Tag Archives: 6(2)

Dicoma capensis less: a review of its botany, ethno medicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology

Alfred Maroyi*

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa







Dicoma capensis is widely used as traditional medicine in southern Africa. The potential of D. capensis as herbal medicine, its botany, phytochemistry and biological activities are reviewed. The literature relevant to the botany, phytochemistry and biological activities of D. capensis was obtained from the main online scientific sites including ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and SCOPUS. Searches were also undertaken in the University of Fort Hare library, dissertation and thesis search engines like ProQuest, Open-thesis, OATD, and EthOs. Dicoma capensis is used as herbal medicine against colds, fever, influenza, cancer, stomach problems, high blood pressure, back pain and diarrhoea in southern Africa. The chemical composition of D. capensis is made up of melampolides, germacranolides, eudesmanolides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, alcohol precipitable solids (APS), amino acids and phenolic acids. The biological activities demonstrated by the species include antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and bitterness properties. The traditional ethnomedicinal usage of D. capensis highlights the importance of detailed information on botanical, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicological reports on the species. 


Keywords: Antibacterial, Anticancer, Antifungal, Asteraceae, Dicoma capensis, Southern Africa






Isolation and in silico characterization of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) gene controlling the early stage of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway in Kelampayan (Neolamarckia cadamba, Rubiaceae) developing xylem tissues

Boon Ling – Tchin, Wei Seng – Ho*, Shek Ling – Pang

Forest Genomics and Informatics Laboratory (fGiL), Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Applied Forest Science and Industry Development (AFSID), Sarawak Forestry Corporation, 93250 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia


Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is one of the enzymes involved at the starting point of the phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis pathway. It involves in the hydroxylation of cinnamate to 4-coumarate. In this paper, we isolated and in silico characterized the complete sequence of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) gene from Neolamarckia cadamba in Malaysia. The C4H singletons obtained from the NcdbEST were used to predict the hypothetical full-length of NcC4H through the contig mapping approach. RT-PCR was used to amplify the full-length C4H cDNA clone and subsequently the PCR amplicons were sequenced and analysed. The NcC4H cDNA was 1,651 bp long with a 505 amino acid sequence, a 18 bp 5’-UTR and a 115 bp 3’-UTR. The predicted NcC4H protein contains P450-featured motifs. These include the heme-binding domain, a threonine-containing binding pocket motif and the proline-rich region. Peptide sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses revealed that NcC4H was clustered with class I C4H instead of class II C4H, which is preferentially involved in phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthesis pathway. This full-length NcC4H cDNA can be used for developing genetic marker to identify economic trait loci (ETL) for wood quality traits via genomics-assisted selection (GAS) or candidate gene mapping approach.

Keywords: Neolamarckia cadamba, RT-PCR, Lignin biosynthesis, Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), Expressed sequence tags (ESTs), Genomics-assisted selection

Functional response of the predatory mite Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Mcgregor) and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)


Fahad J. Alatawi1, Syed Zain ul Abidin1, Jawwad H. Mirza1, Muhammad Kamran1

1Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, KSA


The study of functional response characteristics of natural enemies is one of the most important approaches to assess their efficiency in regulating the pest population as they are key aspects in the dynamics of predator-prey interactions. In the present study, the functional response type and parameters, and maximum feeding capacity of the predatory mite Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) (Acari: Phytoseiidae)  deutonymph and adult female were assessed at different densities of movable stages of the date palm mite (DPM) Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) and two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The experiments were carried out at 30 ± 2°C and relatively low humidity of 35 ± 5 % RH under controlled conditions, for the first time. The logistic regression model was used to determine the type of functional response exhibited by C. negevi. Both the stages of predator showed Type II functional response when fed the DPM and TSSM individuals at different stages. Roger’s random-predator equation was used to define the handling time (Th) and attack rate (a) coefficients of type II functional response by fitting the equation into the non-linear least square regression model. The longest Th was shown by deutonymph and adult females of C. negevi when they fed on the DPM and TSSM females, and TSSM females, respectively. Furthermore, no significant differences were recorded for most of the a values of the deutonymph and adult female of C. negevi among different stages of DPM and TSSM. The maximum feeding capacity of  C. negevi adult female was significantly higher for DPM female when compared with that of TSSM. According to previous and current studies, C. negevi could be a potential predator at a wide range of humidity. 

Keywords: Biological control, Prey, Density, Feeding capacity, Handling time, Attack rate

Screening of breeding lines of Brassica napus L. tolerant to grain shattering

Tamoor Hussain1*, Muhammad Azeem Tariq1, Ramzan Ansar1, Muhammad Tariq1, Ahmad Sher2

1Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, BZU, Bahadar Sub Campus, Layyah, Pakistan


Shattering causes huge losses to Brassica even if harvesting is done mechanically. To study the shattering tolerance in different rapeseeds lines, a study was conducted in split plot design at experimental area of Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Chakwal, Pakistan during two winter season 2014-15 & 2015-16 under the rainfed conditions. The experimental material comprised of 10 advanced lines including one local variety of rapeseed viz: 8CBN001, 8CBN002, 10CBN003, 10CBN005, 11CBN001, 11CBN003, 11CBN009, 11CBN011, 12CBN003 and Chakwal Sarsoon The main experimental plot was harvested at four different harvesting dates (HD) including:  HD1 = Harvesting of each advanced line at crop maturity, HD2= 10 days after the first harvesting (DAFH), HD3= 20 DAFH, HD4= 30 DAFH. The comparison of difference between the grain yield of each advanced line at various harvesting dates with its seed yield at first harvesting date (HD1-HDi) were calculated as indices of pods shattering. Combined analysis of variance depicted that all the genotypes were significantly different for HD, harvesting date and advanced lines interaction effect, year and its interaction effects to each factors. The significant difference of genotypes into harvesting dates demonstrated various level of pods shattering of all advanced lines at different harvesting dates. The amount of grain yield due to shattering losses was increased at third and fourth harvesting dates. On the basis of shattering tolerance indices, advanced line 10CBN005 was more tolerant to shattering losses and 8CBN002 was more susceptible to shattering as compared to others promising genotypes.

Keywords: Shattering tolerance, Rapeseed, Harvesting date

Effect of soil tillage and mycorrhiza application on growth and yields of upland rice in drought condition

Laila Nazirah1, 2*, Edison Purba3, Chairani Hanum3, Abdul Rauf3

1Doctoral Program of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia.

2Lecture Faculty of Agriculture, Malikussaleh University, Indonesia.

3Lecture Program Study of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155 Indonesia.


Dry land management technology for food crop agriculture with soil conservation, organic matter management, and water management. This study aims to determine the effect of soil treatment and mycorrhiza on growth and yield of upland rice in drought stress conditions. This experiment uses the Split Split Plot design consists of 3 factors: The first factor as the main plot of mycorrhizas consisting of no mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal administration. The second factor as a plot is the soil cultivation consisting of no soil preparation) and treatment. The third factor as Multiplication Children is Varieties consisting of three groups of varieties namely Toleran group (Ciapus Varieties, Inpago Varieties 4 and Varieties inpago 8) moderate varieties group include (Inpago Varieties 5, Varietas situ bagendit, Inpago Varieties 7 and Varietas towuti) and the susceptible varieties are (In jari 6 varieties, Inpari 33 varieties and synthetic varieties). Treatment without tillage and without mycorrhiza decreased leaf area, root canopy ratio, leaf proline content, degree of root infection and dry grain production. Soil sampling and mycorrhizal fertilization of Inpago 4 tolerant varieties showed a mechanism of avoidance against drought stress by increasing leaf area, root canopy ratio, leaf proline content and root infection. The highest dry grain production was found in the tolerant (Inpago 4) varieties group of 7.5 tons per ha and can be planted in drought stress conditions at rainfall ± 3.2 mm / day. 

Keywords: Upland, Rice, Land Preparation, Mycorrhiza, Soil treatment

Comparison of response of F4 and F3 generations of tomato from year to year selection


Mehboob Ahmad1*, Bilal Ahmed Khan1, Mazhar Iqbal1, Maria Saleem1, Farhad Ahmad2,Muhammad Shahid2, Adil Rehman2, Ihsan Ullah1 and Akhtar Nawaz1.

1Hazara Agricultural Research Station, Abbottabad, Pakistan

2Agricultural Research Station, Baffa, Mansehra, Pakistan


Segregating breeding generations may fluctuate in performance from year to year. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the performance of these generations in each year and to make selection according to the existing environmental conditions. The research was conducted in two consecutive years (2016 and 2017) and the performance of F3 and F4 generations was analyzed. It was found that mean values of all the studied parameters in F4 population, in this study, were lower than the mean values of F3 generation, however maximum range in F4 exceeded F3 for some parameters. The selection differential values were also found as negative. Va(Additive variance) values for all the parameters in F3 and F4 generations were found to be almost same PCV(Phenotypic coefficient of variation) for most of the parameters in F4, like yield/plant, fruits/plant, fruit/cluster and fruit length exceeded the PCV values in F3.Highest value of heritability was noted for yield/plant in F4 while in F3 highest value was observed for fruit weight. Heritability percentage and genetic advance for all the parameters in F3 was higher than F4.Mean difference values indicated that some of the F4 lines were higher than the grand mean of F4 population (in all the studied parameters). Additionally, means of few F4 lines were also found to be greater than the means of F3 population for most of the parameters. These results may indicate that these lines could be selected for better performance if advanced to next generation. 

Keywords: Tomato Lines, Performance, Quantitative Traits, Heritability, Genetic Advance

Comparative the impact of organic and conventional strawberry cultivation on growth and productivity using remote sensing techniques under Egypt climate conditions

Hassan A. Hassan1, Sahar S.Taha1, Mohamed A. Aboelghar2, Noha A. Morsy2

1Department of Vegetables, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS), Cairo, Egypt


Two years field experiment on strawberry plants (cv. Sweet Charlie) in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt was carried out to study the effect of different growing conditions (organic and conventional) and the effect of some colors of plastic mulch such as clear, black, and silver on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the strawberry plantations using hyper spectral remotely sensed data. As the first step, spectral reflectance pattern for the different treatments (fertilization and colors of plastic mulch) was identified through in situ spectral measurements. It was found that silver plastic mulch recorded higher values with all observed vegetative and fruit traits, as compared with an organic strawberry growing systems without plastic mulch. Spectral reflectance parameters in form of vegetation indices (VIs) were examined as yield estimators and their correlation with leaf area index (LAI) was observed. Generated models with accuracy assessment were explained and the optimal vegetation index to estimate yield under each treatment was identified. Generally, it was found that fertilization has more effect on spectral characteristics than plastic mulch. Spectral vegetation indices (VIs) showed higher accuracy than LAI as yield estimators. (Spectral – yield) models showed the same trend with adequate correlation coefficient (r2) exceeded (0.7) except the treatment of black plastic mulch conventional system that showed (r2) less than (0.6) with two yield estimators. All generated models with an accuracy of each model are explained in the following sections. 

Keywords: Strawberry, Spectral Reflectance, Vegetation Index, LAI, Yield

Combined application of sorghum and mulberry water extracts is effective and economical way for weed management in wheat


Shahbaz Khan1, Sohail Irshad2*, Faisal Mehmood1, Muhammad Nawaz3

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2In-Service Agricultural Training Institute, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

3Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, BZU, Bahadur Campus Layyah, Pakistan.


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is of prime importance being staple food of the masses of Pakistan. Weed infestation in wheat not only reduce the yield but also affects the efficiency of other production factors. Allelopathy is sustainable and ecofriendly method for the management of weeds and diseases. A field trail was carried out to assess the allelopathic potential of mulberry and sorghum water extracts against invasive winter weeds like Phalaris minor. Retz, Chenopodium album L., Avena fatua L. and Convolvulus arvensis L. in wheat at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. All the treatment application showed better weed management and enhanced final yield of the crop. Application of sorghum water extract (SWE) at the rate of 18 L ha-1 and mulberry water extract (MWE) at the rate of 18 L ha-1 indicated better weed management (51-55%) and improved grain yield (28%) as compared to control. SWE at the rate of 27 L ha-1 and MWE at the rate of 9 L ha-1 in combined application also showed better weed management and improved the grain yield while Atlatis (Standard herbicide) had 66-68% weed control and 32% increase in final yield but it was not found economical. Combined application of SWE at the rate of 18 L ha-1 and MWE at the rate of 18 L ha-1 was found best combination with maximum net return while hand weeding and herbicide application were extravagant because of high cost and low net return. 

Keywords: Allelopathy, Wheat, Water Extracts, Weeds

Line × tester analysis across equatorial environments to study combining ability of Indonesian maize inbred


N.N. Andayani1, M. Aqil2*, Roy Efendi2 and M. Azrai1

1Department of Plant Breeding, Indonesian Cereals Research Institute, Maros, Indonesia

2Department of Agronomy, Indonesian Cereals Research Institute, Maros, Indonesia


Selection of optimal combination in hybrid development is crucial to successful breeding program and key determining factor for generating superior variety. Knowledge of gene combination system of maize traits under equatorial environments has not been extensively studied. It is the aim of this study to assess the performance of maize inbred lines across equatorial environments in Indonesia. Twelve test crosses (MAL01 × MYL10, MR14 × MYL10, MAL01 × MYL12, MR14 × MYL12, MAL01 × MYL15, MR14 × MYL15, MAL01 × MYL16, MR14 × MYL16, MAL01 × MYL2, MR14 × MYL2, MAL01 × MYL7 and MR14 × MYL7) and three commercial hybrids (NK 33, DK979 and Bima 11) were investigated for six agronomic components in randomized complete block design across six locations in Indonesia. The results revealed that interaction of crosses versus environment was significant for grain yield, maturity and other agronomic components. The estimates of GCA exhibited that lines MYL10 (L3), MYL15 (L5) and tester MR14 (T2) were a good general combiner, hence MYL10 (L3), MYL15 (L5) and tester MR14 (T2) can be used for generating superior maize hybrid. Combined analysis of SCA effects showed that the crosses MYL 10 (L3) × MR 14 (T2) gave the highest yield of 10.73 t/ha and significantly superior to the best check DK979 (10.17). The hybrid from this cross has to be evaluated in advance to determine the prospect for release as a new commercial hybrid in Indonesia. 

Keywords: Line, Tester, Combining ability, Inbred maize, Indonesia

An updated checklist of Sepsidae (Diptera) from Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Mumammad Asghar Hassan, Imran Bodlah*, Junaid Ali Siddiqui, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed, Ammara Gull-E-Fareen

Insect Biodiversity and Conservation group, Department of Entomology, Faculty of Food and Crop Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan,


An updated checklist of twelve species of black scavenger flies under four genera has been enlisted from Gilgit-Baltistan. Two species belonging to subfamily Sepsinae are recorded for the first time from Baltistan division, namely; Sepsis dissimilis Brunetti, 1910 and Sepsis violacea Meigen, 1826. Of these, Sepsis dissimilis Brunetti, 1910 is new recorded for Gilgit-Baltistan. Local distribution of all known species is provided.

Keywords: Checklist, Sepsidae, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, New records