Tag Archives: 2022-3

Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on livestock industry and food security: A review

Sharmeen Islam1, Md. Tanvir Rahman2, Syed Md. Ehsanur Rahman1, Md. Rokibul Islam Khan1*

1Department of Animal Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

2Department of Microbiology and Hygiene, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh


COVID-19 is a worldwide pandemic that spread over 192 countries and caused more than 3 million people deaths by 2021. It arises a concern on livestock cultivation, their production, and maintaining the supply chain to sustain the existing economy worldwide. The prediction of potential consequences on livestock production and food security is unexpected. Numerous cases among workers in animal farms and product processing plants are evolved during the panic situation, leading to a negative impact on livestock management, and the distribution of products to human doors simultaneously. One of the significant contributions to the drastic decline in livestock operation is the high cost of animal feed. Social distance also slows down all regular activities in livestock farms, resulting in a considerable upset on outcomes. Not only that shutting down transportation flexibility leads to be a burden for farmers in case of high production costs. In the context of consumers, the sublime price of meat, milk, and eggs has addressed the exacerbating risk to worldwide nutrition security. Hence, the world is experiencing an outbreak challenge in resilient, fair, and flexible animal production systems and ensuring food safety globally.

Keywords: COVID-19, Food security, Livestock production, Supply chain, Economy

Multivariate principal component analysis of morphological traits in Ross 308 broiler chicken breed

Lubabalo Bila1*, Thobela Louis Tyasi2

1Potchefstroom College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production, Private Bag X1292, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa

2School of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, Limpopo, South Africa


A principal component exploration is a valuable instrument in multivariate methodology and it is very useful when characteristics are related. The objective of the study was to explore the relationship amongst morphological traits and body weight (BW) of Ross 308 chicken breed. Morphological traits were recorded on one hundred Ross 308 chicken (male = 50, female = 50) at Broiler Production division of Potchefstroom College of Agriculture, South Africa.  The data was analysed using stepwise regression, Pearson’s correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Correlation findings in females ranged from -0.16 to 0.51 while ranged from -0.07 to 0.56 in males. PCA results extracted only three and two components in males and females chicken, respectively, which contributed remarkable 67.78% and 57.15% of variation. The specified principal components extracted contributed excellently to describe overall structuring. Regression results revealed that use of components was more appropriate than the use of correlated morphological traits in predicting BW. The SC might be used as a key morphological trait in the selection criteria to advance BW of male chickens while SL might be used as a key trait in the case of female Ross 308 chickens.

Keywords: Body weight, Morphological characterization, Principal component analysis

Nutritional and physical requirements for mycelial growth and fruiting body production of six strains of Pleurotus djamor from Luzon Island, Philippines

Sofronio P. Kalaw1,2, Rich Milton R. Dulay1,2*, Eduardo J. Damaso Jr.1, Joshua C. Ramos1Mark Adrian G. del Rosario1, Marcelino D. Abon1, Angeles M. De Leon1,2, Renato G. Reyes1,2

1Tuklas Lunas Development Center, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines 3120, , 2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines 3120


Pleurotus djamor, a wood-rotting basidiomycetous mushroom, is becoming popular in the Philippines due to its attractive and fascinating color. With our intention to properly harness the maximum values of wild strains of P. djamor for various applications, our team investigated the mycelial growth and fruiting body performance of six strains of P. djamor collected from the different regions of Luzon Island, Philippines. Pure cultures of mushroom mycelia were successfully established and the nutritional and physical requirements for mycelial growth were determined. Fructification ability, yield and biological efficiency of the six strains were comparatively evaluated. Mycelia of TLPD 1, 2 and 3 favorably grew on potato sucrose gulaman (PSG), whereas TLPD 4, 5 and 6 luxuriantly grew on mycological agar (MA). Corn grit decoction gulaman (CGDG) and malt extract agar (MEA) were also favorable for TLPD 1, 3 and 5, respectively. The optimal pH for mycelial growth of TLPD 1, 4 and 6 was found at pH 7.0 – 8.0 whereas TLPD 2, 3 and 5 grew at a wide range of pH. All strains positively respond to both aeration conditions and both illumination conditions, except TLPD 5, which significantly recorded higher growth rates in sealed and dark conditions.  Moreover, mycelia of all strains grew better when incubated at room temperature (30oC) and air-conditioned (23oC), while no growth was noted at refrigerated condition. In fruiting body cultivation, TLPD 1 strain displayed the shortest incubation period (12 days) and primordial initiation (14.2 days), while TLPD 4 registered the longest period of cultivation phases. TLPD 3 significantly produced the highest yield of 125.34 g bag-1 and biological efficiency of 25.07%, followed by TLPD 4 and 2. No significant difference was found among strains in terms of cap diameter and stipe length. Therefore, individual strain of P. djamor has unique character and specific nutritional and physical preference, which is necessary to understand for strain selection.


Comparative Efficacy of Some New Chemistry Foliar Insecticides against Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

Wali Muhammad1*, Muhammad Ammar2, Tariq Mukhtar3, Abdul Manan Hamza1

1Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Insitute of Plant & Environmental Protection, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan

3Department of Plant Pathology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan


Cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is known as the most destructive pest of vegetables, ornamentals and cotton including a wide range of weeds, forest trees and semi field crops in the world. Cotton production and area under cotton is continuously declining in Pakistan for the last five years due to a rapid proliferation of the pests. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of some new chemistry insecticides against cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) during the kharif season of 2019 in a major cotton producing area of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of ten insecticides (single or mixtures) i.e. Dinotefuran + Spirotetramat (T1), Dinotefuran + Spirotetramat (T2), Pyriproxyfen+ Spirotetramat (T3), Pyriproxyfen+ Spirotetramat (T4), Spirotetramat (T5), Spirotetramat (T6), Pyrifluquinazon (T7), Pyrifluquinazon (T8), Flonicamid (T9), Flonicamid + Abamectin (T10) were applied twice in a field experiment on two varieties of cotton (MNH-90 and BS-18) using randomized complete block design. Water (T0) served as control. There were three replications of each treatment. Data for population of whitefly (nymphs and adults), natural enemies and boll weight were recorded 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after treatment of insecticides. Pyrifluquinazon @ 48.7 g/acre (T8) caused the maximum mortality (83%) of adults of whitefly while the maximum nymphal mortality (78.4 %) was observed in T8 (Pyrifluquinazon @ 48.7 g/acre). The maximum increase in boll weight (133%) was observed in T8 (Pyrifluquinazon @ 48.7 g/acre) followed by T10 (Flonicamid+Abamectin) which gave 110% increase over control. The application of Pyrifluquinazon @ 40 g/acre was found to be safer as compared with other tested insecticides with the minimum reduction of 31% in the population of natural enemies. It is therefore concluded that Spirotetramat and Pyrifluquinazon can be successfully included in IPM programs against Bemisia tabaci.

 Keywords: Pyrifluquinazon, Bemisiatabaci, Cotton whitefly, Chemical control, New Chemistriy insecticides

Synergistic role of pipronyl butoxide in improving the Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrosis virus effectiveness against Spodoptera littoralis and studying its histopathological biosafety

Yasmein A. El Sayed1, Rania A. Ahmed2, Shimaa M. Desoky3*

1Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki Giza, Egypt

2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, Suez, Egypt

3Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, Suez, Egypt


Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrosis virus (SlNPV) has been considered as a vital and safe alternative to chemical insecticides. It is effectively used in biological control of Spodoptera littoralis which is considered the most destructive and detrimental economic pest in Egypt. However, its slow speed of action limits its application among other bio-control agents. So, great attention was directed to solve this problem by using insecticide synergists. In this study the toxicity of both SlNPV and the insecticide synergist pipronyl butoxide (PBO) was investigated against 2nd and 4th instar S. littoralis larvae. Different concentrations of the tested viral isolate used (106, 107, 108, 109 and 1010 POB/ml) showed high mortality percentage ranging from 60 to 93% and 56 to 83% for the two tested instar larvae respectively 10 days post treatment. The three PBO concentrations used (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) revealed weak toxic effect as they produced 13, 20 and 26% mortality rate for the three tested concentrations respectively 4 days post treatment. To examine the biosafety of the three PBO concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%), alone or in combination with SlNPV; in vivo animal studies, and in vitro cell line studies were applied. In vivo evaluations included histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in Caspase-3, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), tumor necrosis factor – alpha (TNF-α) in hepatic and renal tissues, plus serum assessments of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The sulforhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxicity assay has been applied on OEC (Oral epithelial cell) and Vero (Green monkey kidney) cell lines. Results revealed that 0.1% PBO concentration was safe and didn’t induce any pathogenicity, as a dose concentration – dependent decreased pathological changes by comparing 0.3%, 0.2% PBO treated rats . Furthermore, SlNPV was safe to rat tissues and cells and PBO didn’t alter the safe nature of SlNPV on mammalian cells. According to the results of histopthological bio-safety, 0.1% of PBO was applied to 4th instar larvae for estimation its effect on larval enzyme activity and the results proved significant differences in the metabolic tested enzymes between the control and treated larvae with inhibition in both of Actylcholin esterase (AchE), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), Alpha esterases (α-esterases), Beta esterases (B- esterases), and Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and stimulation in Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and Multi-function oxidases (MFO). Moreover, 0.1% of PBO has been mixed with viral LC50 for 2nd and 4th instar larvae and the results showed highly synergistic effect of PBO as 100 and 96 % mortality rate respectively fourth day post treatment.


Keywords: Biological control, Nucleopolyhedrosis virus, Spodoptera littoralis, Pipronyl butoxide, Synergistic agents, Histopathological biosafety

Growth and biochemical composition of Spirulina platensis dry biomass in diluted monosodium glutamate waste waters

Wardah Wardah1, Finalah Nurhayati2, Mery Maria Magdalena2, Nur Fazilah2, Tatang Sopandi2*

1Study Program of Agroindustry, Faculty of Vocational, University of 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya. Jl. Semolowaru 45, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

2Study Program of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of PGRI Adi Buana, Surabaya. Jl. Dukuh Menanggal XII, 60234, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia


The use of low-cost culture media is important for the development of large-scale Spirulina platensis production. This study aims to investigate the effects of using diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) as a culture medium on the growth and biochemical composition of S. platensis dry biomass. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by S. platensis from MSGW media was also investigated in this study. Four concentrations of MSGW have been used in this study, namely 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mL/L and Walne medium was used as a control. All media were adjusted at pH 9 and S. platensis culture was carried out for 14 day at 36.0oC, 77% relative humidity, 5000 lux light intensity and aeration rate at 0.7 L/min. The results of this study have indicated that the growth, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and chlorophyll of S. platensis biomass at 2.5 mL/L MSGW concentrations were not significantly different from Walne medium, but were significantly different from 1.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mL/L MSGW concentrations. The present study have also shown those nitrogen and phosphorus uptakes by S. platensis from 2.5 mL/L MSGW concentration was not significantly different from Walne medium, but were significantly different from 1.5, 3.5 and 4.5 mL/L MSGW concentrations. The present study concluded that S. platensis can be cultivated in MSGW as a medium with an optimum concentration of 2.5 mL/L. This finding will serve as a basic reference for future studies to utilize MSGW for microalgae culture media.

 Keywords: Biomass, Biochemical, Monosodium glutamate wastewater, Spirulina platensis

Chemical composition and anti-diabetic activities in two novel accessions of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) leaves grown in Sri Lanka

Nimarsha Sonali Kamaradiwela Arachchige, Bimali Jayawardena*

Department of Chemistry, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka


Diabetes Mellitus is a major health concern in many countries.  Although there are many synthetic drugs to manage diabetes, most of them are associated with many side effects. Hence there is attention to the use of natural herbs with fewer side effects as an alternative. In this study the hypoglycemic properties, biological activities and chemical composition of leaves of two new Cinnamomum zeylanicum accessions (Sri Wijaya and Sri Gemunu) were investigated using spectrometric techniques. Ethanolic extracts of the two accessions were tested for alpha-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 of Sri Gemunu 0.0565 ± 0.0013 mg/mL, IC50 of Sri Wijaya 0.1136 ± 0.0011 mg/mL), alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 of  Sri Gemunu 0.0347 ± 0.0002 mg/mL, IC50 of Sri Wijaya 0.0884 ± 0.0002 mg/mL), total phenolic content (20.60 ± 0.01 mg Gallic acid equivalents.g-1of Sri Gemunu, 6.07 ± 0.01 mg Gallic acid equivalents.g-1 of Sri Wijaya), total  flavonoid content (72.02 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalents.g-1of Sri Gemunu, 23.59 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalents.g-1 of Sri Wijaya), total proanthocyanidin content (0.60 ± 0.05 g catechin equivalents.g-1of Sri Gemunu, 0.15 ± 0.05 g catechin equivalents.g-1 of Sri Wijaya) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50-58.18  ± 2.53 µg/mL of Sri Wijaya, IC50-69.60 ± 5.48 µg/mL of Sri Gemunu). GC-MS analysis and HPLC analysis indicated that both accessions were rich in eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. According to the results of this study, the ethanolic extract of Sri Gemunu Cinnamomum zeylanicum accession leaves displayed better anti-diabetic properties than the leaves of Sri Wijaya.

Keywords: Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf, Ethanolic extraction, Anti-diabetic, Sri Gemunu accession, Sri Wijaya accession

Economic potentiality of Colocasia esculenta L. under multipurpose tree-based agroforestry systems

Md. Hafiz All Amin1,2, Sumaia Sumi1, Warangkana Jutidamrongphan3,4, Kua-anan Techato3,4*

1Agroforestry and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh

2Sustainable Energy Management, Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, 90110, Songkhla, Thailand

3Environmental Assessment and Technology for Hazardous Waste Management Research Center, Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, 90110, Songkhla, Thailand

4Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Bangkok 10330, Thailand


Taro (Colocasia esculenta L. cv. Latiraj) is a vegetable for many people in tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. Because of large quantities of vitamins and minerals, it has considerable value in the food market. As the Taro has raised market demand, it needs to increase production as much as possible. Agroforestry would be a possible production approach for Taro as it can be practised in a partially shaded conditions. The research aimed to evaluate the performance of Taro under woody perennials of Melia azedarach, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbeck and sole crop cultivation to get potential production and high financial return. This experiment was followed a single factor Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments were (1) sole cropping of Latiraj, (2) Latiraj-Melia azedarach, (3) Latiraj-Albizia lebbeck and (4) Latiraj-Leucaena leucocephala. The results showed the maximum number of stolon per plant (29.50) found in Latiraj-Albizia lebbeck and noted the minimum number of stolon (19.17) was in Latiraj-Leucaena leucocephala. Also, the highest stolon length (60.85 cm) and girth (3.33 cm) were observed in Latiraj-Albizia lebbeck and Latiraj-Melia azedarach, respectively. Moreover, the highest stolon yield (10.08 ton/ha) was obtained from Latiraj-Albizia lebbeck compared to (9.85 ton/ha) Latiraj sole cropping. The maximum benefit-cost ratio (4.78) was recorded in the Latiraj-Albizia lebbeck, 24% higher than (3.62) Latiraj sole cropping for economic performance. Finally, it was found that the Taro cv. Latiraj cultivation under Albizia lebbeck as an agroforestry practice would be a sustainable strategy to maximize the production, touching financial benefit and ensuring the proper utilization of vacant woodlots space.

Keywords: Aroid vegetable crop, Woody perennial trees, Agroforestry practices, Benefit-cost ratio, Monetary return

Microsatellite fingerprinting, enzymes activity and chlorophyll profiling of local lines of air potato yam (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) for salt tolerance

Success Eni Kalu1,2, Godwin Michael Ubi1*,  Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu1, Imoh Akpanobong Ekpo1,Linus Uduak Edem1

1Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria

2Department of Biological Sciences, Clifford University, Owerrinta, Nigeria


Air potato yam (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) is an indigenous, edible, and energy-giving crop and used as herbal remedy for common ailments like diabetes, dysentery and conjunctivitis. This study sought to determine the tolerance of D. bulbifera to salt stress conditions through molecular, biochemical and physiological approaches. Results revealed that most of the local lines were less tolerant to sodium chloride showing reduced concentrations of chlorophyll a and b of the plants, and also showed increased activities of peroxidase, linolytic, xylanase, cellulase and glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase enzymes at increasing salt concentration and stress. Molecular analysis using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) revealed that 11 lines did not contain any trait related to the marker. Twenty eight (28) lines fingerprinted at 100 bp with the marker gene. Nine lines were fingerprinted at 300 bp with the marker gene while Dbor 1 fingerprinted at 100, 200, 300 and 400 bp with the marker gene. Three of the local lines which are round in shape, Dbor 1, Dbok 3 and Dbak 2 produced several bulbils at 300Nm of salt concentration and showed molecular bands at 400 and 300 bps indicating the presence of a salt tolerant gene at the locus and base pairs. Therefore, molecular analysis has revealed the presence of salt tolerant gene at 300 400 bp in the three local lines which can be further harnessed for salt-tolerance improvement in the less tolerant lines. Physiologically, chlorophyll contents and enzyme concentrations in the less tolerant local lines were critically affected with increasing salt concentrations.

 Keywords: Enzymes assay, SSR markers, Chlorophyll a & b, Aerial yam, Salt tolerant lines

Response of groundnut to lime sources on acid sandy loam

Nwite James Nte1*, Igwe Thomas Sunday1, Akande Oluyemi Solomon2, Enyioko Chimezie Onyeogoziri2, Nwibo Simon Uguru3,  Mbam Boniface Nwangele3, Orji Jephter Ebuka4

1Department of Soil Science and Environmental  Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Federal College of Land Resources Technology, Owerri, Nigeria

3Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria

4Department of Agriculture, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria


Soil acidity causes a lot of productivity losses annually. The possibility of determining response of groundnut to lime-treated acid sandy loam was studied. The treatments comprise control (0) and 0.2tha-1 or 0.32kg plot-1 each of limes in research farm at Ebonyi State University, Nigeria. Field was laid out in randomized completely block design (RCBD) with five replications and plot dimensions of 4x4m. All treatments received uniform agricultural practices. Data were analyzed using statistical analysis system. Results indicate significant (P < 0.05) reductions of bulk densities by woodash at 13% each and increased hydraulic conductivities by 35 and 61% compared to control for the two seasons. Calcium Oxide recorded 11 and 14% significant increase of MWD as CaCo3 and woodash improved pH at significant levels of 18 and 14% for the same seasons. Total N significantly increased at 13 and 7% each for CaCo3 and CaO for the seasons. Maximum significant levels of 32 and 30% for Ca, 15 and 23% for Na and 29% each for BS were obtained for woodash for the same seasons. Calcium Carbonate induced maximum germination counts of 100 and 99% <5DAP and significant plant heights  of 10 and 7%, pod yields of 57 and 55% as well as seed yields of 30 and 26% for two the seasons. Production losses of 89 and 76% in groundnut were recorded within the two seasons due to non-amendment. The present investigation suggests that soil physical and chemical properties as well as groundnut yield can be maximally improved by CaCo3 or wood ash at 0.2t ha-1 or 0.32 kg plot-1 and minimally by CaO.

Keywords: Acid, Groundnut, Lime, Response, Sandy loam