Author Archives: admin

About admin


Valorization of chicken feather into organic liquid fertilizer through two species of Bacillus bacteria fermentation 

Wardah1, Yasinta Lahum2, Feronika Fuakubun2, Tatang Sopandi2

1Study Program of Agroindustry, Vocational Faculty, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

2Study Program of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas PGRI Adi Buana, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia



The valorization of industrial poultry waste by microbes into value-added products has received significant attention for reducing pollutants and producing a healthy environment. The current study aims to explore the use of liquid fertilizer from fermented chicken feathers by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. The study was carried out experimentally ki using a completely randomized trial design with 10 different treatments of liquid fertilizer, each of which was repeated 12 times. The current study showed that both bacteria can secrete keratinase enzymes, degrade chicken feathers, and increase the nitrogen content of liquid fertilizer. However, the keratinase activity, degradation, and nitrogen content of chicken feather liquid fertilizer produced by B. subtilis fermentation were significantly higher (P˂0.05) than those of B. cereus. Likewise, the growth, anthocyanin content in the leaves, and yield of red spinach plants nurtured with chicken feather liquid fertilizer from B. subtilis fermentation were significantly (P˂0.05) higher than those given liquid fertilizer from B. cereus. The current study concluded that chicken feathers could be valorized into liquid fertilizer for plants, especially red spinach, by both B. cereus and B. subtilis bacteria. The current study recommends liquid fertilizer from chicken feathers fermented by B. subtilis at 0.05 g/plant to replace chemical fertilizers in plants, especially red spinach.


Keywords: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Chicken feather, Keratinase, Red spinach

Assessing critical period of weed competition in direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1, Amir Ehsan1, Rizwan Maqbool2, Amjed Ali1, Rafi Qamar1*, Hasnain Ali3

1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Masters of Business Administration Program, Holmes Institute, Gold Coast, Australia


In the present era, direct-seeding is a viable alternative of traditional transplanting of rice for farmers due to water and labour shortage. It has the potential to ensure water and labour saving along with higher productivity of water. Study was performed to assess the critical period of weed-crop competition i.e. time period during which weeds cause maximum reduction of yield in dry direct-seeded basmati rice during two consecutive summer seasons of the years 2015 and 2016. This experiment consisted of 6 weed competition periods [0, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after crop emergence (WAE)] and 6 weed-free periods (0, 2, 3, 4, and 5 WAE) by mixed weed flora. The experiment was executed in randomized complete block design having four replications. With the increasing duration of the weed-crop competition, the productive tillers, grains per panicle, and 1000-grain weight were decreased gradually. A whole season competition with mixed weed flora reduced rice grain yield up to 90% and increased N, P, and K uptake by weeds up to 28, 5, and 28 kg ha-1, respectively. In dry direct-sown rice, the critical time of weed removal as estimated by the three-parameter logistic model was 1.4-6.3 WAE and 2.8-4.8 WAE to save 10 and 20% grain yield, respectively. Hence it is concluded that dry direct-seeded rice crop should be kept weed free during this time period of crop growing season.

Keywords: Direct-seeded rice, weed-crop competition, critical time, yield.

Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potential of selected herbs Piper betle and Persicaria odorata leaf extracts

Muhammad Abdul Basit1,2, Arifah Abdul Kadir1*, Loh Teck Chwen3, Annas Salleh4, Ubedullah Kaka5, Sherifat Banke Idris1,6, Abdul Asim Farooq7, Muhammad Arshad Javid2, Saeed Murtaza7

1Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Punjab, Pakistan

3Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

4Department of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnostics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

5Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra

Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

6Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo

University, 2346 Skoto, Nigeria

7Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Punjab, Pakistan


Plants, their extracts, and plant essential oils are considered prominent sources of new therapeutic substances. Nowadays, medicinal plants like herbs attain the keen interest of consumers and researchers. The present study evaluated Piper betle (P. betle) and Persicaria odorata (P. odorata) leaf extracts for qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening. The phytochemical analysis of P. betle and P. odorata leaf extracts presented the occurrence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, glycosides, and volatile oils. The higher total phenolic content and total tannins were quantified from P. betle methanolic leaf extract. Additionally, it showed increased antioxidant activity compared to P. odorata leaf extracts. The in vitro antibacterial potential of both herbs was estimated against Salmonella enterica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus brasiliensis. The methanolic leaf extract of Piper betle showed antibacterial and antifungal activity against these selected strains.

Keywords: Piper betle, Persicaria odorata, Phytochemical analysis, Antibacterial activity, Antioxidant activity

Ethoxysulfuron causes nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, DNA damage in some visceral organs, and oxidative stress in male Japanese quail

Amina Rani1, Gulnaz Afzal1, Yasir Mahmood1, Sana Alam1, Zahid Iqbal2, Mahboob Akbar3, Ahsan Nadeem Malik3, Muhammad Rizwan1, Rabia Akram4, Mushtaq Ahmad3, Riaz Hussain5*

1Department of Zoology, Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan

3Livestock and Dairy Development Department (Poultry Production), Punjab, Pakistan

4Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Zoology Division, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Islamia University of Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan


Ethoxysulfuron is frequently used as a post-emergent herbicide in different food crops to control broad leaf weeds. This study aimed to investigate the potential adverse effects of ethoxysulfuron herbicide on male Japanese quail. 48 adult male birds were divided into 4 groups and orally administered with varying doses of the herbicide for 45 days. Quail were exposed to four sub-lethal concentrations (0 mg/kg, 0.70 mg/kg/day, 0.90 mg/kg/day, and 1.25 mg/kg/day) of ethoxysulfuron starting from day 1 to 45 of trial and different samples from each quail were obtained at days 15, 30 and 45 of trial following exposure. Results exhibited that with increasing ethoxysulfuron concentrations different nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes such as the formation of micronuclei, binucleated erythrocyte, notched nuclei, blabbed nuclei, lobbed nuclei, condensed nuclei, nuclear remnants and the erythrocytes without nuclei increased in treated birds. Results showed that exposure to herbicide led to genotoxicity, as evidenced by increased values of DNA damage in different visceral organs of the exposed quail compared to the control group. Various antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly reduced and escalated in the liver tissues of quail. Histological examination revealed prominent histoarchitectural changes in the liver (degeneration of hepatocytes and necrosis) and kidneys (degeneration of renal tubules, necrosis of renal tubules, and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells) of the exposed quail. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to ethoxysulfuron herbicide can cause significant morphological and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, DNA damage, and histoarchitectural changes in different visceral organs of Japanese quail. These findings suggest that exposure to herbicides may pose a health risk to both humans and wildlife.

Keywords: Ethoxysulfuron, Japanese quail, Oxidative stress, DNA damage, Histopathology

Mitigation of climate crisis from rice paddy field by tillage combination in central China

Chengfang Li1, Shahrear Ahmad2*, Cougui Cao1

1MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Researches of the Yangtze River, College of Plant Sciences and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 4300, PR China

2Department of Botany, Jagannath University, Dhaka 1100, Bangladesh


We have tested the tillage combination to study methods that help curtail the release of greenhouse gasses from rice paddy fields have had on the climate and contrasted the potential outcomes for rice production (Oryza sativa L.), no-tillage plus no fertilizer (NT0), conventional tillage plus no fertilizer (CT0), conventional tillage plus compound fertilizer (CTC), no-tillage plus compound fertilizer (NTC) by measuring ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gases emissions (GHG) from paddy fields for rice throughout the year of 2018 in the subtropical area of central China. The mean NH3 volatilization in CT0 was 9.55% greater than that in NT0 by (p>0.05), and for NTC, it was 11.30% (p>0.05) lower than in CTC. In comparison to CT0, the mean CH4 emission flux in NT0 was 1.12% (p>0.05) lower, but the mean CH4 emission flux in CTC was 28.34% (p> 0.05) higher than that in NTC. The mean N2O emission flux in NT0 was 174.72% (p˂0.05) lower than in CT0. The average flux of N2O emission in CTC was 47.90% (p˃ 0.05) greater than in NTC. We compared the IGWPs based on N2O, CH4, and CO2 emission flux. CT0 had the lowest (non-significant) recorded amount at 12097.43KgCO2.ha-1 of GWPs, which was only 397.5KgCO2.ha-1 lower than that in NT0. CTC had the highest recorded amount at 20042.72KgCO2.ha-1 of GWPs, which was 2292.53KgCO2.ha-1 higher than that reported in NTC. NTC system to be the superior, sustainable method for mitigating the harmful effects of GHG emissions contributing to the climate crisis by way of rice production in rice paddy fields.

Keywords: Rice cultivation, Climate crisis, No-tillage, Conventional tillage, GHG, NH3 volatilisation

The effects of temperature, pH, and media on mycelium growth of Isaria tenuipes (Peck.) Samson (DL0099) from Lang Biang Mountain, Lam Vien Plateau, Vietnam

Phan Nha Hoa1*, Ngo Duc Hoa1, Tran Kim Diep1, Pham Van Huyen1, Truong Binh Nguyen2

1Taynguyen Institute for Scientific Research, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 116 Xo Viet Nghe Tinh, Da Lat, Vietnam

2Da Lat University, 01 Phu Đong Thien Vuong, Da Lat, Vietnam


Isaria tenuipes (Peck.) Samson is an entomopathogenic fungus that has potential in pharmacology and biocontrol. The study aimed to determine the effects of temperature, pH, and media on mycelium growth of Isaria tenuipes (Peck.) Samson (DL0099) from Lang Biang Mountain, Lam Vien Plateau, Vietnam. In this study, we used the single-factor method to culture DL0099 mycelium on both surface liquid and agar media. The results indicated that the optimal temperature for the mycelium growth was 20~25 oC. This mushroom mycelium can tolerate temperatures at 35 oC for 8 days. The initial media pH range of 6~9 was found to be the most favorable to mycelia growth. Sabouraud’s agar (SA) and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plus yeast (SDYA) media were the optimal agar media for the mycelium growth rate. Sabouraud broth (S) medium was the most suitable medium for mycelia biomass production in surface liquid culture. Yeast malt agar (YMA), malt agar (MEA), maltose agar (MA), and malt extract yeast agar (MYA) media were suitable for fruit body formation. Our results provided optimal temperature, pH, and media conditions for Isaria tenuipes (DL0099) mycelium growth on surface liquid and agar media. They lay the basis for effective propagation, biomass production, and fruit body formation of the Vietnam native Isaria tenuipes (Peck.) Samson.

Keywords: Entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria tenuipes Peck. (DL0099), Lang Biang Mountain, Mycelium growth

Optimization of mycelial culture condition and biomass production of selected wild Agaric mushrooms from Luzon Island, Philippines

Johnmel A. Fabros1, Rich Milton R. Dulay1,2*, Kathlene Claire O. Ganareal1, Sofronio P. Kalaw1,2, Mark Adrian G. del Rosario1, Renato G. Reyes1,2

1Center for Tropical Mushroom Research and Development, Tuklas Lunas Development Center, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines


Agaricomycetous mushrooms are widely utilized as a source of food and or traditional medicine in the world as they exhibit both nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. In order to establish the optimal culture conditions of the 2 Coprinopsis, 2 Leucoagaricus, and 1 Leucocoprinus mushroom, we evaluated the optimum culture medium, pH condition, aeration, illumination, and temperature requirements for the luxuriant mycelial growth of these wild mushrooms. The fruiting body and mycelial biomass production were also carried out in this study to measure mushrooms’ biological efficiency. Among commercially-available culture media, malt extract agar (MEA) was found to be the most suitable for the 4 mushrooms (except C. cinerea), followed by potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 3 mushrooms (C. cinerea, C. verticillata, L. cretaceous). Potato sucrose gulaman (local crude agar) or PSG and corn grit decoction gulaman or CGDG were also found favorable for the growth of Coprinopsis verticilatta and Leucoagaricus americanus, respectively. In terms of pH requirement, L. americanus (pH 5) and Leucoagaricus meleagris (pH 5-6) favored slightly acidic, while the other three mushrooms showed a wide range of pH requirements. C. verticillata and L. meleagris favored sealed condition, while Coprinopsis cinerea favored unsealed condition. However, L. americanus and Leucocoprinus cretaceous showed efficient mycelia growth in both sealed and unsealed conditions. Dark condition were found to be favorable for mycelial growth of both C. cinerea and L. cretaceous, whereas lighted condition was found appropriate for L. americanus mycelia. However, illumination was found to be not important factor for C. verticillata and L. meleagris. All evaluated mushrooms grew best at room temperature conditions (30-32ºC), but C. cinerea, L. meleagris, and L. cretaceous could also thrive at lower temperatures (23-25ºC). Three mushrooms namely, L. amaericanus, L. meleagris, and L. cretaceous successfully produced fruiting bodies in fruiting bags containing rice straw and sawdust at a 7:3 ratio by volume with biological efficiencies (BE) of 5.75%, 5.75%, and 2.3%, respectively. However, the mycelia of C. cinerea and C. verticillata were mass-produced in potato broth in submerged cultivation with 18.18% and 23.86% BE, respectively. Generally, the optimum culture condition for both mycelial growth and fruiting body production were found to be species-dependent.

Keywords: Biological efficiency, Coprinospsissp., Leucoagaricus, Leucocoprinus, Mycelial biomass, Optimization study

High inhibition efficacy of pancreatic cholesterol esterase and porcine pancreatic lipase from natural products

Runglawan Sudmoon1, Sanit Kaewdaungdee2, Unchaleeporn Ameamsri2, Warin Wonok2, Tawatchai Tanee3, Pornnarong Siripiyasing4, Arunrat Chaveerach2*

1Faculty of Law, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

3Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahasarakham University, Thailand

4Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, Thailand


The various properties of Garcinia atroviridis (Ga), G. schomburgkiana (Gs), Camellia sinensis (Cs) and Morus alba (Ma) were investigated, aimed at finding cholesterol lowering and lipase inhibiting effects. Their phytochemical components of the species were determined by GC-MS and HPLC. The total flavonoids, phenolics and polysaccharides were measured. The inhibition percentage of CEase and PPL were determined. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in the samples were examined. The results are as followed: The various key phytochemicals distributed in all the studied species were revealed such as stigmasterol, catechol, γ-sitosterol, β-amyrin, caffeine, and squalene. An HPLC chromatogram revealed the amount and concentration of HCA in Ga and Gs, and catechin and catechol in Ga, Gs, Cs, and Ma. The highest and second highest inhibition percentages of CEase in Ga and Formula I were at 77.02±0.27 and 67.61±0.26, and PPL and Formula I in Gs at 77.92±0.59 and 78.31±0.07 compared to orlistat inhibition percentage of 84.72±0.17 and 80.83±0.38, but in different concentrations of orlistat at 10 mg/ml and Formula 1 at 3 mg/ml. Toxicity assays exhibited no IC50 values in all samples, but ethanol Gs and Cs extracts and methanol Ma extract induced DNA damages significantly (p<0.01). However, from the LD50 values calculated at the concentrations used, there are no effects on humans. Therefore, the studied plants and Formulas at identical concentration, 10 mg/ml would definitely show a higher inhibition effect than orlistat in reducing cholesterol and inhibiting lipase activity leading to an innovation for weight loss and high cholesterol treatments without any side effects.

Keywords: Garcinia schomburgkiana, Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, Morus alba cholesterol lowering, Lipase activity

Identification of key volatile flavor compounds in cigar filler tobacco leaves via GC-IMS

Jian Wang1, Yong Pan1, Liping Liu1, Chuang Wu1, Youzhi Shi1*, Xiaolong Yuan2*

1China Tobacco Hubei Industry Co., Ltd., Wuhan 443100, China

2Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266100, China


Cigar filler leaves are the most important component of cigar because they determine its quality. Therefore, the volatile components of eight cigar filler tobacco leaves were studied and compared using gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (GC–IMS). In this study, 84 compounds with high levels of nitrogenous and ketone compounds were identified. Based on the chemometric principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the eight cigar samples were significantly distinguished. Meanwhile, we performed a discriminant analysis of volatile organic compounds in the eight cigar samples based on the variable importance in the projection (VIP) scores of the PLS-DA model, and revealed significant differences in the volatile compounds between the different varieties. 11 volatile compounds (VIP > 1) were screened and compared, among which triamine, acetic acid, acetone, and cyclopentanone were the main differential compounds/flavor substances. This study showed that GC–IMS can rapidly identify and compare the volatile compounds of various cigars, providing a theoretical basis for studying the differences in the volatile aroma of cigars, and laying a foundation for the breeding selection of subsequent varieties.

Keywords: Cigar filler tobacco leaves, Volatile flavor compounds; Gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry, Principal component analysis, Partial least squares-discriminant analysis

Influence of dietary neutral detergent fiber on feed intake and nutrient digestibility of crossbred Black Angus cattle

Nguyen Binh Truong1,2*, Tran Trung Tuan1,2

1An Giang University, An Giang, Vietnam

2Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different neutral detergent fiber (NDF) levels affected on the feed intake and nutrient digestibility of crossbred beef cattle. Four male F1 (Black Angus x Zebu cross) cattle at 20.5±1.21 (Mean±SD) months of age with average body weight of 299±12.1 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (fourteen days per each period). The treatments were 47% (NDF47), 51% (NDF51), 55% (NDF55), and 59% (NDF59) NDF in diets. The results showed that the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) intake were not different (P>0.05) among treatments. However, both NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) consumption were lower for NDF 47 than NDF59 treatments (P<0.05), while metabolizable energy was highest for NDF47 compare with NDF59 treatment (P<0.05). The DM digestibility was higher (P<0.05) for the NDF47 (65.3%) compared with NDF59 (57.5%), while NDF47 was similar (P>0.05) to NDF51 (62.4%), and NDF55 (59.4%) treatments. The data for CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility were similar (P>0.05) among treatments. However, there was tended to be lower in NDF59 than NDF47 treatments. The daily weight gain was 866, 821, 786, and 686 g/animal/day for treatments of NDF47, NDF51, NDF55, and NDF59, respectively. While, feed conversion ratio was lower for NDF47 and higher for NDF59 treatments (P>0.05). The conclusion in the present study was 55% NDF in diet could be properly recommended for farmers’ practice in terms of feed utilization.

 Keywords: Neutral detergent fiber, Rumen digestibility, Crossbred beef cattle