Volume 8, Issue 2      April - June, 2020

Plant Cis-regulatory elements: methods of identification and applications

Usman Ijaz1, Tehreem Pervaiz1, Temoor Ahmed1, Riffat Seemab1, Muhammad Shahid1, Muhammad Noman1, Majid Nadeem2, Farrukh Azeem1*

1Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Wheat Research Institute, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Biotic and abiotic factors badly affect the productivity and growth of plants and found the major yield-limiting factor in agriculture. In recent years, various cis-regulatory elements have been identified that can function as molecular switches to regulate the expression of stress-related genes. They comprise of insulators, silencers, promoters and enhancers. These elements mediate not only functional diversity, but also modulate plant physiology at all developmental stages. Thus, identifying and characterizing cis elements that are intricated in plant stress response is essential for the development of plants tolerance to stress. This review article presents characteristic properties of cis-acting regulatory elements. Two aspects of cis-elements are targeted; one is properties and examples of condition-specific cis-elements while the other is techniques used for their identification. This review will be helpful in elucidating recent advancements in ciselements studies.

Keywords: Regulatory elements, Tissue specific, Promoter, Plants, Gene regulation

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