treated with the Hexuetongbi formula post-oxaliplatin, there was noteworthy mitigation in the cold stimulation paw withdrawal threshold and augmentation in the mechanical stimulation paw withdrawal threshold. Network pharmacology identified 19 active constituents in Hexuetongbi and 35 targets for CIPN, with the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway emerging as a prominent target. There was a significant upregulation in PI3K, Akt1, Akt2, and Bcl-2 compared to controls, suggesting that Hexuetongbi effectively mitigates oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy through the modulation of the PI3K/Akt and Bcl-2 pathways.

Keywords: Oxaliplatin, Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, Traditional Chinese medicine, Dorsal root ganglion, Apoptosis

Syntenic mapping: A powerful tool for comparative genomics in plants

Ikhlaq Ahmad1, Azeem Iqbal Khan2, Safdar Ali3, Rashid Mehmood Rana1*

1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Comparative genomics has emerged as a great tool in understanding variations/similarities among various species at molecular level. In classical genetics synteny was used to show that two or more loci are present on same chromosome. Now a day’s synteny is being used to answer questions concerning homeology (the remains of completely homologous chromosomes). Chromosome/genome synteny has been observed in closely related species, having several genes with similar map orders. Synteny is helpful in comparing different genomes. It is used in the study of evolution of genomes, observe functional conservation, help in genome annotation and observe genome assembly errors. Synteny among different genomes can be detected by identification of conserved sequence elements among genomes, comparing the conserved proteins with the help of BLASTP or by the combination of both. Numerous tools are available for the detection of synteny among different genomes. Synteny analysis has been used largely to study complex genomes and helped in discoveries at genomic, chromosomal and gene levels. Syntenic mapping in plant breeding holds promising future prospects.


Keywords: Comparative genomics, Synteny, Homeology, Chromosome, Genome, Gene

Exosomes promote lymph node metastasis by CD133 interaction with VEGFR3 in thyroid cancer cells

Xinyou Liu2,3, Yihong Luo1, Zhenglin Wang1, Cong Wang1,2,3*

1Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China

2Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital (Xiamen), Fudan University, Xiamen 361015, China

3Xiamen Clinical Research Center for Cancer Therapy, Xiamen 361015, China


This study addresses a critical knowledge gap in understanding the tumor microenvironment of thyroid cancer by elucidating the mechanism by which tumor cell-derived CD133-positive exosomes promote lymph node metastasis. We employed molecular docking, western blot, and other molecular characterizations to investigate the crucial interaction between CD133 and VEGFR3 and its impact on metastasis. Additionally, experiments assessed the influence of CD133-positive exosomes on lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation and migration.

Our findings demonstrate a significant direct interaction between CD133 and VEGFR3, as suggested by molecular docking. Furthermore, inhibition of CD133 expression resulted in a notable reduction in lymph node metastasis. We also observed that CD133-positive exosomes derived from thyroid cancer cells actively contribute to the migration and proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells.

These results unveil a novel pathway for lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer. The identification of CD133 and its interaction with VEGFR3 as key players in this process holds significant promise for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies.  By focusing on these targets, researchers can potentially improve the prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer.


Keywords: Thyroid cancer cells, Exomes, Lymph node metastasis, CD133, VEGFR3

Exploring the relationship between ABO blood groups and vulnerability to different diseases

Muhammad Imran1&, Ramna Zia2&, Muhammad Aqib Fareed3&, Benish Javed1&, Ali Ahsan4&, Kiran Jalil4, Muhammad Umer Khan5, Hassan Shabbir Chaudhry6, Muhammad Subaan Fareed7, Muhammad Muddassir8, Chaudhry Ahmed Shabbir9*, Zahra Kalim10*

1University Institute of Medical Laboratory Technology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

3Allama Iqbal Medical Collage, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

4Graduate School of Science, Osaka Metropolitan University, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi Ward Osaka-558- 0022, Japan

5Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

6Department of Medicine and Surgery, Hijaz hospital Gulberg, Lahore, Pakistan

7School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, West Donggang Road 199, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. China

8Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan

9School of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, The University of Adelaide, Australia

10Institute of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

&These authors contributed equally to this work


The ABO grouping of blood, comprising the four main types A, B, AB, and O, has been widely recognized for its significance in establishing the suitability of organ transplants and blood transfusions. Recent research has revealed the potential influence of ABO blood types on susceptibility to certain diseases. The current study uses an extensive review of the body of literature and epidemiological investigations to explore the relationships between ABO blood types and disorders that impact various organ systems. The focus lies on chronic ailments, encompassing certain types of cancer as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and infectious disorders. For example, those with A blood group may exhibit a higher susceptibility to developing peptic carcinoma, whereas individuals with blood type O may demonstrate a lower propensity for cardiovascular issues. The fundamental mechanisms of these interactions remain incompletely understood. The potential causes for the impact of ABO antigens on immunological responses, coagulation factors, inflammation, and interactions with pathogens are still under investigation. The presence of genetic and molecular variations within ABO blood types may contribute to differing susceptibilities to illnesses. This review examines the correlation between ABO blood types and susceptibility to diseases.

Keywords: ABO blood groups, Cardiovascular disease, Cancer, Hypertension, Infectious disease, Malaria

Assessing disease resistance and yield components in advanced breeding lines of common bean in different locations of northern Tanzania

Edith L. Kadege1*, Pavithravani B. Venkataramana1, Teshale Assefa2, Joseph C. Ndunguru3,

Jean Claude Rubyogo4, Ernest R. Mbega1

1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, The Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha 447, Tanzania

2Crops for Nutrition and Health, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), 2704 Arusha, Tanzania

3Department of Research and Innovation, Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), Dodoma 1571, Tanzania
4Crops for Nutrition and Health, International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Nairobi 823-00621, Kenya


Tanzania is the top bean producer in Africa and seventh globally, exporting half of its beans to neighboring nations. This study determines common bean varietal performance in northern Tanzania. Disease infection and yield components of 22 genotypes were evaluated in on-station and on-farm trials. The study used a completely randomized factorial trial design with three replications to explore the individual and combined effects of genotype and environment on disease infection and grain yield in two on-station and six on-farm environments. Data were collected on number of emerging plants; canopy height, canopy width, plant vigor, disease infection levels, plant stands at harvest, number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield and analyzed using R software. The combined analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, environment, and genotype by environment interactions. Bean canopy height, canopy width, plant vigor and grain yield were high at on-station trials, compared with on-farm trials. Advanced breeding lines showed 56% higher grain yield than commercial checks across study locations. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis revealed that, genotype was the dominant factor affecting common bean grain yields at 50.3%, whereas the environmental impacts were 25.7%. NUA 48 and NUA 64 were ideal genotypes showing anthracnose resistance and delivering higher grain yield. VTT 923-23-10 and Sweet Violet varieties were stable across the mega-environment. Therefore, NUA 48, NUA 64, VTT 923-23-10 and Sweet Violet are proposed for further evaluation within Tanzanian bean agroecosystem to identify farmers’ preferred varieties.

Keywords: Disease resistance, Yield components, Breeding lines, Bean, Tanzania

Influence of anaerobic digestate type on nitrogen dynamics and leaching losses across two soils

Sara Bano1, Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid2, Amna Akhtar1, Farhan Hafeez1, Rashid Nazir1, Faridullah1, Muhammad Irshad1, Gabrijel Ondrasek3*, Akhtar Iqbal1*

1Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Abbottabad Campus, Tobe Camp, University Road, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

2Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

3Department of Soil Amelioration, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.


To enhance soil fertility and subsequent crop yields, digestate, byproduct of anaerobic digestion, can serve as a supplement or potential alternative to chemical fertilizers when sensibly utilized. This study assessed the impact of two types of digestates on two distinct soils for the perspective of agriculture (affecting pH, EC, organic carbon and mineral nitrogen) and environment (mineral nitrogen leaching under two rainfall patterns). Both soils mainly differed in silt and sand contents: 32% silt and 47% sand for soil-1 and 42% silt and 39% sand for soil-2. Two sets of controlled experiments served the purpose, in which first set involved a soil incubation experiment, applying two digestates to two soil types at 28°C for 60 days. The second set comprised reconstituted soil columns to collect soil solutions at depths of 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm after rainfall application under two patterns for 45 days. Results indicated that application of both digestates in test soils initially increased pH at day 15, followed by a decrease at days 30 and 60. Both digestates significantly elevated soil electrical conductivity compared to control treatments in both soils. Organic carbon content displayed variable impacts, with a slight decrease for solid digestate (12%) and higher decrease for liquid-amended soil (43%) for soil-1. While a significant decrease was observed for soil-2 throughout the incubation period for both amendments (34% and 36% for solid and liquid amended soils respectively). Rapid nitrification occurred with the application of both digestates in both soils, albeit at different rates. Soil-2 exhibited 1.2 to 2 folds higher net nitrification rate (depending upon digestate type and days of incubation) compared to soil-1. Liquid digestate induced more mineral nitrogen compared to solid digestate in both soils. Interestingly, rainfall frequency, digestate type, and soil type influenced the leaching of ammonium and nitrates, with nitrates recording higher levels in both soils, at both depths, and under both rainfall patterns.

 Keywords: Slurry, Nitrates, Crop productivity, Nitrification rate, Soil nutrition

Lead (Pb) accumulation in rice and its impact on DNA stability

Runglawan Sudmoon1, Arunrat Chaveerach2, Unchaleeporn Ameamsri2, Penkhae Thamsenanupap3,4, Natapol Pumipuntu4,5, Shiou Yih Lee6, Ong Ghim Hock6, Tawatchai Tanee3,4*

1Faculty of Law, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

3Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand

4One Health Research Unit, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand

5Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand

6Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia


Heavy metal contamination, notably lead (Pb), poses a threat to plants and, consequently, human health through the food chain. This study investigates Pb accumulation in rice and how it affects the rice DNA. The rice (Oryza sativa) samples were cultivated in the soil supplemented with Pb at concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg. Then the samples were harvested and analyzed for Pb accumulation and DNA alterations using the PCR amplification profiles measured through genomic template stability (GTS). The results demonstrate a Pb concentration hierarchy (root > stem > leaves), with Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) and Translocation Factor (TF) rising when soil Pb contents are supplemented. For DNA alterations, observed GTS values ranged from 23.3 to 76.67%, revealed a general decline with increasing Pb. This correlation assured the influence of Pb on rice DNA stability. Our findings suggest that heavy metal concentration, particularly Pb, has a direct influence on the integrity of rice DNA. Understanding these dynamics is vital for unraveling the complexities of heavy metal-induced genetic changes in plants and their potential implications for food safety and environmental health.

Keywords: Bioconcentration Factor, DNA changes, Genomic template stability, Lead accumulation, Translocation Factor

Bifenthrin induced toxic effects on haematological, reproductive and histo-morphological profile in adult male quail (Coturnix japonica)

Rabia Kalsoom1, Hani Z. Asfour2, Hafiz Muhammad Ali3, Abdul Qayyum3*, Shazia Anjum4**, Faisal Maqbool1, Nuzhat Sial1, Riaz Hussain3, Sultan H. Alamri5, Nadeem Ali6, Nisreen Rajeh7, Irfan Irshad8, Asif Idrees9
1Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589, Saudi Arabia
3Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan
4Faculty of Chemical and Biological Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan
5Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589, Saudi Arabia
6Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589, Saudi Arabia
7Department of Clinical Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589, Saudi Arabia
8Institute of Continuing Education and Extension, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore-54000, Pakistan
9KBCMA, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Narowal, Pakistan


Currently terrestrial ecologies are polluted by numerous chemical compounds unceasingly leading to high risk of exposure to variety of life. Among these, bifenthrin is widely used for the control of different sucking and chewing insects and other leaf miner insects around the globe. The current study elaborated the toxic effects of oral administration of bifenthrin in male Japanese quails at sub-lethal (less than 1% mortality) concentrations (10mg/kg, 20mg/kg and 30mg/kg b.w.) during a period of 30 days. During the course of the study, the quails did not show any behavioural or clinical signs. However, a significantly (p<0.05) decreased RBCs and platelets counts and haemoglobin concentration while a significantly (p<0.05) increased MCV, MCHC, total leucocytes and neutrophils were observed in the birds administered with higher concentrations of bifenthrin. Moreover, the incidence of lobed nuclei, blebbed nuclei, condensed nuclei, notched nuclei, binuclear, pear shaped and micro-nuclei were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the erythrocytes of the groups C and D during the experiment. The diameter of seminiferous tubules, height of germinal epithelium and the number of seminiferous tubules containing normal spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) decreased while the number of pyknotic cells and degenerated seminiferous tubules were increased significantly (p<0.05) towards the end of the experiment (day-30) in the quails of groups C and D compared to the control group. Hence, the alterations in the hematological indices and histopathological changes in heart, spleen and testes indicate potential toxicity of bifenthrin and its adverse effects in the Japanese quail even at sub-lethal concentrations.

 Keywords: Bifenthrin, Blood profile, Nuclear alterations, Seminiferous tubules, Histo-pathology, Testes