Tag Archives: 5 (2)

Eco-Friendly Management of Pulse Beetle (Callosobruchus Chinensis) By Using Different Plant Materials

Rukhsana Kausar1, Muhammad Amjad Bashir1,*, Muhammad Shahid Nisar1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani2, Muhammad Sadiq Hashami3, Sagheer Atta1

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University DG Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University DG Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

3Department of Economics, Institute of Southern Punjab, Multan, Pakistan




Legumes (pulses) are ancient crops of the Sub-continent, Middle East and various parts of the Africa. These provide high quality protein and considered to be the best food for vegetarian population in India, South Asia, West Asia and Southern European countries. Chickpea is valued for its nutritive grains with high protein content of 25-29%. These grain legumes are, however, susceptible to different species of beetles of the family Bruchidae in storage commonly known as Dhora. At current, insect manage procedures frequently rely on synthetic insecticides and fumigants. Other than substance safety actions may be result as like numerous severe drawbacks. Insecticides have wide and unsystematic application causes natural imbalance confrontation to insect, insect recovery and epidemic of secondary insect creates phyto-toxicity. Insecticide residues in diet and nourish. Furthermore, non-stop use of insecticides leads to harmful result on insect pollination, biological agent like different Predators, parasitoids and too become cause of the ecological contamination. Owing to these drawbacks, internationally scientists are annoying to approve substitute methods of insect manage. The make use of close by obtainable native place resources in the management of harmful insects are a primeval technology.  Now in modern world, in numerous parts of the earth a range of crop of vegetation have been tried lately by researchers with an elevated amount of achievement as granule. Protestants next to pulse beetle to decrease plague in storage space. Observance these views in brain, the in attendance learning was conducted to examine the pesticide efficiency of a number of native botanicals powders as granule protestant next to Callosobruchus. chinensis legumes grains. Reviewed shows that different plant material which are friendly with ecosystems have significant results against pulse beetle and serve as an alternative methods for the pest control.

KeywordsDhora beetle; pulse beetle; pest management; environment friendly pest control

Comparative Toxicity of Insecticides against Two Important Insect Pests of Cauliflower Crop

Muhammad Imran1*, Kanwal Hanif2, Munir Ahmad2, Muhammad Nasir2, Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh1

1Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJ&K, Pakistan.

2Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.




Study was conducted to test four insecticides, profenofos, emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and lufenuron against two field populations of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura at different larval instars during 2010-11. The field populations collected from Rawalpindi and Taxila cauliflower fields was tested using leaf dip bioassay method under laboratory conditions. Results showed that emamectin benzoate was the most toxic insecticide for both P. xylostella and S. litura. However, profenofos was the second most toxic insecticides to different larval instars of S. litura and λ-cyhalothrin to P. xylostella. High LC50 values for lufenuron for this limited time exposure might be due to its slow acting as chitin synthesis inhibitor. Emamectin benzoate can be suggested as the most effective insecticides against both field populations along with profenofos and λ-cyhalothrin.

Keywords: Spodoptera litura, Plutella xylostella, comparative toxicity, mode of action, age-dependent

Growth And Egg Production Performance of Dekalb Layers (Gallus gallus domesticus) supplemented with Cassava Leaf Meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Eloiza May Galon*1,4, Dante Lorenzo1,2 and Florencia Claveria1,3

1*AgriVet Sciences Institute, De La Salle Araneta University, Upper Ciudad Real, City of San Jose Del Monte, Bulacan, 3023 Philippines

2Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, 3119 Philippines

3Biology Department, College of Science, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, 0922 Manila, Philippines

4National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, 080-8555 Japan



 A feeding trial was done to determine the best level of supplementation of cassava leaf meal (CLM) on the growth, productivity and egg quality of Dekalb layers at Salikneta Farm, San Jose del Monte, Bulacan, Philippines. The treatments were control (no CLM), T1 (3% CLM supplement), T2 (5% CLM supplement) and T3 (7% CLM supplement). The study was laid in a single factor Completely Randomized Design, with three replicates, consisting of ten birds per replicate. Results show highest feed consumption of birds at T3 (p<0.05) compared to control, T1, and T2. Weight gain was not affected by CLM supplementation. However, the FCR, percentage egg production, and cumulative number of eggs per bird in T1, and albumen height in T2 and T3 were higher (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Likewise, the supplementation of CLM up to 7% has no adverse effect on the health of the birds. Results revealed that 3% supplementation of CLM can improve FCR, percent egg production, and the cumulative number of eggs per bird. Moreover, increasing the level of CLM to 5% and 7% supplement may further improve birds’ performance in terms of egg weight, yolk color, and albumen height.

Keywords: Cassava leaf meal, Dekalb layers, Egg quality, Productivity, Salikneta Farm

Physiological Studies on Colletotrichum Gloeosporiodes Associated With Wither Tip Disease of Citrus and Its Chemical Control

Salman Ghuffar*1, Muhammad Zeshan Ahmed1, Muhammad Farooq Aslam2, Luqman Amrao1, Sajjad Hyder2

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan




Citrus is the second largest fruit produced in the world and Pakistan is among the 12 large producers of the citrus fruit. It is grown in tropical and subtropical climate all over the world. Besides its high economical & nutritional values citrus is attacked by different pathogen such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. Among all the pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes causing citrus wither tip disease is one of the major constrain in citrus production. Therefore current study was conducted to investigate the different physiological characters on the mycelial growth of C. gloeosporiodes and its chemical control. Among different fungal nutrient media Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) gave maximum mycelial growth (7.9 cm) followed by Citrus leaf extract Agar (CLEA) (4.7 cm) and corn meal Agar (CMA) (3.3 cm).Temperature of 30°C favored maximum colony growth (8 cm) followed by 25°C (7.4 cm), 35°C (4.2 cm), 20°C (3.5 cm) and 15°C (2.3cm). A pH level of 6 favored maximum colony growth (7.9 cm) followed by 5 (7.5 cm), 4.5 (5.3cm), 4 (4.8 cm), 7(3.3cm) and 3(2.4 cm).Among the application of different fungicides such as Topsin-M, Copper oxychloride and Aliette at different concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm). Topsin-M gave maximum result to inhibit the Maximum mycelial growth inhibition of C. gloeosporioides (1.1 cm) was produced by Topsin-M 9 days after incubation at 30 °C as compared to control (7.6 cm).

KeywordsPhysiological studies, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, chemical control

Locals Perspectives towards Climate Change and Its Effect in Buner District of KPK, Pakistan

Wajiha1, Rabia Afridi1, Humera Afridi2, Kausar Saeed3, Maaz4

1Department of Animal Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan

3Department of Zoology, University of Buner KP, Pakistan

4Department of Mechatronics Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar



Purpose: This study was conducted during September 2015-August 2016 to know the perception of people living in expansive territory of district Buner, KP Pakistan on CC. Methodology: Sample size of 384 was selected. This study was based on stratified random sampling technique using a structured and detailed questionnaire for collection of data. Among educated respondents (84.48%) questionnaires were distributed while from illiterate ones (15.10%) semi structured interviews were conducted. Sociodemographic variables and knowledge of CC was explored by cross tabulation and measured using chi square tests. 

Results: The study revealed that majority of the participants (86.7%) had some knowledge of CC but (13.3%) did not. Respondents (89.5%) claimed that CC had negative impacts on the livelihoods of residents. The people in the area have realized the causes of the CC that is deforestation, anthropogenic activities and increased population.

Conclusion: The recruited respondents had sufficient knowledge of CC and its impact on their livelihoods. Present study revealed that extreme cold winters of district Buner has been changed to a warmer and mild weather over time. The impacts of CC were in the form of negatively affected livelihoods which is still in progression on the majority of the participants. Negative impacts of CC experienced by respondents (89.50%) are in the form of flooding, loss of biodiversity and various diseases while some respondents (10.50%) experienced positive impact of CC.

Recommendations: Human activities contributing to CC should be reduced. Communities should be made aware of CC and its harmful effects through different awareness campaigns.

Keywords: climate change, perception, greenhouse gases.

Comparative and Interactive Effects of Organic and Inorganic Amendments on Soybean Growth, Yield and Selected Soil Properties

Aqila Shaheen*, Rabia Tariq and Abdul Khaliq

Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, The University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir


The absolute use of inorganic fertilizers, growing of exhaustive crops, nutrient losses with runoff and leaching under mountainous sub humid conditions has declined the soil fertility and productivity. The field experiment was carried out to study the comparative and interactive effect of organic and inorganic amendments on soybean growth, yield and soil properties. The experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments combination were control (no amendments); 100 kg N ha-1 from urea nitrogen (UN100); 100 kg N ha-1 from poultry manure (PMN100); 100 kg N ha-1 from sawdust (SDN100); 100 kg N ha-1 from UN + PM (UN50 + PMN50); 100 kg N ha-1 from UN + SD (UN50 + SDN50); 100 kg N ha-1 from PM + SD (PMN50 + SDN50); 100 kg N ha-1 from UN + SD + PM (UN50 + SDN25 + PMN25). Results indicated higher crop growth in UN50 + SDN25 + PMN25. However, SDN100 showed lower growth but higher than control.UN100 had statistically higher grain yield (1322.7 kg ha-1) and it was non-significant with UN50+PMN50 and UN50+ PMN25+SDN25. Nitrogen uptake (156.55 kg ha-1) was higher in UN100, UN50+ PMN50 and UN50+ PMN25+SDN25. Post-harvest soil properties showed the minimum pH in SDN100 and higher organic matter in organic and integrated applications. The higher phosphorus contents were in UN50+PMN50. This study showed that SD and PM combined with urea have potential in soybean growth enhancement, yield increase and in improvement of soil properties.

Keywords: Poultry manure, sawdust, integrated nutrient management, soybean

New Distributional Records of Tetraponera Rufonigra (Jerdon) From Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan

Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1 and Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2

Laboratory of Biosystematics, Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China




New distributional records of Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon) from Gilgit Baltistan during 2016, Pakistan are provided. It was first reported in1961 from Lahore (capital city of Punjab Province), Pakistan. Here we report it for the first time from Gilgit Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, highly a mountainous area in comparison to Lahore. This study indicates the distribution of T. rufonigra from plane to mountainous areas in Pakistan. Main identification characters illustrated with micrographs, synonymy, distribution, measurements and habitats are given for further research.

KeywordsDistribution, Tetraponera rufonigra (Jerdon), Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan

New Distributional Records of Black Scavenger Flies (Diptera: Sepsidae) from District Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan

Muhammad Asghar Hassan1, Imran Bodlah2*, Khalid Mahmood3 and Ansa Tamkeen4

1,2 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Crop and Food Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

3,4 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir.




Four species (2 genera) of family Sepsidae (Diptera) are first time reported from various localities of district Skardu (Gilgit-Baltistan). Among these, Sepsis barbata Becker, 1907, Sepsis punctum (Fabricius1974), Sepsis thoracica (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) and Decachaetophora aeneipes de Meijere, 1913 are first time reported from district Skardu, while Sepsis thoracica (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) is new record for Gilgit-Baltistan. Micrographs for identified species, their diagnostic characters, local distribution and remarks are provided.



KeywordsDistribution, black scavenger flies, Sepsidae, Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan.

New Host Record and Genitalia Based Study of Diaphorina Citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

Imran Bodlah1*, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Ambreen Jahandad3,

Ammara Gull-e-Fareen1and Tasleem Akhter1

1Laboratory of Biosystematics, Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi

2Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China

3Department of Agronomy, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan




Psyllid species, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1907 is reported for the first time on a new host plant, Murraya sp. from different areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Details regarding synonyms, description of characters with photographs and field observations are provided to facilitate readers of this document.

Keywords: Diaphorina citri, Asian citrus psyllid, New host, genitalia.