Tag Archives: 2022(4)

Metabolomics approaches for early cancer diagnosis: a review

Ali Zineddine Boumehira1,2, Yasmine Fatima Akchiche2, Wissam Cherfi2, Oualid Talhi3, Reda Djidjik4,5, Daniel Joe Dailin6, Ting Ho7, Hesham Ali El Enshasy6,8*

1Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique – ENSA, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria

2University of Algiers, Faculty of Sciences, LVBRN, Algiers, Algeria

3Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses Physico-Chimiques CRAPC, Bou-Ismail, Tipaza, Algeria

4University of Algiers, Faculty of Medicine, LVBRN, Algiers, Algeria

5Department of Immunology, Issaad Hassani Hospital, Beni Messous, Algiers, Algeria

6Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor, Malaysia

7Global Agro Innovation (HK) Limited, Hong Kong

8City of Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Burg Al Arab, Alexandria, Egypt


Cancer remains a major burden on global public health with high mortality rates worldwide. Current diagnosis can detect cancer in late stages when therapy options become limited. Early diagnosis is broadly recognized as the key to a better treatment to save lives. The metabolomics approach provides a better understanding of the different types of cancer. They offer promising and potential interventions in biomarkers discovery which eventually will be better suited for individualized medicine. It elucidates endpoint products for other omic processes while significantly improving the understanding of pathogenesis and mechanisms yet to be discovered. Metabolomics offers a less-invasive, cost-effective for predicting, screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring therapeutic responses of the disease. There are two methods to study the metabolism and metabolites: targeted and untargeted. The workflow of these approaches requires different analytical platforms, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Mass Spectrometry (MS), and different bioinformatic tools. This review provides a systematic summary of metabolomics methods in identifying metabolic biomarkers of cancers (colorectal, prostate, breast, bladder, pancreas, lung, and buccal cancers). In addition, the current review will try to shed light on DNA lesions as a potential metabolic biomarker for cancer.


Keywords: Cancer, Metabolomics, NMR, Early diagnosis, DNA lesions

Chemical composition and In vitro study of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Sargassum oligocystum Montagne (Sargassaceae, Ochrophyta)

Eldrin DLR. Arguelles*

Philippine National Collection of Microorganisms (PNCM), National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH), University of the Philippines Los Baños College, Laguna, Philippines


Seaweeds are marine organisms capable of producing diverse biomolecules and other important bioactive compounds with potential pharmacological uses. Proximate composition analysis of S. oligocystum showed high ash, carbohydrate, and protein content with an estimated value of 39.01±0.16%, 21.43±0.37%, and 19.13 ± 0.19% respectively. The macroalga has a phenolic content (TPC) of 30.94 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g. In terms of antioxidant efficiency, high copper reduction capacity (IC50 = 6.97 μg GAE/ml) and potent radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 28.5 μg GAE/ml) were exhibited by S. oligocystum extract, which is more effective than ascorbic acid (control). Also, S. oligocystum extract showed potent antibacterial activities towards Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Bacillus cereus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 μg/ml and 250 μg/ml, respectively. This investigation is a pioneering study in the Philippines documenting the use of S. oligocystum as an alternative source of bioactive substances that can be used as novel therapeutic agents in disease treatment.


Keywords: Biological activity, Marine, Polyphenols, Philippines, Seaweeds

Antimicrobial potentials of mucus mucin from different species of giant African land snails on some typed culture pathogenic bacteria

Funmilayo Abimbola Okeniyi1*, Oghenebrorhie Mavis Oghenochuko1, Samuel Oyewale Olawoye1, Razaq Adekunle Animashahun1, Abigail Gbemisola Adeyonu2, Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor3

1Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omu -Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omu -Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


The study aims at evaluating the antibacterial activities of mucus mucin from three species of the giant African land snails; Archachatina marginata, Achatina achatina, and Achatina fulica. Snail slime was collected from forty-five snails comprising the three species of snails from the southwestern region of Nigeria. The antibacterial potential and bacteria growth rate (in hours) of the mucus mucin were determined using agar well diffusion method and liquid broth. Acetic acid (acid), ammonium bicarbonate (alkaline), and water (aqueous) were each used to extract the slime. The result showed that mucus secretions from the three snail species differed in color, degree of the sliminess, and volume.  Snail mucus extract had antimicrobial effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The inhibitory effects of mucus extracts differed depending on the treatment method and storage time, with acid extracts having a higher inhibitory capacity regardless of snail species or storage time. A. marginata’s mucus secretions had a stronger antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis when compared to mucus from A. achatina and A. fulica. The zone of inhibition of the mucus mucin in solid agar ranged between 24.0–19.5mm for A. marginata and ranged between 21.0-17.5mm and 21.0–15.0mm for A. achatina and A. fulica, within 2-72 storage hours). Mucus mucin seems to lose its antibacterial potential with time; however, the antibacterial capability of the giant African snail species could provide the much-needed solution to antibiotic resistance.


Keywords: Land snail, Mucous mucin, Antibacterial activity, Pathogenic bacteria, Antibiotic resistance

Screening of Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP. accessions from Togo for their reaction to Callosobruchus maculatus F.

Emmanuel Israel Affram1*, Victor Olawale Adetimirin2, Christian Fatokun3, Ousmane Boukar4

1Pan African University Life and Earth Science Institute, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Crop and Horticultural Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Cowpea Breeding, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Cowpea Breeding, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kano, Nigeria


Post-harvest losses in cowpea are mostly caused by the infestation of Callosobruchus maculatus, a storage pest. It can cause up to 100% loss of untreated produce. Host Plant Resistance (HPR), an important component of integrated pest management, has potential for sustainable management of C. maculatus. The objective of this study was to assess a recently collected cowpea germplasm from Togo for resistance to C. maculatus. A total of 200 cowpea accessions from the five regions of Togo and five checks were screened for resistance to C. maculatus using a no-choice assay. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Data were collected on average number of eggs laid (ANEL), average number of adult emergence (ANAE), number of holes per seed (NHPS), initial and final seed weight (ISW and FSW), median development period (MDP), percentage adult emergence (PAE), and percentage weight loss (PWL), and two indices of resistance computed viz. insect growth index (G.I.) and Dobie’s susceptibility index (DSI). Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis. A total of 51 accessions were moderately resistant, among which RS009 and RP218 had the least DSI score. The remaining accessions (149) were susceptible. DSI was significantly correlated with ANAE, PWL and NHPS, and had a significant and negative correlation with MDP. The results of the stepwise multiple regression showed ANAE, PWL and MDP were the better predictors of cowpea bruchid resistance and accounted for 87.7% of the observed variation in DSI scores.


Keywords: Cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, Resistance and Dobie susceptibility index

Halophyte quinoa: a potential hyperaccumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation

Muhammad Ghous1, Shahid Iqbal1,2*, Muhammad Amir Bakhtavar1,2, Fahim Nawaz1, Tanveer ul Haq3,Shahbaz Khan4

1Department of Agronomy, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

2Institute of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology MNS-University of Agriculture Multan.

3Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

4National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan


Agricultural soils are becoming contaminated with heavy metals due to industrialization and increase in anthropogenic activities. Phytoremediation of heavy metals is an environment-friendly technique for reclamation contaminated soils. Quinoa is halophyte with excellent nutritional qualities and can also be used for the reclamation of polluted soil. This study was executed to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of heavy metals in older and younger leaves of quinoa. Six genotypes of quinoa were cultivated on artificially heavy metals polluted soil in controlled block with use of sewage wastewater at MNS University of Agriculture Multan, Pakistan. Leaves samples were analyzed to evaluate the concentration of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maximum amount of heavy metals were accumulated in older leaves Q-76, Q50 and Q-82 but Q-76 genotype was higher accumulator. In case of yield, Q-7 and Q-76 were best performers with maximum seed yield, biomass, main panicle length and width. It can be concluded that Q-76 genotype was best among the six for producing higher yield with better extraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni) from polluted soil.


Keywords: Heavy metals, Phytoextraction, Quinoa, Reclamation

Assessment and assortment of tomato genotypes against salinity at vegetative stage

Abul Fazal Mohammed Shamim Ahsan1*, Al Harun Md. Motiur Rahman Talukder1, Shamsun Nahar Mahfuza1, Faruque Ahmed1, Mohammad Amdadul Haque2, Mohammad Abdul Goffar2, Mohammad Masuduzzaman Masud3, Ahmed Khairul Hassan4

1Plant Physiology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

2Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

3Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

4Department of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh


Salinity affects growth of salt-sensitive vegetable crops at an early stage. So, selection of vegetable crops at an early vegetative stage is a significant step in improving salt tolerance. In this study, twenty-four tomato genotypes were subjected to two different salinity stress viz., control, and 15 dS m-1 at 35 days after emergence under hydroponic culture. Visual scoring of salt injury and morpho-physiological traits (length, fresh and dry weights of root and shoot, leaf area, membrane stability, and content of Na+, K+, Ca2+, K+: Na+ and Ca2+: Na+) were investigated. Analysis of variance revealed that specific and interaction effects of both salinity and genotype for all measured traits were significant (P<0.05), suggesting a wide range of diversity in these genotypes. On the basis of visual scoring, genotypes G4, G7, G14, and G16 were found in lower injury scale classes 1 and 2. They also had the least reduction of root length, leaf area, and total biomass under salinity. At 15 dS m-1 salinity level, the genotypes G1, G4, G7, G14, and G16 showed the least cell membrane stability index CMSI compared to the control genotype. Moreover, these genotypes also uptake less Na+ with higher % of K+ and Ca2+, which resulted in higher K+: Na+ and Ca2+: Na+ ratios than others, that expressed their tolerance to salinity. Tomato genotypes were classified into four clusters, where, G1, G4, G5, G7, G14, and G16 genotypes were found in cluster 3 and cluster 1, with the maximum mean values and top-ranking scores in their measured morphological traits. On the other hand, G13, G20, G22, G23, and G24 were in cluster 4, with the lowest mean values and bottom-ranking scores. The results of the study consistently confirmed that G4, G7, G14, and G16 genotypes are salt-tolerant at the vegetative stage.


Keywords: Tomato, Genotype, Salinity, Vegetative, Hydroponic

Evaluation of the nutritional value, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities of Hericium erinaceus cultivated using jasmine rice

Sari Darmasiwi1,3, Yaovapa Aramsirirujiwet1, Ingorn Kimkong1,2*

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

2Center for Advanced Studies in Tropical Natural Resources, National Research University – Kasetsart University, 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

3Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Hericium erinaceus is a medicinal mushroom that has various health benefits. The cultivation of mushrooms with solid substrates was previously reported to improve their chemical compositions and bioactivities. The effect of the solid-state cultivation of H. erinaceus using jasmine rice media was evaluated with regard to the nutritional value, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities of the cultivated products. White jasmine rice (R1) and a mixture of white and red jasmine rice (R2) were used as growth substrates for H. erinaceus. The products of their cultivation, such as rice-fermented mycelia (MR1 and MR2) and basidiomata (BR1 and BR2), were assessed to determine their nutritive contents, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities compared to unfermented rice (R1 and R2) and commercial basidiome (BS). The nutritional values were measured quantitatively, while the mycochemicals were evaluated qualitatively. The antioxidant activity was measured using the level of DPPH scavenging activity. The results showed that H. erinaceus was successfully cultivated on jasmine rice media. The pH of the media was positively correlated with mycelia growth. The R2-fermented mycelium (MR2) product had higher protein levels (11.40 g/100g) compared to unfermented R2 (6.74 g/100g). Basidiome cultivated on R2 media (BR2) exhibited higher protein levels (15.06 g/100g) compared to commercial basidiome (BS) (10.45 g/100 g). The rice-fermented mycelia contained alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. The MR2 sample showed the highest level of antioxidant activity (IC50=1.26 mg/ml). These findings suggested that cultivation on jasmine rice enhanced the nutritional value and mycochemical compositions of H. erinaceus, with beneficial antioxidant activity.


Keywords: Hericium erinaceus, Solid-state cultivation, Nutrition, Mycochemicals, Antioxidants

Effect of using garlic and lemon peels extracts with selenium on Vicia faba productivity

Mona Ibrahim Nossier1, Shaimaa Hassan Abd-Elrahman1*, Salwa Mahmoud El-Sayed2

1Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture 11241, Ain Shams University, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture 11241, Ain Shams University, Egypt


Several agricultural practices produce wastes rich in some useful compounds. In this research, two types of wastes (i.e., garlic and lemon peelings) were chosen and used to prepare mixtures of these peels alcoholic extract with a certain concentration of selenium, either alone or in combinations treatments. Faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L. cv. Sakha 3) were cultivated in winter season of the year 2019 on a silty clay soil after soaking in these mixtures for 24 h. Some vegetative growth parameters such as fresh and dry weights, plant length, as well as N, K, phenols and flavonoids contents were determined during different physiological growth stages of Vicia faba, in addition to determine the leaf area and number of pods per plant at the flowering growth stage. Besides of pods and seeds weight, and seeds content of N, K, Se, protein, phenols and flavonoids were also determined after harvesting. Obtained results showed that soaking seeds in the studied extracts significantly increased the weight of pods and seeds as compared to the control treatment. Moreover, the soaking process increased the percentage of antioxidants in the produced seeds of Vicia faba as compared to the control treatment. This finding highlights the benefit of such soaking process to foods rich in antioxidants that increases immunity and resistance of human against widespread diseases.


Keywords: Garlic peel, Lemon peel, Reuse of agricultural wastes, Selenium, Antioxidants, Vicia faba

Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants collected from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Tran Thanh Men1, Nguyen Dinh Hai Yen2, La Thi Kim Tu1, Tran Ngoc Quy3,  Nguyen Thi Kim Hue1, Do Tan Khang3*

1College of Natural Sciences, Can Tho University, Can Tho city, 94000, Vietnam

2Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan

3Biotechnology Research and Development Institute, Can Tho University, Can Tho city, 94000, Vietnam


Kaempferia galanga L., Morinda citrifolia L., Morus acidosa Griff, and Momordica charantia L. are medicinal plants that are widely distributed in the Mekong Delta area of Vietnam. This study was meant to examine phytochemical constituents and evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from these four plants. DPPH, ABTS, RP and TAC were applied to assess their potential in vitro antioxidant activity. Drosophila melanogaster flies were experimental objects used to evaluate in vivo antioxidant activity. Based on the data analyzed, extract of the plant Momordica charantia L. was resulting in the greatest phenolic content at 64.63 ± 1.51 mg GAE/g extract and flavonoid content at 196.52 ± 5.76 mg QE/g extract. The analyzed result of antioxidant activity through ABTS, RP, and TAC methods also displayed the highest IC50 values of this plant extract, which was 60.02 ± 2.51 µg/mL, 69.64 ± 2.74 µg/mL, and 110.95 ± 1.65 µg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, a maximum IC50 value of 168.30 ± 6.97 μg/mL, which was collected through the scavenging activity by DPPH, was introduced in the extract of Morus acidosa Griff. However, this value was insignificantly different as compared with the IC50 values of Morinda citrifolia L. extract at 172.30 ± 5.23 μg/mL and Momordica charantia L. extract at 188.20 ± 7.52 μg/mL. Under paraquat and H2­O2-induced oxidative stress conditions, the adult fly, which was fed on extracts, had increased parameters of mean lifespan, 50% survival time, and maximum lifespan. These findings showed that Momordica charantia L. extract had the highest in vivo antioxidant activity among the investigated plant extracts. It could be concluded that Kaempferia galanga L., Morinda citrifolia L., Morus acidosa Griff, and Momordica charantia L., especially Momordica charantia L., are potential medicinal plants containing many antioxidant compounds.

 Keywords: ABTS, Antioxidant, DPPH, Drosophila melanogaster, Momordica charantia L., RP, TAC

Influence of spatial variation on the physicochemical properties and mineral content of stingless bee honey (Heterotrigona itama) in Terengganu, Malaysia

Izzati Shahira Rosidi Sujanto, Nur Syahidah Ramly, John Yew Huat Tang, Asmaliza Abd Ghani, Nadiawati Alias, Salmah Mohamed, Norhayati Ngah*

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200, Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia


The growing interest in the usage of stingless bee honey as a functional food proceeds from its composition, which has been associated with bio-medicinal properties. However, the composition of honey is dependent on the types and origin of bees’ foods, which are flower nectar and plant honeydew. Thus, this study was done to investigate the influence of spatial variation on the physicochemical and mineral content of stingless bee honey in Terengganu, Malaysia. Honeys produced by Heterotrigona itama were collected from five different locations around Terengganu, Malaysia that are surrounded by different plant diversity. The physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds, and minerals of stingless bee honey were evaluated. Results obtained show that the pH of honey at all locations differed significantly, ranging from 3.30 to 3.54. The sweetness of honey varied between locations, from 69.30 to 75.76 °Brix. The moisture content of honey ranged from 27.28 to 33.13% and the electrical conductivity from 0.65 to 1.46 mScm-1, which differed significantly among the five selected locations. The parameters for colour, L* (lightness of the sample), a* (the colour scale from red to green) and b* (the colour scale from yellow to blue) values ranged from 25.02 to 52.55, -0.12 to 7.42, and 10.36 to 14.88, respectively. The total flavonoid content of honey ranged from 1.41 to 6.64 mg CE/g, while total phenolic content gave a value of 3.94 to 10.54 mg GAE/g. The antioxidant activity of honey gave a value ranging from 71.14 to 85.27%. The location of hives had a significant influence on the amount of minerals in stingless bee honey. It can be concluded that the physicochemical properties and mineral content of honey produced by H. itama were different between locations due to the variation of plant diversity at respective locations. The data obtained provides information on the effect of spatial biodiversity variation on the quality of stingless bee honey in selected locations in Terengganu, Malaysia.


Keywords: Stingless bee honey, Physicochemical properties, Mineral content, Spatial variation