Category Archives: b_original_articles

Original Articles

Nanobiosensors: application in healthcare, environmental monitoring and food safety

Qaisar Mahmood1*, Shahida Shaheen2, Muhammad Azeem1

1Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir 32028, Bahrain

2Department of Environmental Sciences, Kohsar University, Murree, Pakistan


This review article summarized the diverse kinds of nanobiosensors along with their uses in healthcare, environmental monitoring, and food safety, while also defining present challenges and opportunities for future investigation and augmentation. In healthcare, for instance, they have been employed for glucose monitoring, cholesterol detection, antibiotic monitoring, and the production of new types of antibiotics that are effective against resistant strains. This enables a highly efficient method that is both accurate and reliable when detecting biomarkers. Nanobiosensors have been overwhelmingly successful in aiding in environmental monitoring. With its ability to effectively screen groundwater, detect pollutants, and monitor toxicity, this emerging technology has become a force to be reckoned with for detecting hazardous substances. Similarly, the food industry has seen remarkable benefits from nanobiosensors as well. The use of nanobiosensors for dynamic food safety monitoring enables prompt detection of dangerous foodborne pathogens and spoilage issues while providing real-time data on the quality of consumables. Even though nanobiosensors possess enormous potential, there are still numerous limitations to overcome.

Keywords: Nanobiosensors, Healthcare, Environmental monitoring, Food safety, Diagnosis, Monitoring, Antibiotics, Pollution

Investigation of patho-bacteriological, serum bio-hematological, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers due to pneumonic pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida in cattle

Fayyaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood1, Riaz Hussain2*, Sajjad Ur Rahman1, Rao Zahid Abbas3

1Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) caused by Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is one of the leading causes of bovine respiratory problems in dairy animals. Therefore, identification of reliable and useful biomarkers of naturally occurring HS disease is of vital important for early diagnosis and monitoring of efficacy of treatment. Therefore, the current study was conducted to estimate the status of hematology, serum biochemistry, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in dairy cattle (52) in and around district Bahawalpur. Deep nasal swabs and jugular blood was collected from normal and morbid animals showing signs of respiratory distress for molecular characterization of P. multocida. Different visceral tissues were obtained from animals died of respiratory signs for histopathological investigations. Results revealed significantly (P < 0.05) increased quantity of oxidative stress biomarkers while different antioxidant enzymes decreased significantly in erythrocyte of infected animals. Results on hematology revealed significantly increased total leukocyte counts and neutrophil counts while significantly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, monocyte, lymphocyte and erythrocyte counts. Results on serum biomarkers showed significantly (P < 0.05) increased quantity of different serum profile in P. multocida positive cattle. Grossly, lungs were congested, hyperemic and consolidated. Frothy exudate was observed in trachea of P. multocida infected cattle. Results on microscopic observation showed different pathological lesions in lungs, liver, heart and kidneys of P. multocida confirmed cases. Based on the results of our study, it can be suggested that continuous monitoring of disease is necessary to lower the prevalence of infectious agent. It is also suggested that blood biochemistry, oxidative stress and antioxidant oxidant enzymes are useful and reliable tools to clarify the pathogenesis of disease for proper therapeutics.

Keywords: Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), Pasteurella multocida, Hemato-biochemistry, Oxidative stress, Antioxidant enzyme, Histopathology

Duodenal intestinal flora diversity of Tibetan pigs is lower than that of York pigs based on 16S rRNA analysis

Wenli Sun1,2, Yu Wang1,2, Jian Zhang1,2, Yikai Yin1,2, Mengqi Duan1,2, Chamba Yangzom1,2, Peng Shang1,2*

1College of Animal Science, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, Tibet, China

2The Provincial and Ministerial Co-founded Collaborative Innovation Center for R & D in Tibet Characteristic Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Resources, Tibet, China


Tibetan pigs exhibit remarkable characteristics, particularly their heightened tendency for fat deposition and increased resistance to diseases in comparison to Yorkshire pigs. Surprisingly, there has been a noticeable scarcity of research delving into the underlying mechanisms responsible for these advantageous traits, especially from the perspective of intestinal microorganisms, particularly those inhabiting the duodenum. To bridge this research gap, the study harnessed 16S rRNA sequencing to conduct a comprehensive examination of the duodenal microbiota in Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. The results stemming from amplicon sequencing of duodenal contents unveiled that at the phylum level, Firmicutes dominated the duodenal microbiota in both Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. Intriguingly, Tibetan pigs showcased a significantly reduced proportion of Bacteroidetes in comparison to Yorkshire pigs (P < 0.05), leading to a substantially higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in Tibetan pigs (55.95) as opposed to Yorkshire pigs (3.86) (P < 0.05). Of remarkable note, at the genus level, Tibetan pigs displayed a significantly elevated relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. when compared to Yorkshire pigs (P < 0.01). Functional predictions pertaining to the duodenal microbiota in both pig breeds primarily revolved around amino acid metabolism, cofactor and vitamin metabolism, terpene and polyketide metabolism, amino acid derivative metabolism, and lipid metabolism. This study underscores the intricate and interdependent relationship between the composition and abundance of the duodenal microbiota and the unique characteristics of fat deposition and disease resistance in Tibetan pigs. It suggests Lactobacillus spp. as significant contributors to fat deposition, the development of the duodenal intestinal barrier, and immune function. Additionally, the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio appears to be associated with fat deposition. These findings provide valuable insights that can serve as a valuable reference for future endeavors related to the development and utilization of Tibetan pigs.

Keywords: Tibetan pigs, Duodenum, Intestinal microorganisms, Fat deposition, Disease resistance

Nitrogen management in a sandy loam soil grown with cucumber plants and fertilized by vermicompost

Khaled Mohamed Lela, Abdellatif Saleh El-Sebaay, Shaimaa Hassan Abd-Elrahman*, Mahmoud Mohamed Elbordiny

Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 68–Hadayek Shoubra, Cairo 11241, Egypt


Global attention is shifting to using fertilizers organically produced from available wastes in the surrounding ecosystem to provide sustainability in agriculture and conserve the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible changes in the yield and quality of cucumber resulting from different combinations of organic solid and liquid fertilizers prepared from different organic wastes, as compared to applying mineral fertilizers. Furthermore, detecting available N concentration in sandy loam soil and total N concentration in cucumber leaves considering the effect of the studied treatments every 15 days after transplanting (DAT) until 120 DAT. Four fertilizer treatments (3 organic fertilizers, i.e., vermicompost (VC), pigeon manure (PM), and compost (COMP) in addition to mineral fertilizers) were tested in a randomized complete blocks design with three replicates. The organic fertilizer treatments were divided into three categories, the first was solid added through two equal doses. The second category was like the first one plus adding vermicompost tea (VCT) through drip irrigation (DI). The third category was like the second one, but the VCT was substituted with pigeon manure tea (PMT). Obtained results showed that the treatments of PM50/50, and VC50/50 as ground applications plus PMT or VCT through DI were given significant increases in available N in the studied soil, and enhanced the cucumber plant growth parameters, yield traits, and the total concentration of N in leaves throughout the experimental period. Additionally, the highest benefit/cost ratio (5.68) was achieved with the application of organic treatments compared to traditional ones (3.28).

Keywords: Vermicompost, Pigeon manure, Organic aqueous extract, Organic farming, Detecting N in soil and plant, Cucumber plants

Effects of the multi-strain probiotic preparation LabMix on some immune indices and intestinal microbiota in an antibiotic associated diarrhea rat model

Duy Ha Nguyen1, Ngoc Anh Thi Ta2, Huong Giang Van2, Dinh Toi Chu3, Thai Son Nguyen1 , Van Mao Can1, Quynh Uyen Nguyen2*, Hoang Van Vinh2*

1Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam

2VNU, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hanoi, Vietnam

3International School, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam


Diarrhea is a side effect of antibiotic misuse and is frequently associated with intestinal inflammation and imbalanced gut microbiota. Many studies have demonstrated that probiotics can exhibit potential to mitigate the effects of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). In this study, we employed Lincomycin to induce AAD in the rats and subsequently assessed the impact of the multi-strain probiotic preparation LabMix on this model. The rat groups, including healthy control rats, AAD-induced rats, AAD rats with no treatment (natural recovery rats), and AAD rats treated by LabMix preparation, were evaluated regarding the general assessments, some immune indices, and intestinal microbiota analysis. The results revealed that the LabMix preparation considerably lowered the effects of the antibiotic regarding the diarrhea score and the thickness of the ceca in the rats treated by LabMix preparation. Additionally, the LabMix preparation reduced inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-a, and IL-6, while increasing the IgA in sera and in intestinal mucosae. Furthermore, it altered the compositions and abundance of intestinal bacteria of the rats. In particular, the AAD rats treated by LabMix preparation decreased the levels of potentially harmful genera such as Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, and Pseudomonas. They also increased the levels of beneficial genera including Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Romboutsia, and Clostridium innocuum. In general, the multi-strain probiotic preparation LabMix showed the effective mitigation and the improvement of the intestinal microbiota of the AAD rat model.

Keywords: Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea (AAD), Cytokine, LabMix, Microbiota, Probiotic

Fermented Spirulina platensis alleviated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis by regulating gut microbiota and MyD88/TLR4 signaling pathway

Ning Wang1,2,3, Yuanlin Xiang1, Yi Ma1,3, Puyu Zhang1, Xiaoli Zhou1, Haoran Zhu1, Zhi Zhang1, Zaixin Li1, Xiongjun Xiao1, Manli He4, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood1,5*, Hui Zhu1,3*

 1 College of Bioengineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong, China

2 Luzhou Laojiao Co. Ltd, Luzhou, China

3 Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Grain for Wine Making, Yibin 644000, China

4 Laboratory Animal Center, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China

5 Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan


Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) produces a variety of biologically active compounds that exhibit antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and immunoregulatory properties. Here, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used to develop an animal model of ulcerative colitis (UC) to evaluate the potential protective benefits of fermented S. platensis against DSS-induced colitis in mice. Gut microbiota alterations were investigated using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Real-Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the expression of mRNA of inflammatory factors and pathway-related molecules in the inflammatory process. The results showed that fermented S. platensis could reverse the DSS-induced weight loss and colon length shortening in mice. The study of the 16S rRNA sequence showed that treatment with fermented S. platensis changed the gut microbiota of mice, with an increase in the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Lachnospira. According to RT-qPCR and histopathological analyses, fermented S. platensis also improved the loss of goblet cells and neutrophil infiltration induced by DSS, while improving anti-inflammatory capacity. In addition, compared with the model group, the fermentation group significantly downregulated the relative expression of MyD88/TLR4 signaling pathway genes compared with the non-fermentation group. Overall, this investigation demonstrated that fermentative S. platensis can reduce DSS-induced UC by regulating gut microbiota composition, and the MyD88/TLR4 signaling pathway.

Keywords: Spirulina platensis, Rhizopus oligosporus, Ulcerative colitis, Gut microbiota

A new nanofibre derived from Trichoderma hamatum K01 to control durian rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora

Pheaktra Phal1*, Kasem Soytong1,2, Supattra Poeaim3

1Department of Plant Production Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand

2Research Institute of Modern Organic Agriculture, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand

3Department of Biology, School of Science, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand


Phytophthora rot of durian var Monthong caused by Phytophthora palmivora has been proven to be a serious threat to durian plantations in Thailand. The research was targeted to isolate the causal pathogen and prove its pathogenicity by Koch’s postulate. Morphology and molecular phylogeny have confirmed the identification of pathogenic and antagonistic fungi. Evaluation of antagonistic fungus against plant pathogen in vitro and greenhouse conditions, morphology and molecular phylogenetic identification confirmed antagonistic species Trichoderma hamatum K01 and pathogenic isolate P. palmivora PYSC01. The crude metabolite of T. hamatum K01, namely TK01-MeOH gave the most substantial inhibitory effect to inhibit colony growth and sporangia formation at ED50 (50% effective dose) values of 288 and 118 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, nanofibre namely nano-TK01M exhibited the best antifungal activity in inhibiting colony growth and sporangia formation at ED50 values of 11 and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Nano-TK01M treated on durian leaves induced the synthesis of scopoletin, which is known as a defense mechanism and marker of plant resistance or plant immunity. Moreover, the application of nano-TK01M significantly reduced disease incidence, the same as metalaxyl. Additionally, nano-TK01M treatment was the most effective in enhancing plant physiological parameters, including the synthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and promoted plant growth, compared to both metalaxyl and non-treated control. T. hamatum K01 produced antifungal metabolite pyrone 6-pentyl-2H-Pyran-2-one and sorbicillin. It is reported for the first time that pyrone and sorbicillin could be expressed as bioactive compounds in reduction of the disease incidence of durian rot caused by P. palmivora. The finding confirmed that nano-TK01M from T. hamatum K01 exhibited the most effective in controlling plant pathogen, which could be promoted as agricultural input for plant disease management, and it is also a nontoxic fungicide for living life and eco-friendly.

Keywords: Nanofibre, Trichoderma hamatum, Phytoalexins, Phytophthora palmivora, root rot

Assessment of drought tolerance capacity of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) on the basis of various growth and physio–chemical indicators

Sultan Ali1*, Rashad Mukhtar Balal1, Muhammad Mansoor Javaid2

1Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan


Bulbous crops like tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) needs abundant amount of water for its better growth and development as compared to other floricultural crops. A mismanagement of irrigation may lead to severe damages to the crop and huge economic loss. Thus, to understand basis of irrigation needs and its impact on tuberose plant, a pot experiment was performed. Drought tolerance capacity of tuberose was assessed by analyzing morphological, physiological, enzymatic and bio-chemical attributes of two tuberose cultivars (Mexican Single and Pearl Double) under different irrigation regimes. Plants were grown in the plastic pots arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). Seven irrigation intervals (2, 3, 4,5,6,7 and 8 days; viz. T2-T7 respectively; T1 = control) were applied. Pots were placed in growth chamber with 30/25°C day/night temperatures and 50±5 % relative humidity. Results revealed that growth parameters in tuberose plant in both cultivars showed better performance under minimum irrigation interval (2 days) followed by 3 days and 5 days interval. Drought caused significant decreases in height of flowering stem (HFS; T2: 20 cm; T8: 10 cm), leaf area (LA; T2: 53.3cm2; T8: 16.9cm2), plant height (PH; T2: 27.6; T8: 12.74), fresh weight of flowering stem (FWFS;T2: 37.5;T8: 12.6), relative water content (RWC), photosynthesis rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (SC) and chlorophyll contents (Chl) and increases in leaf water potential (LWP), water use efficiency (WUE), antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, POD, SOD) and biochemical traits (Pro and Gly). However, enzymes activities like CAT, POD, and SOD; proline and glycinebetaine in the leaves of cultivar ‘Pearl Double’ were observed significantly higher than those in the leaves of ‘Mexican Single’ cultivar, regardless of irrigation intervals (water treatments). The results indicated that the growth performance of ‘Mexican Single’ cultivar was better than the ‘Pearl Double’ cultivar in drought conditions.

Keywords: Drought, Tuberose, Relative water content, Antioxidants, Photosynthesis

Plant parasitic nematodes associated with vegetable crops in the main agroecological zones of Côte d’Ivoire

Yao Akissi Sandrine1*, Yéo Gnenakan2, Nandjui Jacob3, Tiénébo Eric-Olivier1, Kassi Koffi Fernand Jean-Martial4, Kouadio Edouard Yves Gilchrist4, Konan Kan Ulrich Urbain1, Kakou Didier Junior4, Kouadio Kouakou Théodore1, Abo Kouabenan1

1Laboratoire de Phytopathologie et de Biologie Végétale. Département de Formation et de Recherche Agriculture et Ressources Animales. Institut National Polytechnique Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY. BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

2Centre National de Recherche Agronomique. Direction Régionale de Korhogo. Station expérimentale de Ferkessédougou. BP 121 Ferkessédougou, Côte d’Ivoire

3Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Végétale et Microbienne. Département de Formation et de Recherche Agriculture et Ressources Animales. Institut National Polytechnique Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY. BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

4Unité Pédagogique de Recherche de Physiologie et Pathologie Végétales. Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources Biologiques. Unité de formation et de recherche Biosciences. Université Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY. BP 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire


Vegetable crops in Côte d’Ivoire are attacked by numerous pests, including plant-parasitic nematodes that cause enormous crop losses. A survey was conducted in six agroecological zones (AEZ) to study the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with vegetable crops. 120 soil and root samples of seven plant species belonging to Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae were collected. These samples were subjected to various laboratory analyses, including extraction, counting, and identifying nematodes. Plant-parasitic nematodes belonging to nine genera have been inventoried: Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Hemicycliophora, Rotylenchulus, Hoplolaimus, Xiphinema and Heterodera. Overall, all the populations were abundant in soils (more than 1000 individuals per kilogram) and roots (more than ten individuals per gram). However, segregation between the genera was observed according to the frequency of populations. The genus Meloidogyne was the most frequent and abundant in the whole localities and vegetable crops. Frequencies of 91% and 100% were observed for Meloidogyne in the roots of tomato and the rhizosphere of zucchini. Xiphinema, Hoplolaimus, Heterodera, and Rotylenchulus had very low-frequency values in soils, while the other genera had intermediate frequency values. The Principal Components Analyses based on nematode populations highlighted a strong correlation between the AEZ I and some genera’s abundance, notably Xiphinema 92% correlated in the roots samples. Similarly, a strong correlation was observed between the abundance of some genera and eggplant; notably, Meloidogyne correlated to 83% in the soil samples. This study highlights the importance of plant-parasitic nematodes in Ivorian vegetable crops, hence the need to implement integrated management measures to limit yield losses.

 Keywords: Plant parasitic nematodes, Vegetable crops, Density, Frequency, Agroecological zone

Enhanced wound healing effects of herbal gel formulations in a rabbit model: a comparative study

Dunia A. Al-Farraj1, Muhammad Kashif2*, Fateh Ullah2, Hafiz Muhammad Ali3, Abdul Qayyum3, Asma Yamin4, Jawaria Aslam5, Shabana Bibi6, Sayed M. Eldin7*, Iftikhar Ali8, Abd El-Zaher M.A. Mustafa1, Mohamed Soliman Elshikh1

1Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Sub-campus Jhang, Pakistan

3Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4Department of Zoology, The Govt Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

5Bahawalpur Medical and Dental College, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

6Department of Biosciences, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan

7Center of Research, Future University in Egypt, New Cairo, Egypt

8Department of Genetics and Development, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, USA


The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of herbal 2% topical gel formulations of either of Allium sativum, Calotropis procera and Prosopis juliflora or their combination compared to an antibiotic cream (Betaderm-N) on healing of full-thickness skin wounds in rabbit. The wound healing (contraction) rate of treated groups was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher than the positive and negative control groups. The wound treated with A. sativum were healed on 12th day while those treated with P. juliflora or Betaderm-N cream healed on 15th day. The wounds treated with combination gel showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher healing rate and completely healed the wound by 9th day of the experiment and in the histo-pathological examination, there observed an increased number of collagen fibers in dermis of the skin compared to positive and negative controls. Catalase test was used to differentiate S. aureus from other staphylococcal species. S. aureus has golden or creamy colour colonies raised on mannitol salt agar with coagulase positive activity. While the pink colonies raised at Meckonky agar with Indol positive test were of E. coli. By disc diffusion method, the combination of three herbal extracts showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli than other groups and showed a significant increased level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GPx) at 7th (p<0.05), 14th (p<0.05) and 21st (p<0.01) days of treatments. It was thus concluded that the combined effects of three herbal extracts accelerated the healing process of surgical wound in rabbits due to presence of active metabolites.


Keywords: Medicinal plants, Phytochemical analysis, Wound healing, S. aureus, Rabbit