Category Archives: b_original_articles

Original Articles

Antimicrobial potential of banana peel: A natural preservative to improve food safety

Nadia Shaukat1, Umar Farooq2*, Kashif Akram3, Afshan Shafi2, Zafar Hayat4, Ambreen Naz2, Ayesha Hakim5, Khizar Hayat2, Samra Naseem6, Muhammad Zaki Khan2
1Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
2Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
3Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
4Department of Animal Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
5Department of Computer Sciences, MNS- University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
6Department of Mathematics and Statistics, MNS- University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


The bacterial pathogens not only cause food borne illness and disturbance in the metabolic process of human body rather also cause the severe disorders leading to mortality. The present research was designed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of banana peel against food borne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the extracts possessed significant antimicrobial potential against both Gram-negative (S. typhus & E. coli) and Gram-positive (B. subtilus & S. aureus) strains. The ethanolic extracts revealed maximum antimicrobial potential against S. typhus (16.27±0.01 mm zone of inhibition) and S. aureus (17.15±0.01 mm zone of inhibition) at 40°C, which was very close to the antimicrobial potential of the standard antibiotics (Amoxicillin & Ciprofloxacin). The results concluded that banana peel would be a suitable choice to use as a natural preservative in food items to enhance the food safety.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Banana peel, Food borne pathogens, Antibiotic.

Algal composition in ecosystem of rice field under the application of herbicides and insecticides

Hasnun Nita Ismail1*, Normawaty Mohammad Noor2, Zuhairi Ahmad2, Wan Nurul Hidayah Wan Anuar1

1Faculty of Applied Science, University Technology of MARA Perak Branch Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

2Kuliyyah of Science, International Islamic University, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia


The ecosystem of rice fields is subjected to fluctuations between dry and wet conditions. Therefore, it contains a unique biodiversity of aquatic organisms. The present study was conducted in the rice field to assess the algal composition and changes in algal population after the application of herbicides and insecticides. The physicochemical parameters were measured in situ while algal identification and examination were investigated through microscopy. The results showed that there were insignificant changes in terms of water chemistry except for the temperature. Algal examination revealed the composition of 4 phyla (Euglenophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta) with 18 genera in the rice field. Despite the heavy application of herbicides and insecticides in the rice field, Euglenophyta significantly bloomed in the entire length of study where Euglena and Trachelomonas were the most dominant genera. Phylum of Bacillariophyta slightly bloomed during control and after the application of herbicides with the most dominant genus was Nitszchia. The application of herbicides and insecticides significantly affected the abundance of Chlorophyta even though the total abundance was below than 100 ind/mL. The Cyanophyta were the rarest algae in the ecosystem with only a single genus found, Oscillatoria. Conclusively, although the herbicides and insecticides affected the abundance of algae, but it did not induce a shift in algal community. The ecosystem of rice field supports a sustainable growth of Euglenophyta when compared to other phyla.

Keywords: Algae, Herbicides, Insecticides, Physicochemical parameters, Rice fields

Chemical composition and In vitro study of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Sargassum oligocystum Montagne (Sargassaceae, Ochrophyta)

Eldrin DLR. Arguelles*

Philippine National Collection of Microorganisms (PNCM), National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH), University of the Philippines Los Baños College, Laguna, Philippines


Seaweeds are marine organisms capable of producing diverse biomolecules and other important bioactive compounds with potential pharmacological uses. Proximate composition analysis of S. oligocystum showed high ash, carbohydrate, and protein content with an estimated value of 39.01±0.16%, 21.43±0.37%, and 19.13 ± 0.19% respectively. The macroalga has a phenolic content (TPC) of 30.94 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g. In terms of antioxidant efficiency, high copper reduction capacity (IC50 = 6.97 μg GAE/ml) and potent radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 28.5 μg GAE/ml) were exhibited by S. oligocystum extract, which is more effective than ascorbic acid (control). Also, S. oligocystum extract showed potent antibacterial activities towards Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Bacillus cereus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 μg/ml and 250 μg/ml, respectively. This investigation is a pioneering study in the Philippines documenting the use of S. oligocystum as an alternative source of bioactive substances that can be used as novel therapeutic agents in disease treatment.


Keywords: Biological activity, Marine, Polyphenols, Philippines, Seaweeds

Antimicrobial potentials of mucus mucin from different species of giant African land snails on some typed culture pathogenic bacteria

Funmilayo Abimbola Okeniyi1*, Oghenebrorhie Mavis Oghenochuko1, Samuel Oyewale Olawoye1, Razaq Adekunle Animashahun1, Abigail Gbemisola Adeyonu2, Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor3

1Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omu -Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omu -Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


The study aims at evaluating the antibacterial activities of mucus mucin from three species of the giant African land snails; Archachatina marginata, Achatina achatina, and Achatina fulica. Snail slime was collected from forty-five snails comprising the three species of snails from the southwestern region of Nigeria. The antibacterial potential and bacteria growth rate (in hours) of the mucus mucin were determined using agar well diffusion method and liquid broth. Acetic acid (acid), ammonium bicarbonate (alkaline), and water (aqueous) were each used to extract the slime. The result showed that mucus secretions from the three snail species differed in color, degree of the sliminess, and volume.  Snail mucus extract had antimicrobial effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The inhibitory effects of mucus extracts differed depending on the treatment method and storage time, with acid extracts having a higher inhibitory capacity regardless of snail species or storage time. A. marginata’s mucus secretions had a stronger antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis when compared to mucus from A. achatina and A. fulica. The zone of inhibition of the mucus mucin in solid agar ranged between 24.0–19.5mm for A. marginata and ranged between 21.0-17.5mm and 21.0–15.0mm for A. achatina and A. fulica, within 2-72 storage hours). Mucus mucin seems to lose its antibacterial potential with time; however, the antibacterial capability of the giant African snail species could provide the much-needed solution to antibiotic resistance.


Keywords: Land snail, Mucous mucin, Antibacterial activity, Pathogenic bacteria, Antibiotic resistance

Screening of Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP. accessions from Togo for their reaction to Callosobruchus maculatus F.

Emmanuel Israel Affram1*, Victor Olawale Adetimirin2, Christian Fatokun3, Ousmane Boukar4

1Pan African University Life and Earth Science Institute, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Crop and Horticultural Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Cowpea Breeding, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Cowpea Breeding, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kano, Nigeria


Post-harvest losses in cowpea are mostly caused by the infestation of Callosobruchus maculatus, a storage pest. It can cause up to 100% loss of untreated produce. Host Plant Resistance (HPR), an important component of integrated pest management, has potential for sustainable management of C. maculatus. The objective of this study was to assess a recently collected cowpea germplasm from Togo for resistance to C. maculatus. A total of 200 cowpea accessions from the five regions of Togo and five checks were screened for resistance to C. maculatus using a no-choice assay. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Data were collected on average number of eggs laid (ANEL), average number of adult emergence (ANAE), number of holes per seed (NHPS), initial and final seed weight (ISW and FSW), median development period (MDP), percentage adult emergence (PAE), and percentage weight loss (PWL), and two indices of resistance computed viz. insect growth index (G.I.) and Dobie’s susceptibility index (DSI). Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis. A total of 51 accessions were moderately resistant, among which RS009 and RP218 had the least DSI score. The remaining accessions (149) were susceptible. DSI was significantly correlated with ANAE, PWL and NHPS, and had a significant and negative correlation with MDP. The results of the stepwise multiple regression showed ANAE, PWL and MDP were the better predictors of cowpea bruchid resistance and accounted for 87.7% of the observed variation in DSI scores.


Keywords: Cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, Resistance and Dobie susceptibility index

Halophyte quinoa: a potential hyperaccumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation

Muhammad Ghous1, Shahid Iqbal1,2*, Muhammad Amir Bakhtavar1,2, Fahim Nawaz1, Tanveer ul Haq3,Shahbaz Khan4

1Department of Agronomy, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

2Institute of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology MNS-University of Agriculture Multan.

3Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

4National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan


Agricultural soils are becoming contaminated with heavy metals due to industrialization and increase in anthropogenic activities. Phytoremediation of heavy metals is an environment-friendly technique for reclamation contaminated soils. Quinoa is halophyte with excellent nutritional qualities and can also be used for the reclamation of polluted soil. This study was executed to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of heavy metals in older and younger leaves of quinoa. Six genotypes of quinoa were cultivated on artificially heavy metals polluted soil in controlled block with use of sewage wastewater at MNS University of Agriculture Multan, Pakistan. Leaves samples were analyzed to evaluate the concentration of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maximum amount of heavy metals were accumulated in older leaves Q-76, Q50 and Q-82 but Q-76 genotype was higher accumulator. In case of yield, Q-7 and Q-76 were best performers with maximum seed yield, biomass, main panicle length and width. It can be concluded that Q-76 genotype was best among the six for producing higher yield with better extraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni) from polluted soil.


Keywords: Heavy metals, Phytoextraction, Quinoa, Reclamation

Assessment and assortment of tomato genotypes against salinity at vegetative stage

Abul Fazal Mohammed Shamim Ahsan1*, Al Harun Md. Motiur Rahman Talukder1, Shamsun Nahar Mahfuza1, Faruque Ahmed1, Mohammad Amdadul Haque2, Mohammad Abdul Goffar2, Mohammad Masuduzzaman Masud3, Ahmed Khairul Hassan4

1Plant Physiology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

2Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

3Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

4Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh


Salinity affects growth of salt-sensitive vegetable crops at an early stage. So, selection of vegetable crops at an early vegetative stage is a significant step in improving salt tolerance. In this study, twenty-four tomato genotypes were subjected to two different salinity stress viz., control, and 15 dS m-1 at 35 days after emergence under hydroponic culture. Visual scoring of salt injury and morpho-physiological traits (length, fresh and dry weights of root and shoot, leaf area, membrane stability, and content of Na+, K+, Ca2+, K+: Na+ and Ca2+: Na+) were investigated. Analysis of variance revealed that specific and interaction effects of both salinity and genotype for all measured traits were significant (P<0.05), suggesting a wide range of diversity in these genotypes. On the basis of visual scoring, genotypes G4, G7, G14, and G16 were found in lower injury scale classes 1 and 2. They also had the least reduction of root length, leaf area, and total biomass under salinity. At 15 dS m-1 salinity level, the genotypes G1, G4, G7, G14, and G16 showed the least cell membrane stability index CMSI compared to the control genotype. Moreover, these genotypes also uptake less Na+ with higher % of K+ and Ca2+, which resulted in higher K+: Na+ and Ca2+: Na+ ratios than others, that expressed their tolerance to salinity. Tomato genotypes were classified into four clusters, where, G1, G4, G5, G7, G14, and G16 genotypes were found in cluster 3 and cluster 1, with the maximum mean values and top-ranking scores in their measured morphological traits. On the other hand, G13, G20, G22, G23, and G24 were in cluster 4, with the lowest mean values and bottom-ranking scores. The results of the study consistently confirmed that G4, G7, G14, and G16 genotypes are salt-tolerant at the vegetative stage.


Keywords: Tomato, Genotype, Salinity, Vegetative, Hydroponic

Evaluation of the nutritional value, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities of Hericium erinaceus cultivated using jasmine rice

Sari Darmasiwi1,3, Yaovapa Aramsirirujiwet1, Ingorn Kimkong1,2*

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

2Center for Advanced Studies in Tropical Natural Resources, National Research University – Kasetsart University, 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

3Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Hericium erinaceus is a medicinal mushroom that has various health benefits. The cultivation of mushrooms with solid substrates was previously reported to improve their chemical compositions and bioactivities. The effect of the solid-state cultivation of H. erinaceus using jasmine rice media was evaluated with regard to the nutritional value, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities of the cultivated products. White jasmine rice (R1) and a mixture of white and red jasmine rice (R2) were used as growth substrates for H. erinaceus. The products of their cultivation, such as rice-fermented mycelia (MR1 and MR2) and basidiomata (BR1 and BR2), were assessed to determine their nutritive contents, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities compared to unfermented rice (R1 and R2) and commercial basidiome (BS). The nutritional values were measured quantitatively, while the mycochemicals were evaluated qualitatively. The antioxidant activity was measured using the level of DPPH scavenging activity. The results showed that H. erinaceus was successfully cultivated on jasmine rice media. The pH of the media was positively correlated with mycelia growth. The R2-fermented mycelium (MR2) product had higher protein levels (11.40 g/100g) compared to unfermented R2 (6.74 g/100g). Basidiome cultivated on R2 media (BR2) exhibited higher protein levels (15.06 g/100g) compared to commercial basidiome (BS) (10.45 g/100 g). The rice-fermented mycelia contained alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. The MR2 sample showed the highest level of antioxidant activity (IC50=1.26 mg/ml). These findings suggested that cultivation on jasmine rice enhanced the nutritional value and mycochemical compositions of H. erinaceus, with beneficial antioxidant activity.


Keywords: Hericium erinaceus, Solid-state cultivation, Nutrition, Mycochemicals, Antioxidants

Effect of using garlic and lemon peels extracts with selenium on Vicia faba productivity

Mona Ibrahim Nossier1, Shaimaa Hassan Abd-Elrahman1*, Salwa Mahmoud El-Sayed2

1Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture 11241, Ain Shams University, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture 11241, Ain Shams University, Egypt


Several agricultural practices produce wastes rich in some useful compounds. In this research, two types of wastes (i.e., garlic and lemon peelings) were chosen and used to prepare mixtures of these peels alcoholic extract with a certain concentration of selenium, either alone or in combinations treatments. Faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L. cv. Sakha 3) were cultivated in winter season of the year 2019 on a silty clay soil after soaking in these mixtures for 24 h. Some vegetative growth parameters such as fresh and dry weights, plant length, as well as N, K, phenols and flavonoids contents were determined during different physiological growth stages of Vicia faba, in addition to determine the leaf area and number of pods per plant at the flowering growth stage. Besides of pods and seeds weight, and seeds content of N, K, Se, protein, phenols and flavonoids were also determined after harvesting. Obtained results showed that soaking seeds in the studied extracts significantly increased the weight of pods and seeds as compared to the control treatment. Moreover, the soaking process increased the percentage of antioxidants in the produced seeds of Vicia faba as compared to the control treatment. This finding highlights the benefit of such soaking process to foods rich in antioxidants that increases immunity and resistance of human against widespread diseases.


Keywords: Garlic peel, Lemon peel, Reuse of agricultural wastes, Selenium, Antioxidants, Vicia faba

Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants collected from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Tran Thanh Men1, Nguyen Dinh Hai Yen2, La Thi Kim Tu1, Tran Ngoc Quy3,  Nguyen Thi Kim Hue1, Do Tan Khang3*

1College of Natural Sciences, Can Tho University, Can Tho city, 94000, Vietnam

2Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan

3Biotechnology Research and Development Institute, Can Tho University, Can Tho city, 94000, Vietnam


Kaempferia galanga L., Morinda citrifolia L., Morus acidosa Griff, and Momordica charantia L. are medicinal plants that are widely distributed in the Mekong Delta area of Vietnam. This study was meant to examine phytochemical constituents and evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from these four plants. DPPH, ABTS, RP and TAC were applied to assess their potential in vitro antioxidant activity. Drosophila melanogaster flies were experimental objects used to evaluate in vivo antioxidant activity. Based on the data analyzed, extract of the plant Momordica charantia L. was resulting in the greatest phenolic content at 64.63 ± 1.51 mg GAE/g extract and flavonoid content at 196.52 ± 5.76 mg QE/g extract. The analyzed result of antioxidant activity through ABTS, RP, and TAC methods also displayed the highest IC50 values of this plant extract, which was 60.02 ± 2.51 µg/mL, 69.64 ± 2.74 µg/mL, and 110.95 ± 1.65 µg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, a maximum IC50 value of 168.30 ± 6.97 μg/mL, which was collected through the scavenging activity by DPPH, was introduced in the extract of Morus acidosa Griff. However, this value was insignificantly different as compared with the IC50 values of Morinda citrifolia L. extract at 172.30 ± 5.23 μg/mL and Momordica charantia L. extract at 188.20 ± 7.52 μg/mL. Under paraquat and H2­O2-induced oxidative stress conditions, the adult fly, which was fed on extracts, had increased parameters of mean lifespan, 50% survival time, and maximum lifespan. These findings showed that Momordica charantia L. extract had the highest in vivo antioxidant activity among the investigated plant extracts. It could be concluded that Kaempferia galanga L., Morinda citrifolia L., Morus acidosa Griff, and Momordica charantia L., especially Momordica charantia L., are potential medicinal plants containing many antioxidant compounds.

 Keywords: ABTS, Antioxidant, DPPH, Drosophila melanogaster, Momordica charantia L., RP, TAC