Tag Archives: 6(2)

Effect of seed soaking with bacillus sp and organic fertilizer on growth of mustard green (Brassica juncea L.)


I Ketut Widnyana*, I Wayan Seputra Kuspianta, Putu Lasmi Yulianthi Sapanca

Faculty of Agriculture, Mahasaraswati University of Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia


Bacillus sp. is one type of bacteria that functions as PGPR (Plant Growth Promoting    Rhizobacteria). This study is designed to determine the effect of treatment duration time immersion of mustard seeds with Bacillus sp and the doses of organic fertilizer on growth and yield of mustard plants. The research was designed using Randomized Block Design (RBD) Factorial with two treatments i.e. time soaking of mustard seed with Bacillus sp. and organic fertilizer dose. The results showed that there was a very significant interaction (P <0.01) between the treatment of soil seed immersion with Bacillus sp. and the dosage of organic fertilizer on most parameters observed, except for the root length of the plant. The highest fresh weight of the mustard plant was found in the combination of the treatment of soaking of mustard seeds with Bacillus sp. for 20 minutes with a dosage of 1.50 kg organic fertilizer per plant that is 131,900 g, and the lowest was found in the combination treatment of soaking of mustard seeds for 30 minutes with a dosage of 0 kg organic fertilizer i.e. 34.333 g, so an increase of 384.178%.  The highest drying weight of the mustard oven was found in a combination of treatment of soaking of mustard seeds with Bacillus sp. for 30 minutes with a dosage of 1.50 kg organic fertilizer per plant of 8,000 g, and the lowest was found in a combination treatment of immersion of mustard seed for 10 minutes with a dose of organic 0 kg fertilizer per plant that is 4.617 g. 

Keywords: Soaking of Seed, Bacillus sp., PGPR, Organic Fertilizer

Physico-chemical analysis of water from some selected automobile repairing area in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria


Chima Njoku

Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management,

Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria


This study was carried out in 2016 and 2017 to determine the effect of automobile repair wastes on water properties in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria.  Four replicate water samples were collected at: A – was the tube well at non – automobile repair site (Control); B – was the tube well at lorry automobile repair site; C – was the tube well at motorcycle automobile repair site; D – was the tube well at car and buses automobile repair site and E – was the tube well at automobile spare parts market. The data obtained was analysed using analysis of variance based on CRD and difference between treatments means were dictated using F-LSD. Water collected were used to determine colour, conductivity, total solid, suspended solid, total dissolved solid, pH, NO3, Cl, Ca hardness, Mg hardness, total hardness, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn. These parameters apart from pH (which was lower) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in automobile repair sites than non-automobile repair site. Total solids, Pb, Cu and Zn observed in automobile sites were higher than the recommended standards whereas pH was lower than the recommended standard. Only tube well at lorry automobile repair site had Cd that was higher than the standard. Generally, the parameters studied were higher in the 2nd year of the study when compared to 1st year of the study. Therefore, this study recommends treatment of water from tube wells in automobile repair site before usage in order to prevent health problems associated with usage of such water. 

Keywords: Automobile, Repair, Transfer, Treatment, Wastes

Comparative analysis of some winter crops area estimation using landsat-8 and sentinal-2 satellite imagery


Abdelraouf M. Ali,* Mohamed A. Aboelghar, Mohamed A. El-shirbeny, Nasser H. Salem

National Authority for Remote sensing and space science (NARSS), Cairo, Egypt


Estimating crop area is a key factor for any crop monitoring and agricultural management system. Having annual information on crop acreage and production change is sufficient for agricultural decision makers and planners. The aim of this study is to monitor changes in cultivated areas and to estimate wheat crop area using satellite imagery with different spatial resolutions and time series normalize different vegetation index (NDVITs).  The study is focusing on using accuracy assessment from maximum likelihood classification methods applied to multi-spatial resolution scenes (30, 20 and 10 meters) derived from Landsat8 and Sentinel-2 satellites. More specifically, NDVITs estimates from Landsat 30m, Sentinel-2 (20m), and (10m) spatial resolutions are compared to discriminate wheat crop. The study area is located in El-Minya governorate, Egypt. The results showed that the accuracy of using NDVITs data from different imageries showed higher accuracy than using one single date. The NDVITs estimate from the Sentinel-2(10m) has (81%) as an overall accuracy and (0.74) as Kappa coefficient where Sentinel-2(20m) NDVITs data has (69.38%) as an overall accuracy and (0.58) as Kappa coefficient. The lowest accuracy (64.38%) and Kappa coefficient (0.51) resulted from occurred with Landsta8 (NDVITs) data.

Keywords: Crop Area Estimation, NDVI time serious, Landsat-8, Sentinel-2

Emergence of new variants in foot and mouth disease virus serotype ‘O’ in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan, 2012 to 2015

Hanif Ur Rahman1*, Mirza Ali Khan1, Shahid Khan1, Faiza Ashraf1, Sibghat Ullah1, Bait Ullah1Dost Muhammad Khan1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah2

1Foot and Mouth Disease Research Center, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar- Pakistan

2Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar –Pakistan


Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease mostly caused by serotype A, O, and Asia-1 of virus that is endemic in Pakistan. FMD Serotype ‘O’ is responsible for more than 60% of outbreaks in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. During the present study, a total of 50 samples of FMDV serotype ‘O’ virus were selected from field outbreaks samples preserved at the center. The nucleotide sequences of the VP1 coding region from all the virus samples were determined. The phylogenetic analysis of FMDV serotype ‘O’ viruses circulating in different areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan was determined. This indicated continuous mutation from 2012 to 2015 due to the presence of two different sub lineages within ‘O’ PanAsia-II lineage. The current study reveals that the presences of two different sub lineages of FMDV O PanAsia-II were identified which are circulating in different regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The emergence of new variants are possibly responsible for the failure of vaccine in the country and creates hindrances in the control of disease in the region.

Keywords: Serotype O, VP1 Coding region, Sequencing, O PanAsia-II, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Modeling the potassium requirements of potato crop for yield and quality optimization


Farheen Nazli1*, Bushra2, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal3, Fatima Bibi4, Zafar-ul-Hye5,

Muhammad Ramzan Kashif1 and Maqshoof Ahmad6

1Pesticide Quality Control Laboratory Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan

2Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Soil and Water Testing Laboratory, Chiniot, Pakistan

4Mango Research Station, Multan, Pakistan

5Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

6Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan


The intensity, quantity as well as capacity factors are important to predict the amount of nutrient in soil required for maximum plant growth. Sorption isotherm considers these three factors so believed to be one of the most important techniques in soil which control the fate and mobility of nutrients. The field experiment was conducted to find out site-specific and crop-specific potassium requirement for potato crop. The potassium adsorption isotherm was constructed and Freundlich model was used to theoretically work out different soil solution K levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg L-1). The K fertilizer doses were calculated against these specific soil solution levels. Field experiment was conducted with seven model based K fertilizer treatments (0, 49, 94, 139, 183, 228, and 273 kg K ha-1) and three replications in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) using potato as test crop.  The results showed that growth parameters like plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll significantly contributed to potato tuber yield. Different yield response models were tested and it was observed that linear plus plateau and quadratic plus plateau predicted equally well the optimum fertilizer K rate both for yield and quality attributes of potato. For maximum potato tuber yield i.e.34.41 Mg ha-1 the economic optimum K was 100 kg ha-1. Optimum fertilizer K rates (at 95 % relative yield) for potato tuber yield, dry matter percentage, protein, starch contents and vitamin C contents were 100, 103, 180, 230 and 200 kg K ha-1, respectively. So, it is suggested that adsorption isotherm technique should be used to calculate site specific and crop specific fertilizer requirements of crops and 100 kg ha-1 is recommended as optimum potassium fertilizer for potato crop. Moreover, the K fertilizer application would improve crop quality that would support the quality based marketing system in Pakistan. 


Keywords: Potato, Quadratic plus plateau, Adsorption isotherm, Yield, Quality

Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Curcuma mangga Val extract and fractions


Dwiyati Pujimulyani1, Wisnu Adi Yulianto1, Astuti Setyowati1, Seila Arumwardana2, Rizal Rizal2

1Faculty of Agroindustry, University of Mercu Buana Yogyakarta, Jl Wates Km. 10, Argomulyo, Sedayu, Bantul, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55753, Indonesia

2Aretha Medika Utama, Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Center, Jl Babakan Jeruk 2, No 9, Bandung 40163, West  Java, Indonesia


Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder and characterized by high blood glucose level that defects in secretion of insulin. Oxidative stress and excess of free radicals have been documented in diabetes occurrence. Curcuma mangga Val. is one of traditional medicine that has potency for diabetic treatment.

The present study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Curcuma mangga Val extract (CME) and fractions. In this study, the antioxidant activity of four fractions of CME (water, hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fraction) were measured using nitrite oxide (NO) and H2O2-scavenging activity assay, while antidiabetic activity of those fractions were measured by α-glucosidase activity assay. These fractions were also compared to antidiabetic drug, namely acarbose. In the NO-scavenging activity, the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) had the highest activity (IC50 69.75 µg/mL) compared to all fractions of CME and acarbose (ACR). Ethyl acetate fraction of C. mangga extract (EACM) showed the highest in H2O2-scavenging activity (IC50 162.78 µg/mL) compared to marker compound (BHT) (IC50 179.86 µg/mL) and other fractions. Hexane fraction of C. mangga (HCM) showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 182.45 µg/mL).

To conclude, the fractions of C. mangga extract could be used as an alternative in the development of antioxidant and antidiabetic medicine.


Keywords: Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, Curcuma mangga, Diabetes

Antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Curcuma longa and its compounds

Wahyu Widowati1, Teresa Liliana Wargasetia1, Ervi Afifah2, Tjandrawati Mozef3,

Hanna Sari Widya Kusuma2, Hayatun Nufus2, Seila Arumwardana2, Annisa Amalia2, Rizal Rizal2

1Faculty of Medicine, Maranatha Christian University, Jl. Prof drg. Suria Sumantri No.65, Bandung 40164, West Java, Indonesia

2Aretha Medika Utama, Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Center, Jl Babakan Jeruk 2, No. 9, Bandung 40163, West Java, Indonesia

3Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Serpong, Indonesia


Antioxidant agent can eliminate the free radicals due to oxidative stress that has been reported as the main cause of diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the effect of Curcuma longa rhizomes and its compounds curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin as antioxidants and antidiabetic activity. The phytochemical assay was performed with modified Farnsworth method. Quantitative curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and curcumol of C. longa extract (CLE) were evaluated using HPLC. The antioxidant assay was performed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonate acid) (ABTS) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. Antidiabetic properties were measured by inhibitory activity of α-, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase. This study suggested that CLE has terpenoids in high level. Based on HPLC test, CLE contained curcumin (16.92%), curcumol (15.51%), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (5.27%). Bisdemethoxycurcumin has DPPH scavenging activity (IC50= 64.94±2.44 µg/ml), curcumin has the highest activity (IC50=0.92±0.03 µg/ml) in ABTS assay, while CLE has the highest activity in FRAP assay (IC50=311.10 µM Fe(II)/µg) in the highest concentration (250.00 µg/ml). In antidiabetic assay, bisdemethoxycurcumin has the highest in α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50=3.76±0.33 µg/ml; 1.79± 0.15 µg/ml), while in β-glucosidase inhibitory activity curcumin has the highest activity (IC50=1.03±0.03 µg/ml). CLE and its compounds possess antioxidants and antidiabetic activities. 

Keywords: Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, Bisdemethoxycurcumin, Curcuma Longa, Curcumin

Effect of nickel toxicity on growth, photosynthetic pigments and dry matter yield of Cicer arietinum L. varieties


Saima Batool*

Department of Botany, Govt. Degree College for Women, Samanabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Effects of nickel toxicity on photosynthetic pigments and dry matter yield of Cicer arietinum L. (Chickpea) varieties were observed. Nickel as NiCl2 was applied to the soil in solution form @ 0mgL-1(Control), 25mg L-1, 50mg L-1, 100mg L-1 and 150mg L-1. All the treatments were replicated six times. Experiment was laid down in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factor-factorial arrangement. A significant decrease in growth, chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents was observed with increasing concentrations of nickel application. A similar decreasing trend was also noted for dry matter yield of the plants which may be attributed to decreased pigment contents and decreased photosynthetic activity. Chickpea was found to be an indicator of nickel toxicity showing its inhibitory effects on various growth and biochemical parameters.  

Keywords: Nickel, Chlorophylls, Carotenoids, Dry Matter, Chickpea

Gamma irradiation effect on the growth of Musa cv. Tanduk (AAB)


Ferid Abdulhafiz, Fatimah Kayat, Suhana Zakaria

Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, University Malaysia Kelantan, 17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia


Improvement of banana through conventional method have been very difficult due to ploidy and sterility of most popular cultivars. Hence, given the difficulties in conventional breeding, mutation breeding was attempted to induce variability and obtain improved banana varieties. Therefore, banana cv. Tanduk shoots meristem (1.5 x 1.0 cm) were exposed to γ rays at doses ranging from 10-70 Gy. Subculture was conducted up to four cycle followed by induction of rooting. The radio-sensitivity of in vitro shoots towards radiation was assessed through the percentage of the explants that survived the treatment. The highest survival rate (74%) among γ treated explants recorded was in 10 Gy treatment and the lowest survivality (20%) was in 70 Gy. The lethal dose (LD50) which had caused 50% mortality to the irradiated material was found to be 37 Gy. The result on shoot growth showed that the highest shoot number (5) per explant recorded at radiation dosage of 20 Gy, followed by 3 shoots per explant at a dosage of 10 Gy and  highest shoot length (3.43 cm) was observed at 10 Gy followed by 20 Gy and 30 Gy treatment caused significant reduction in shoot length. Similarly, 10 Gy induced maximum root length, whereas explants irradiated with 20 Gy and 30 Gy caused the reduction in root length significantly. Gamma rays at the lower dosage of 10 and 20 Gy imposed a significant impact on shoot growth and 30 Gy caused reduction in growth. Hence, the present research was conducted to study the effect of γ radiation on banana plant, while observing growth traits in γ irradiated explants. 


Keywords: Mutation breeding, In vitro mutagenesis, LD50