Tag Archives: 5 (3)

Parasites bared in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi

Florencia G. Claveria

Biology Department, College of Science, De La Salle University 2401 Taft Avenue, 1004 Manila, Philippines



This paper documents the richness of parasites inhabiting Rattus tanezumi and Rattus norvegicus. Rattus spp. revealed six ectoparasites, namely: mites genus Chirodiscoides, and Radfordia ensifera, Laelaps nutalli and Ornithonyssus bacoti, fleas Xenopsylla cheopis, and lice Polyplax spinulosa. While infestation with L.  nutalli was heavy in 15 (100%) and 13 (86.7%) R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi, respectively, only R. tanezumi harbored Chirodiscoides and P. spinulosa at 80.0%. Endoparasites identified were two kinds of nematodes belonging to genus Nippostrongylus (Class Secernencea) and Capillaria hepatica (Class Adenophorea), and tapeworms identified as genus Raillietina, and Hymenolepis, and Taenia taeniaformis. While all 30 rats showed 100% parasitism with ecto- and endoparasites, Babesia infection was detected only in eight rats (26.6%), with seven cases recorded in male rats.  Most dominant endoparasites were Nippostrongylus in R. norvegicus at 73.3%, and R. tanezumi at 100.0%; while R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi revealed 86.6% and 66.6% prevalence with C. hepatica, respectively. Interestingly, Taenia taeniaformis and Raillietina were detected only in R. norvegicus at 80.0% and 20.0% infection, respectively. While both species of rats examined revealed susceptibility to different kinds of parasites, the heavier R. norvegicus seemed to nurture and support greater parasite species richness and density. In view of the argument of a clear accumulation of  helminth  diversity and species burden with increasing age of  rat species and in the absence of information of the ages of rats used in the present survey, studies to cover an expanded rat population in the Philippines  is recommended.

 Keywords: Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, Philippines, Parasites

A review: risk assessment of pesticides on honey bee and pollination of agriculture crops in Pakistan

Saboor Ahmad*, Muhammad Asif Aziz

Department of Entomology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan



This paper reviews the importance of honey bee as pollinator of agriculture crops, fruit, vegetables, seeds etc. and losses in agriculture, honey bee and honey production due to use of chemical pesticides. Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) is economically important insect. Honeybees are existing all around world excluding extreme Polar Regions.  Honey bees (Apis mellifera) add approximately US $200 billion to the global economy every year, mainly through crop pollination. Productivity worth of pollination dependent crops equal to US$ 1590 million in Pakistan where 61 main pollinate crops are considered as foodstuff  (26 fruits, 19 vegetable, 7 oilseeds, 4 grain legumes, 2 flavoring crops and 3 nut shrubs) depend on  honey bee pollination. Honey bee population is declining with alarming speed all around the world and it is endangering global food security because one third of agriculture production depend upon on pollination particularly by honey bee. Current reduction in honey bee population for agriculture pollination is threatening to nuts, fruit, vegetable and seed production in Pakistan. Several factors responsible for decline of honey bee colonies including climate change, predation by other insects, air pollution, ecosemiotic collapse, the alteration of the bee microbiome, electromagnetic radiation from the sun, expose to initial life stress, nano materials, and biochemical pesticides, diseases, parasites surroundings of honey bees. The toxic chemicals are transported in hive through the pollen and nectar which may destroy the entire honey bee colony. Pesticides pattern applied in agriculture have been changed in last decade. This review research indicates how pesticide is used in agricultural crops for control of pests affecting on honey bee health and decline of bee populations. Then concludes with intensive studies on current management protocols would support in procedure formulation and resolution making polices regarding to shelter honey bees and management of pollination for agriculture purpose, which is lacking.

 Keywords: Honey bee, Agriculture crops, Pollination, Beekeeper, Pesticides

Sensitivity of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. isolates of maize (Zea mays L.) to different temperature and pH levels

Waqas Ashraf1, ShahbazTalib Sahi2, Amer Habib2, Atta Ur Rehman Khan3, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan*4, Anum Intisar4, Absar Ahmad5

1Department of Plant Pathology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Plant Pathology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

4Department of Plant Pathology, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

5University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan



Macrophomina phaseolina is the devastating fungus of many crops. For this study, infected maize samples were collected from four districts (Kasur, Okara, Sahiwal and Pakpatan). Twenty-four isolates of M. phaseolina were isolated from infected maize samples and their growth was evaluated at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C as well as at 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0 pH. The growth of fungal isolates was significantly affected by different levels of pH and temperature. Higher mean dry mycelial weight was observed at 35ºC followed by 40ºC. Higher mean dry mycelial weight at pH 6.5 and 7.0, clearly indicated the preference of isolates to particular range of pH. Mean dry mycelial weight was increased with increase in pH and temperature.

Keywords: Global warming, Mycelial weight, Macrophomina phaseolina, Temperature, pH

Effect of imidacloprid and bifenthrin on predation efficiency of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) under laboratory conditions

Mubashar Hussain1*, Iqra Mustafa1, Muhammad Faheem Malik1, Sharon Zulifqar1, Zaheer Abbas2

1Department of Zoology, 2Department of Statistics, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan



Coccinella septempunctata is an important natural enemy of several pest species attacking various crops in Pakistan. Mostly pests are managed by the use of pesticides in crops and ornamentals, thus, impact of pesticides needs to be evaluated on voracity of predatory beetle. The effect of Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin on predation of adult beetles predating on Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 2 ºC and 65 ± 5 % RH) at Systematics and Pest Management Laboratory, Department of Zoology University of Gujrat. The significant differences in the mortality of C. septempunctata were observed amongst control and other treatments. The adult beetles showed highest mortality (91.66 % and 83.83%) when subjected to Bifenthrin (0.7%) after 48 and 24 h of exposure, respectively. Whereas the adult beetles demonstrated highest mortality (75 % and 72.66 %) when exposed to Imidacloprid (0.7%) after 48 and 24 h of exposure, respectively. The statistical analysis yielded non-significant differences were recorded at lower concentrations of both pesticides. C. septempunctata showed lower mean predation of 20.66, 18.66 and 16 when exposed to 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 % Bifenthrin after 24 h, respectively. The voracity of C. septempunctata was significantly affected by Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin. The study emphasized that non target beneficial species are affected due to residual insecticidal spray effects reducing their population and increasing more dependency on hazardous chemical toxicants.

 Keywords: Pesticides, Voracity, Non-target species, Coccinellids

Bioefficacy of plant powders against Callosobruchus chinensis L. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in infested chickpea grains

Asma Tariq1, Sumera Afsheen1*, Mobushir Hussain1, Ahmed Zia3, Syed Shakeel Shah2*,

Sabila Afzal2, Inamullah Khan4, Yousaf Hayat5

1Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Sub-Campus Narowal, Pakistan

3National Insect Museum, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

4Department of Plant Protection, Agricultural University Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan

5Department of Statistics, Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan



In this study we used dried leaf powders of five plants i.e., Syzygium cumini, Citrus limon, Momordica charantia, Eucalyptus globulus and Piper nigrum against Callosobruchus chinensis infesting chickpea seeds during storage. Free choice and no choice tests were conducted. Plant powders were applied at dose of 2% (w/w). Efficacy of all plant powders were compared by orientation, oviposition, adult mortality and adult emergence of the pulse beetle. Effect of plant powder on germination of seed was also observed by germination test. Leaf powder of M. charantia was found to be more effective while leaf powder of S. cumini was found to be least effective in adult mortality and oviposition deterrence. Furthermore, the results showed that leaf powders of all plants had no effects on germination of seeds.

 Keywords: Leaf Powders, Chickpea seeds, Seed viability, Pulse beetle

Effect of queen age on hygienic and grooming behavior of Apis mellifera Ligustica against Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman)

Saboor Ahmad, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Munir Ahmad, Imran Bodlah

Department of Entomology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan



The studies were conducted to compare the hygienic and grooming behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera Ligustica) headed by new (0-year) and old queens (1-year) against Varroa mites at Apiculture Research Farm, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi during 2013-14. Worker bees removed 91.56, 95.11 and 98.52 % dead brood in colonies headed by new queens, while 75.22, 82.78 and 88.78%, in colonies headed by old queens; after 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Similarly, significant differences were observed regarding the removal of artificially introduced Varroa mites between both types of colonies; bees in colonies headed by new queens removed 74.67 and 84.67%, while the bees headed by old queens removed 52.67 and 66.67% artificially introduced Varroa mites from brood cells after 5 and 7 days, respectively. The  mean percentage of  leg deformed Varroa mites due to grooming behavior of adult bees in colonies with new and old queens was 67.45 and 57.83%, and mites with deformed dorsal shield was 27.03% and 20.71%, respectively. Colonies with new queens exhibited better hygienic and grooming behavior against the Varroa mite as compared to those having old queens. Replacing old queens with new queens every year is suggested for better management of Varroa mite in Pothwar region of Punjab.

 Keywords: Hygienic behavior, Apis mellifera Ligustica, Varroa mite, Pothwar, Punjab

Determination of chromium in nail samples of hide market workers, Lahore

Moneeza Abbas*, Sofia Nousheen, Rabia Fazal

Assistant Professor, Environmental Science Department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan



Chromium is one of the widely used heavy metal used on industrial scale and is root cause of a number of health related problems in humans as well as animals. Chromium not only release into environment from natural sources but also from industries. Tanning of leather include various steps ranging from pretreatment to dying which involves worker’s direct contact with chemicals like chromium and which is responsible for causing serious health problems. Present study was conducted for quantitative estimation of chromium in nail samples of workers of   hide market situated in Shadbagh Lahore near Railway station. General health condition of workers was also assessed through questionnaire. Nail samples of workers were collected, treated, then analyzed in atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and results obtained were than analyzed statistically. Results thus gathered were also compared reported values under permissible limit. From results it has been confirmed that concentration of chromium (0.6540 ± 0.039 mg/kg) is significantly high in workers of hide market and they are also suffering from different respiratory problems, skin allergies, and blood pressure. It has also been concluded that this problem is needed to be tackled by adoption of remedial and mitigation measures. Effective and substantial programs are recommended for increasing public awareness about chromium contamination and health effects by social mobilization and community participation.

 Keywords: Chromium, Nails, Hide market, Workers and health effects