Tag Archives: 6(3)

Bridelia cathartica Bertol. f. (Phyllanthaceae): a review of its pharmacological properties and medicinal potential

Alfred Maroyi*

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa



Bridelia cathartica is an important medicinal plant throughout its distributional range in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the botany, ethnomedicinal uses, chemical and biological properties of B. cathartica. Information on the medicinal, phytochemistry and biological properties of B. cathartica was undertaken using electronic databases such as Medline, Pubmed, SciFinder, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Science Direct, EThOS, ProQuest, OATD and Open-thesis. Pre-electronic literature was sourced from the University library. Literature search revealed that B. cathartica is mainly used as a charm and to cast spells, as herbal medicine used by women during child bearing and pregnancy, remedy for fever and malaria, gastro-intestinal, headache, haemorrhoids, menstrual problems, pain, sores and wounds, reproductive, respiratory disorders and sexually transmitted infections. Pharmacological studies of B. cathartica extracts revealed that the species has antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antioxidant properties. Based on its wide use as herbal medicine in tropical Africa, B. cathartica should be subjected to detailed phytochemical and pharmacological evaluations aimed at elucidating its chemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties.

Keywords: Bridelia cathartica, Ethnopharmacology, Phyllanthaceae, Traditional medicine, Tropical Africa

The impact of organophosphorus pesticide on Solanum melongena, Capsicum annum and Soil

Bindu Singh*, Virendra Kumar Singh, Khalid Monowar Alam

Department of Environmental Science, Integral University, Lucknow, UP, India



Eggplant (Solanum melongena) and green chilli (Capsicum annum) are an important vegetables crop grown throughout the year in the India. However, these vegetables crops suffer heavily from the ravages of various insect pests and disease, which reduce not only the yield but also the quality of the fruit. Malathion is part of the widely used insecticides all around the world. The present study emphasizes the effect of various concentrations and exposure periods of an organophosphorus pesticide. Malathion on two very important vegetative crops eggplant (Solanum melongena) green chilli (Capsicum annum). This study was performed at the department of environmental studies, Integral University, Lucknow (U.P.). The effect of Malathion on growth of the two vegetable crops was observed under greenhouse condition. Sampling of eggplant and green chilli were grown in assorted sets with 2, 4 & 6 ml/L foliar treatment of Malathion. Two sets of control plants were grown without Malathion treatment. They were harvested after 7 & 14 days. Experimental observation revealed that low concentration of Malathion had synergistic effect while higher level had an adverse effect on growth of plant and soil properties. This study infers that whereas lower levels are beneficial. Higher level of pesticides should be avoided and special care be taken to prevent their entry in the food chain.

Keywords: Malathion, Pesticides, Environmental pollution, Vegetative crops

Evaluation of the interaction of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma harzianum in the development and nutrition of potato plants (Solanum phureja)

Mónica Galindo1, Darwin Rueda1 , Pedro Romero1, María Medina1, Manjunatha Bangeppagari1,2, Venkata Subba Reddy Gangireddygari3, Sikandar I. Mulla4

1Department of Life Sciences, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE, Sangolquí, Ecuador, South América

2Center for Biofluid & Biomimic Research, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, South Korea

3College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences, Department of Agriculture & Animal Health, Florida Science Campus, Corner Christiaan De Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida, University of South Africa, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa

4Division of Biotechnology, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, Republic of Korea



Potato is the fourth most consumed food product around the world and one of the most produced crops worldwide, due to its nutritional and culinary properties. This crop is affected by certain pests such as phytopathogenic fungi, which frequently attack roots and tubers, extracting their nutrients and decreasing their yield. Consequently, our research is focused in finding an environmentally friendly alternative to improve the nutrition of the crop and prevent the attack of pathogens that exist mostly in soils with poor conditions. One of the ways to reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides, is the application of beneficial microorganisms, among them fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma harzianum. fungi create symbiosis with the plant and improve mineral absorption with a significant efficiency. Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biological control agent, it induces the defensive response of plants and stimulates plant growing. This investigation evaluated the interaction between Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Trichoderma harzianum the development and nutrition of potato plants (Solanum phureja), showing increasing leaf area, biomass (total, aerial and root) and root length in plants inoculated with each of the microorganisms compared to the plants without inoculation (control treatments) and chemical fertilizer applied plants. Namely, the presence of AMF, Trichoderma harzianum and the variation of concentrations of peat at 30% and 50% improved the development, growth and nutrition of potato plants.

Keywords: Solanum phureja, Trichoderma harzianum, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Peat

Genetic parameters for body weight and egg production traits in Taiwan native chicken homozygous for the heat shock protein 70 gene

Kang Shann-Ren1, Lin Cheng-Yung1, Cheng Yu-Shin2, Lin Der-Yuh2, Huang Tsung-Ping3, Hung Kuo-Hsiang4, Liang Hsiao-Mei1*

1Kaohsiung Animal Propagation Station, Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Pingtung 91247, Taiwan

2Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Tainan, 71246, Taiwan

3Animal Propagation Department, Taiwan Sugar Corporation, Tainan 70176, Taiwan

4Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan



Taiwan native chicken strain (Taishu No. 7) carrying homozygous gene for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was evaluated for heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations for body weight at birth (BW0), body weight at 16 weeks of age (BW16), egg weight at first egg (FEW), body weight at first egg (BWFE), age at first egg (AFE) and number of eggs laid up to 40 weeks of age (EN40) in female chickens. The multivariate animal model using the residual maximum likelihood procedure was applied. The estimations realized over three generations and the pedigree file was composed of 141 individuals. Heritability estimates of BW0, BW16, FEW, AFE, BWFE, and EN40 were 0.306, 0.763, 0.071, 0.284, 0.681, and 0.200, respectively. The body weight traits showed that the BW16 had the negative genetic correlations with BW0, AFE, and EN40 (rg = –0.061; rg = –0.242; rg = –0.087), but had the positive genetic correlations with FEW and BWFE (rg =0.419; rg =0.945). The egg production traits showed that the EN40 had the negative genetic correlations with BW16 and AFE (rg= –0.087; rg = –0.195), but had the positive genetic correlation with BW0, FEW, and BWFE (rg = 0.336; rg = 0.039; rg =0.182). Based on the results of this study, the BWFE could be introduced as a suitable indirect selection criteria for improving egg production because of the higher heritability and a positive genetic correlation with egg production.

Keywords: Genetic parameters, Heat shock protein 70 gene, Homozygote, Taiwan native chicken

Effects of fertilizer, irrigation level and spider presence on abundance of herbivore and carnivore in rice cultivation in Yogyakarta

My Syahrawati1*, Edhi Martono2, Nugroho Susetya Putra2, Benito Heru Purwanto3

1Lecturer in Plant Protection Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Andalas, Padang, Indonesia

2Lecturer in Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

3Lecturer in Soil Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



Cultivation techniques that are usually followed in rice cultivation is believed to greatly affect the interaction between arthropods in form of bottom-up and top-down ways, which in turn, affects their diversity and abundance. Beside of that, the spider is generalist predator that has a great potential as a biological pest control agent. This research aimed to determine the effects of spider presence, fertilizer and irrigation level on abundance of herbivore and carnivore in rice cultivation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (Wates – Kulon Progo). It was done in factorial design using three factors: fertilizers (organic, inorganic, and without fertilizer), irrigation levels (less water = 2 cm, conventional >10 cm), and spider presence (with and without spider). Each combination treatment had three replications.  The results showed that the interaction between fertilizer and irrigation level affected soil PH and total N of rice plant but not to total N of soil. Organic fertilizer with less irrigation decreased the abundance of carnivore but it did not affect the abundance of herbivore. Meanwhile, interaction between spider presence and irrigation level affected carnivore abundance, but not to herbivore generally. The spider presence decreased Delphacidae abundance but did not affect the abundance of Alydidae dan Staphylinidae.

Keywords: Ecological effect, Natural enemies, Parasitoid, Predator, System of rice intensification

The effect of different levels of amino acid and zinc on the quality and quantity of Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum)

Muhammad Zakirullah1*, Sumayya Innayat1, Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Arif2, Muhammad Ali1, Mehboob Alam3

1Agricultural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

2Directorate of Outreach, Agricultural Research, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

3Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan



The unavailability of green fodder throughout the year and low quality fodder are some of the main constraints that contribute in low yield of livestock. To overcome the restraint in quality and quantity, an experiment was designed at Agriculture Research Institute, Tarnab – Peshawar to investigate the effect of different levels of amino acid (aspartic acid) and zinc (zinc sulphate) on the quality and quantity of berseem. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Different levels of amino acid were applied @1000, 2000 and 3000 ml ha-1 to main plot while Zinc was applied @14 and 28 kg ha-1 to sub plot.  Maximum stem height (73.77 cm), branches per stem (20.39), highest percentage of crude protein (17.67 %), crude fiber (33.59 %), dry mater (21.75 %) and green fodder yield (27.84 t ha-1) was recorded in the plots that received the amino acid @ 3000 mlha-1, while the plots that received amino acid at lowest rate i.e. 1000 ml ha-1 yielded the lowest stem height (60.22 cm), minimum number of branches per stem (12.72), low percentage of crude protein (15.85 %), crude fiber (31.21 %), dry matter (19.38 %) and lowest green fodder yield (23.72 t ha-1). Similarly, zinc applied at higher rate of 28 kg ha-1 boosted the stem height (70.89 cm), number of branches (16.62), crude protein (17.86 %), crude fiber (35.01 %), dry matter (21.53 %) and green fodder yield (28.91 t ha-1) compared to zinc applied @ 14 kg ha-1. It is therefore, recommended that while growing berseem amino acid @ 3000 ml ha-1 and Zinc @ 28 kg ha-1 should be applied in order to get good yield and a quality crop.

Keywords: Amino acid, Zinc, Berseem, Quality and quantity

Fatty acids composition profile evaluation of Palm oil in crude oil polluted environment

Emmanuel Ejiofor1*, Ebhohon Shirley2, Adanma Obike2, Bliss Onyedikachi2, Atasie Okechukwu2,  Ajah Obinna2, Kanu Michael2, Ndukaku Omeh2

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Clifford University, Owerrinta, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria



In this study, the fatty acid profile of oils obtained from palm tree grown on polluted soil in Southern Nigeria. Oil extraction was performed using traditional method. Carotenoid content of palm kernel and palm oil in the test oil showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease when compared to the controls. Mores so, acid and peroxide value increased (p<0.05) significantly in the test oil when compared to the control. The percentage composition of various fatty acids of palm kernel oil from polluted soil were caprilic 2.99%, capric 52.67%, lauric 16.69%, palmitic 8.06% and stearic 19.57%. Fatty acid percentage composition of palm kernel oil from unpolluted soil were caprilic 2.66%, capric 49.18%, lauric 15.17%, palmitic 8.47%, and oleic acid 0.92%. Fatty acid percentage compositions of palm oil from polluted soil were myristic acid 0.28%, palmitoleic 62.09%, oleic acid 37.62%. Unpolluted soil showed lauric acid 0.36%, palmitic acid 44.57% and oleic 55.05%. The absence of palmitic acid and the reduction of oleic acid could be attributed to the impact of the crude oil spillage on the plant. This study shows that crude oil spillage affects composition of fatty acid and oil chemistry, suggesting the use of oil as indicator for environmental pollution.

Keywords: Crude oil spillage, Fatty acid, Palm kernel oil, Palm oil, Pollution, Southern Nigeria

Effects of various doses of copper sulphate on peroxidase activity in the liver, gills, kidney and brain of Cirrhina mrigala

Muhammad Awais Bashir1, Muhammad Javed1, Fariha Latif1*, Faiza Ambreen2

1Department of Zoology, Wildlife & Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, Government College Women University, Faisalabad, Pakistan



Metal ion pollution of water generates addition of metals in the fish organs that leads towards redox reactions, making free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species (ROS). All organisms have a strong antioxidant defense system to defend their tissues from injurious effects of ROS produced by metallic ions toxicity. During this study, effects of various doses of copper sulphate (CuSO4) on peroxidase activity in the liver, gills, kidney and brain of Cirrhina mrigala were measured. One year old C. mrigala were subjected to 96-hr LC50, 2/3rd, 1/4th and 1/5th of LC50 of CuSO4, discretely, for period of the 30 days in glass aquariums with three replications for each treatment. The control group of the fish did not receive any metal stress. After 30-day exposure of CuSO4, the fish from all treated groups were sacrificed and their liver, gills, kidney and brain is separated for peroxidase enzyme assay. Peroxidase enzyme activity in the CuSO4 treated fish were compared amongst several treatments and with the control fish. Activity of peroxidase enzyme in all organs of the fish increased significantly (p<0.05) after exposure of CuSO4 as compared to the control fish. Peroxidase activities in the liver, gills, kidney and brain tissues of metal stressed fish were measured as 0.891±0.002, 0.824±0.004, 0.767±0.004 and 0.334±0.004UmL-1, respectively. 

Keywords: Peroxidase activity, Copper sulphate, C. mrigala

Splitting of nitrogen application through growth stages in various sunflower cultivars to improve their vegetative growth and seed yield

Hanaa Khudhaier Mohammed Ali Al-haidary

Department of Field Crops, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Karrada District,

Al-Jadiriya, Baghdad, Iraq



A field experiment was carried out in spring seasons of 2012 and 2013 to increase the efficiency of nitrogen application in spite of that no splitting nitrogen has practiced for the studied cultivars. Five splitting treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) of nitrogen application were studied in three sunflower cultivars (Shumos, Akmar, and Zehrat Al-Iraq). The results showed that Shumos cultivar, T4 treatment of nitrogen application and their interaction gave the highest seed yield (6.3 and 6.43), (5.78 and 6) and (6.62 and 6.9 ton ha-1), respectively, on both seasons. The highest significant correlation value belonged to the correlation between seed yield and leaf area (0.85 and 0.87) for both seasons. It can be concluded that splitting of nitrogen fertilizer during growth stages is effective to increase the efficiency of nitrogen application and lead to increase seed yield. Also, leaf area could be a selection criterion to improve seed yield.

Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Nitrogen, Sunflower, Vegetative growth, Seed yield

Using local agricultural residues for bioethanol production under full optimized processes

Tamer I. M. Ragab1, Bahaa T. Shawky2, Hussein M. Hussein3*, Magdy K. Zahran3

1Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt

2Microbial Chemistry Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Division, National Research Centre, Egypt

3Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain-Helwan, Cairo 11795, Egypt



Rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH) were selected as a local agricultural residues for biopolymers (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) extraction using 2% alkaline sodium hydroxide at 90oC for almost 3 hours. The extraction process was optimized by Taguchi experimental design method. Results revealed that cellulose was 54.6 % and 52.75 % in case of RS and RH, respectively. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) were done using Aspergilus niger crude enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which statistically optimized with two experimental design models (Taguchi and Placket-Burman design). Maximum glucose yield from hydrolysis of the extracted cellulose RS (CRS) and cellulose RH (CRH) was 255 mg/g and 120 mg/g, respectively. Bioethanol yield from the obtained fermentable glucose of CRS and CRH were 231.8 mg/g and 269.4 mg/g, respectively. Extraction, hydrolysis and fermentation processes optimization can be an alternative sustainable development approach to utilize this abundant agricultural waste for new and renewable energy.

Keywords: Rice straw and husk, Response surface methodology, Taguchi and Placket-Burman design, Bioethanol