Tag Archives: 2023(2)

Influence of dietary neutral detergent fiber on feed intake and nutrient digestibility of crossbred Black Angus cattle

Nguyen Binh Truong1,2*, Tran Trung Tuan1,2

1An Giang University, An Giang, Vietnam

2Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different neutral detergent fiber (NDF) levels affected on the feed intake and nutrient digestibility of crossbred beef cattle. Four male F1 (Black Angus x Zebu cross) cattle at 20.5±1.21 (Mean±SD) months of age with average body weight of 299±12.1 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (fourteen days per each period). The treatments were 47% (NDF47), 51% (NDF51), 55% (NDF55), and 59% (NDF59) NDF in diets. The results showed that the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) intake were not different (P>0.05) among treatments. However, both NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) consumption were lower for NDF 47 than NDF59 treatments (P<0.05), while metabolizable energy was highest for NDF47 compare with NDF59 treatment (P<0.05). The DM digestibility was higher (P<0.05) for the NDF47 (65.3%) compared with NDF59 (57.5%), while NDF47 was similar (P>0.05) to NDF51 (62.4%), and NDF55 (59.4%) treatments. The data for CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility were similar (P>0.05) among treatments. However, there was tended to be lower in NDF59 than NDF47 treatments. The daily weight gain was 866, 821, 786, and 686 g/animal/day for treatments of NDF47, NDF51, NDF55, and NDF59, respectively. While, feed conversion ratio was lower for NDF47 and higher for NDF59 treatments (P>0.05). The conclusion in the present study was 55% NDF in diet could be properly recommended for farmers’ practice in terms of feed utilization.

 Keywords: Neutral detergent fiber, Rumen digestibility, Crossbred beef cattle

Effects of hormone and cold treatments on dormancy breaking of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers

Rattikarn Sennoi1*, Rattanajira Ruttanaprasert2, Supansa Chinaworn1, Ratchanee Puttha3 

1Department of Plant Production Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Rajamangala University of Technology Tawan-ok, Chonburi, 20110, Thailand

2Department of Plant Science, Textile and Design, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Surin Campus, Surin 32000, Thailand

3Faculty of Agricultural Production, Maejo University, San Sai, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand


The objective of this research was to determine the effects of gibberellic acid, cytokinin and ethylene and chilling at 5 oC for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks on germination of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers. Gibberellic acid, cytokinin, ethylene and a blank control were assigned as factor A, and four Jerusalem artichoke varieties including JA 89, HEL 65, CN52867 and hybrid variety, 50-4 were assigned as factor B. A 4×10 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block arrangement of the treatments with four replications was laid out for the chilling treatment. Data were recorded for germination percentage after 7 days of germination for hormone treatment and for 7 days of germination for chilling treatment. A significant difference of three plant hormones was found for Jerusalem artichoke tuber germination. Gibberellic acid was effective for breaking dormancy of four Jerusalem artichoke varieties, influencing the highest tuber germination percentage from both times of evaluation. For breaking tuber dormancy by chilling, highly significant different periods of chilling were found for a percentage of tuber germination. Ten weeks of chilling in 5 oC showed the highest germination, 96.3 %. JA 89 and 50-4 exhibited high germination in both breaking dormancy methods.

 Keywords: Tuber crop, Endodormancy, Dormancy breakin

A review of current aspects of sars family, genome, database, drug, vaccine and its pathogenic member SARS-CoV-2

Rawaa AlChalabi1, Basma Kh. Alani1, Taisir K. Ibrahim2, AhmedAbdul Jabbar Suleiman3 

1Al-Nahrain University, College of Biotechnology, Baghdad, Iraq

2Tikrit University, College of Science, Biology Department, Saladin, Iraq

3Biotechnology Department, College of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Anbar, Iraq


The coronaviruses (CoV) show great diversity with respect to their genomic structures and the ability to infect animals and human beings. Multiple omics studies have been conducted to understand and identify the genome organization, immunological responses, and molecular markers for vaccine and drug development. However, due to constant mutational changes in the CoV-2 genome, the drug and vaccine development is becoming a challenge to target new variants. A tremendous amount of research is being carried out for vaccine development by utilizing bioinformatics and immunoinformatics, however, most of the developed vaccines are under trial. In this review, SARS family members are systematically illuminated for their differences, infections and mechanism of action along with recommendations to counter the new variants of CoV-2 through multi-omics, machine learning and structural bioinformatics techniques.

Keywords: SARS, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pandemic, Coronaviruses, RNA viruses, MERS-CoV

Establishment of rice yield prediction model using soil compaction

Van Huu Bui, Huu Cuong Nguyen, Quang Hieu Ngo*

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Can Tho University, Vietnam


Soil compaction has a real effect on rice yield in the Mekong Delta. Two field experiments were carried out during 2019 Summer-Autumn and 2020 Summer-Autumn in An Giang Province (Mekong Delta). OM18 rice was cultivated in the plots which were laid out in a randomized complete block design measuring 0.5 × 0.5 m with 5 and 6 m alley between blocks and between plots. The Pearson’s correlation test was applied to compare the mean and standard deviation of the soil layers and evaluate the correlation between soil compaction and rice yield in both crops. The present research results showed that the value of soil compaction increased with depth and differed among locations in the rice field. Soil compaction at 10 cm from the surface had a positive correlation with rice yield. Therefore, the prediction model of rice yield is able to build up due to soil compaction at 10 cm from the surface. Moreover, this study provides that the value of 10 cm soil layer compaction ranging between 165 and 190 kPa can be the optimal value of soil tillage for paddy rice cultivation with the highest yield in the Summer-Autumn crop.

Keywords: Soil depth, Soil compaction, OM18 rice, Rice yield, Prediction model

Occurrence of Shiga toxin producing E. coli in zoo animals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad zoos

Muhammad Basit Rasheed1, Aitezaz Ahsan2, Hamid Irshad2*, Muhammad Armaghan Shahzad2, Muhammad Usman2, Aayesha Riaz3, Tamoor Hamid Chaudhry4, Afreenish Amir4, Mohsina Zubair5, Asghar Khan6, Arfan Yousaf6

1Jungle World Theme Park and Zoo, Army Heritage Foundation, Ayub National Park, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Animal Health Research Laboratories, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan

3Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

4Public Health Laboratories Division, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan

5National Environmental Quality Standard, Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Islamabad, Pakistan

6Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are considered pathogens of zoonotic importance. Zoo animals have been reported as reservoirs of STEC and many STEC human outbreaks have been linked with zoo animals. Available information about the occurrence of STEC in zoo animals in Pakistan is limited. Therefore, the current study was executed to estimate the occurrence of STEC in zoo animals of two zoos of Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities in Pakistan. Total of 110 faecal samples were collected from 24 species of zoo animals. The samples were analysed for determination of eae, stx1, stx2, and ehxA genes using multiplex PCR. The positive samples for any of these genes were further analysed for isolation using sorbitol MacConkey agar. Out of 110 fecal samples, 15 samples (13.6%) contained targeted virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA). Six different combinations of virulence genes were observed in positive samples. Only two E. coli isolates with targeted virulence genes could be isolated from PCR positive samples. The study indicated that the wild animals maintained in zoos of Rawalpindi and Islamabad are carriers of STEC and may be the source of infection for humans.

Keywords: STEC, Wild animals, Zoo, Virulence genes, Pakistan

Screening barley genotypes in terms of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics under normal and water deficit stress conditions

Roghayeh Fatemi1, Mehrdad Yarnia1*, Soleman Mohammadi2, Ebrahim Khalil Vand1, Bahram Mirashkari1

1Department of Agronomy, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2Seed and plant improvement research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran


This study aimed to evaluate promising lines and commercial barley cultivars in terms of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics under normal and water deficit conditions. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. According to the results, water deficiency significantly reduced the chlorophyll index (34.64 %), leaf relative water content (RWC) (15.11%), the leaf area index (42.90%), the number of seeds per spike (6.04%), 1000- grain weight (60.19%), biological yield (37.46%), grain yield (42.79%), starch (6.15%), and grain ash (20.16%) content while increasing superoxidase (33.89%) and catalase (CAT) (50.0%) enzyme activity and the grain protein content (19.58%) compared to normal conditions. In both environmental conditions, the highest grain yield was attributed to M-88-2 and M-86-5 lines and the Jonoob cultivar. However, the M-88-2 line had higher chlorophyll content, relative water content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and grain ash content in both environmental conditions compared to the Jonoob cultivar. Under normal conditions grain yield showed a positive and significant phenotypic correlation with 1000-grain weight. Furthermore, under water deficit conditions, we detected a positive phenotypic correlation between the grain yield and leaf RWC as well as the number of spikes per square meter and a positive phenotypic and genetic correlation with the biological yield. According to the results of the present study, the promising M-88-2 line can be used in future breeding programs for drought resistance as well as its quantitative and qualitative characteristics.

Keywords: Barley, Drought stress, Grain yield, Genotypes

Performance of broiler birds on feeding natural anti stressors in summer during heat stress

Ali Salman Ajmal1, Zahid Hussain2*, Muhammad Moazam Jalees3, Jamila Shafi4, Sohail Manzoor5, Anwar ul Haq6

1Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

2Livestock & Dairy Development Department, Lahore, Pakistan

3Department of Microbiology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4Poultry Disease Laboratory, L&DD, Samundri, Pakistan

5Animal Disease Diagnostic, Reporting and Surveillance, L&DD, Lahore, Pakistan

6Veterinary Research Institute, L&DD, Lahore, Pakistan


This study was planned to assess the effectiveness of natural anti heat stressors on the broilers during hot climate. Three hundred one day old broiler birds were divided into four treatments groups, yoghurt, garlic powder and mint and a control group. After two weeks of rearing, data were recorded for growth performance, carcass and visceral organ yield and immune response against Newcastle Disease. Statistical analysis revealed that growth performance (weight gain, carcass weight and cumulative feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved with garlic powder, but feed intake remained non-significant. Dressing% and breast% were also significantly higher in garlic fed birds and similar effect was observed for intestinal length. Among visceral organs, liver% was improved upon garlic supplemented broiler but heart and gizzard were not influenced by dietary treatments. Additionally, garlic powder in feed also resulted in significantly higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease. It was concluded that garlic as natural anti-heat stressor has significant positive influence on the performance of heat stressed broilers.

Keywords: Broiler birds, Heat stress, Garlic, Mint, Yogurt

Rose and eucalyptus essential oil as potent anti-liver cancer agents

Shabnam Javed1, Amna Shoaib2, Ayesha Malik3, Bushra Ijaz3, Shagufta Perveen2 

1Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

3National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore-53700, Pakistan


The present study was designed to investigate the anti-cancer potential of essential oil obtained from Rosa indica (REO) and Eucalyptus citriodora (EEO) against the liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Firstly, the cytotoxic activity was assessed using increasing concentrations ranging from 3.12 to 200 µg/ml via MTT assay. EEO showed only 2% cell viability while REO represented 18% at the highest concentration (200 μg/ml). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of EEO and REO was found to be 17.741 µg/ml and 18.55 µg/ml respectively. Additionally, evident morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed after 24 hours of essential oil treatment compared to control or untreated cells. Furthermore, to strengthen the anti-cancer perspective of essential oils, the anti-metastatic potential was evaluated through the wound healing assay. EEO promisingly inhibited migration (4% wound closure, **p > 0.01) in HepG2 cells after 24 hr treatment. Likewise, REO also exhibited good results (37% wound closure, ***p > 0.001). Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that REO and EEO are potent anti-cancer agents against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: Essential oil, Metastasis, HepG2, Cytotoxicity, Liver cancer

Effect of salinity stress on physiological aspects of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne. ‘Laikaotok’) under hydroponic condition

Worasitikulya Taratima1*, Narisa Kunpratum2, Pitakpong Maneerattanarungroj3

1Salt Tolerance Rice Research Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Pitsanulok 65000, Thailand
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand


Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) ‘Laikaotok’ is an important edible vegetable but growth and crop yield are affected by salinity stress. Response of physiological traits to salinity stress was investigated under hydroponic culture using Hoagland’s solution at different NaCl concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 mM. All treatments were cultured for four weeks and physiological traits were recorded. Results showed that pumpkin growth decreased after NaCl treatment, especially at 45 mM and higher concentrations. Leaf number, leaf width, leaf length, root number, stem length, stem diameter, SPAD unit, chlorophyll fluorescence in dark condition for 30 min (Fv’/Fm’), chlorophyll fluorescence in light condition (Fv/Fm), total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Results indicated that salt concentration at less than 45 mM NaCl was suitable for C. moschata ‘Laikaotok’ growth. Phenotypic correlation coefficient estimation of 12 physiological traits showed positive correlation at a highly significant level, except for the correlation between plant height – Fv/Fm; plant height – Fv’/Fm’; root number – Fv/Fm and root number – Fv’/Fm’. This is the first report on salt stress response in C. moschata ‘Laikaotok’. Knowledge gained will be useful for pumpkin culture or rootstock selection under sensitive and moderately sensitive saline conditions.

Keywords: Growth, Hydroponic culture, NaCl, Pumpkin, Phenotypic correlation

Silicon improves strawberry plants nutrient uptake and epicuticular wax formation in a rhizosphere cooling system

1Faculty of Fisheries and Food Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

2Laboratory for Pest, Disease and Microbial Biotechnology (LAPDiM), Central Laboratory, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

3Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU), No. 70, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan


Bioavailable silicon (silicic acid) is considered to be beneficial for plant growth and development. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of silicic acid [Si(OH)4] and potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) application on strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) plants’ nutrient uptake and leaf wax formation. The strawberry plants (cvs Festival and Fortuna) were grown in a rhizosphere cooling system (RCS) at a mean rhizosphere temperature of 18°C ±2. Accumulation of plant nutrients in the plant parts was analysed by using inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), whilst the formation of wax on the leaves was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that plants given 0.25% (v/v) Si(OH)4 via the roots had the highest amount of silicon accumulated in the leaves, roots, and crowns of both cultivars. The greatest amount of Ca and Mg was also found in the leaves of cv. Festival plants treated with 0.25% (v/v) Si(OH)4 through the roots; whereas in cv. Fortuna, Ca, Mg and P had their highest amount accumulated in the leaves of plants sprayed with 0.25% (v/v) Si(OH)4 mixed with 0.5% (s/v) KHCO3. Root application of the KHCO3 treatments on the other hand, limited Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe uptake into the plant parts. The leaves of the Si(OH)4 treated plants were covered with a denser mass of wax when observed under SEM. Thus, Si(OH)4 application was found to enhance strawberry plants’ uptake of essential nutrients and also improved the formation wax on leaves, that may delay plant diseases invasion.

Keywords: Cooling system, Silicic acid, Silicon, Plant nutrient, Strawberr