Tag Archives: 6(3)

The effect of organic fertilizer and urea fertilizer on growth, yield and quality of sweet corn and soil health

Darwin Habinsaran Pangaribuan*, Kus Hendarto, Sheilla R. Elzhivago, Ade Yulistiani

Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung, Jl Sumantri Brojonegoro 1, Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia



This study aims to determine the effect of organic fertilizer and urea fertilizer on growth, yield, and quality of sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) and soil health. The research was conducted in Bandar Lampung, Indonesia in December 2016 until March 2017. This research was designed using a randomized factorial block design 2 x 4 with three replications. The arrangement of treatments are as follows: The first treatment was organic fertilizer (poultry manure that has been composted and combined with Biomax-Grow biofertilizer) consisting of 2 levels that are, 0 and 15 ton ha-1. The second treatment was the dosage of urea fertilizer consisted of 0, 150, 300 and 450 kg ha-1. The results showed that application of integrated use of organic fertilizer and urea fertilizer would decrease the use of urea and be recommended for sweet corn cultivation.   Organic fertilizer gives a better postharvest quality of sweet corn and a better soil health with respect to soil respiration as well as fungi and bacterial population.

Keywords : Poultry manure, Soil respiration, Fungi, Microbial, Sucrose content

Assessment of sensitivity level of honeybee (Apis mellifera) to neonicotinoid insecticides

Muhammad Imran*, Tayyaba Naseem, Arshad Iqbal, Khalid Mahmood, Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJ&K, Pakistan



Declining population of honeybee day by day is the major threat, and this decline is due to variety of stressors. As honeybees are considered most important pollinators of our managed and wild corps, we investigated the effect of neonicotinoids; acetamiprid, imidacloprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin on honeybees by ingestion and contact method. Finding of this study showed that among these neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiacloprid were most toxic insecticides with 100% mortality at realistic field doses by ingestion method with sugar solution as a substitute of nectar after the exposure of 3hrs. Honeybee’s workers exposed with insecticides mixed pollen grains showed that imidacloprid and clothianidin were most toxic as compared to other insecticides at recommended field dose with 100% mortality and minimum mortality with 60% was observed at thiacloprid field dose after 3hrs exposure. The results of contact toxicity showed that all four insecticides were most toxic with wet filter paper with 100% mortality at recommend field dose after the exposure of 3hr, and with dry filter paper imidacloprid and thiacloprid showed 100% mortality and acetamiprid and clothianidin with 53.3% mortality after the exposure of 3hrs at field dose. Overall conclusion from the present study indicates that from these four insecticides imidacloprid was the most toxic as compared to all others on both ingestion and contact method at recommended field dose.

Keywords: Neonicotinoids, Insecticides, Sensitivity level, Honeybee, Apis mellifera

Soil physico-chemical properties as affected by flood and erosion in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria

Chima Njoku

Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B. 053, Abakaliki, Nigeria



The aim of this study was to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil as affected by flood and erosion in Abakaliki Southeastern Nigeria. Sites selected for the study were: Control (arable land), fallowed floodplain, cultivated floodplain and erosion site. Five auger and core replicate soil samples were collected from each site at the depth of 0 – 30 cm and analysed for particle size distribution, bulk density, total porosity, moisture content, dispersion ratio, modified clay ratio, erosion ratio, erodibility factor, soil loss, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3), sulphate (SO42-) and organic matter. Results from the study showed that the experimental sites were sandy loams which are easily vulnerable to erosion as a result of its properties. Physical properties indicated that the order of susceptibility to erosion was arable land < fallowed floodplain < cultivated floodplain < erosion site. The results of chemical properties showed that cations such as NH4+ were higher in floodplains than arable land whereas anions such as NO3 and SO42- were higher in arable land than floodplains. This phenomenon might be attributed to the fact that unlike NH4+ which binds strongly to clay micelle, NO3 and SO42- are anions and can be easily leached beneath root zone (0-30 cm) because of their negative charges. Moreover, the erosion site had the poorest fertility and productive status when compared to other sites.  The results also, showed that the floodplains have inherent capacity to boost crop productivity and the nutrients leached during flooding can be recovered through fallowing the floodplains for some periods before using them for crop production.

Keywords: Erosion, Deposition, Floodplain, Leaching and transportation

Screening and molecular identification of gelatinase-producing bacteria isolated from Indonesian mangrove ecosystem

A A Prihanto1,2,3*, H Nursyam1,3

1Department of Fishery Product Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia

2 Halal Thoyib Research Center, Brawijaya University, Jl. MT Haryono, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia

3Bio-seafood Research Unit, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia



The objective of this research was to isolate and identify gelatinase-producing bacteria from several mangrove ecosystems in Indonesia. Soil samples were collected from seven coastal locations of mangrove ecosystem in 2017. The gelatinase-producing bacteria were screened by using screening and confirmation methods. The gelatinase-producing bacteria were further analyzed by using the 16s rDNA molecular method. Ten isolates were diagnosed to be gelatinase-producing bacteria, which belonged to three genera: Lysinibacilus sp, Enterobacter sp. and Proteus sp. The isolated bacteria can further be investigated for the possibility of gelatinase production.

Keywords: Coastal, Gelatinase, Hydrolisate gelatin, Marine, Phylogenetic analysis

Food insecurity and its determinants in rural Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Gulab Sher1, Fazli Rabbi2, Umar Hayat2*

1Department of Economics, University of Malakand, Dir (L), Pakistan

2Department of Economics and Development Studies, University of Swat, Swat, Pakistan



This paper empirically examines the determinants of households’ food security in District Dir (Lower) Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Primary data were gathered through a pre-structured questionnaire. The screening questions approach was adopted to solicit the information from a total of 200 households. The binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. Our results show that farm households with an employed head, and having improved access to farm and non-farm income, are more likely to be food secure. While larger sized farm households located away from the main stream markets, are more likely to be food insecure. We conclude that households’ access to a secure source of income and markets have a significant influence to ameliorate the food security in rural areas. The policy is informed to improve households’ access to farm and non-farm income vis-à-vis accessibility to the main stream markets. We recommend that interventions are needed to enhance off-farm employment opportunities, make the agriculture technology more accessible to farmers, and develop the physical infrastructure in rural areas. The findings of the study have significant policy implications in the context of food security in other developing countries.

Keywords: Food security, Binary logistic regression, Households’ assets, Income

Promoting reforestation through supplementing native forest tree species in northwestern Vietnam

Hoang Van Thang1, Dang Thinh Trieu2, Hoang Van Thanh2, Phung Dinh Trung2, Cao Van Lang1, Nguyen Trong Dien3, Tran Van Do2,4*

1Science and Planning Management Department, Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam

2Silviculture Research Institute, Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam

3Forest Science Centre of North-Eastern Vietnam, Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences, Ngoc Thanh, Phuc Yen Town, Vinh Phuc, Vietnam

4Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan


Forest enrichment and/or supplement planting is a silvicultural technique to improve number of valuable trees in natural poor forests. In this study, two native species including Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch and Cinnamomum obtusifolium (Roxb.) Nees were planted in fallow stands by two experiments as planting in clear band of 6 m wide (band planting) and in canopy gaps of >200 m2 (cluster planting). The results indicated that planted trees of both species in both planting experiments had high survival rates (>89%) after planting three years, and more than 75% survival trees had good quality as straight boles without diseases. The difference of stump diameter and stem height between experiments and species was statistically significant. C. obtusifolium in band planting had biggest stump diameter (2.86 cm), while C. album in band planting had tallest stem height (2.69 m) after planting three years. C. obtusifolium had significantly larger crown diameter in band planting (1.09 m) than that in cluster planting (0.92 m). While it was conversely found in C. album as significantly larger crown diameter was found in cluster planting (1.12 m) compared to smaller one in band planting (0.96 m). It is concluded that silvicultural techniques are required to promote growth of planted trees after planting three years, especially for C. album as it requires more sunlight at this age. The techniques must focus on opening forest canopy for sunlight reaching crown of planted trees and on removing bad-growth trees surrounding planted trees to minimize competitions.   

Keywords: Fallow land, Forest gap, Growing space, Sustainable management, Timber species

Influence of some plant oils Eugenia caryophyllata, Elettaria cardamomum and Citrus sinensis on the termite species Coptotermes heimi

Ayesha Aihetasham, Aysha Anayat, Muhammad Xaaceph

Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


Termites are one of the most troublesome pest of plants, trees, wooden infrastructure and agricultural crops. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the population of some plant oils using Eugenia caryophyllata, Elettaria cardamomum and Citrus sinensis against Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann) at Punjab University, New Campus Lahore, Pakistan. All plants were effectively toxic against C. heimi as 100 % mortality was observed at 62.5, 125 and 250 µl/ml doses within three to four days of exposure. All plant oils extracts proved to be highly repellent to the termites even in the low concentrations. These plant oils can be used for effective termite control being less expensive and biodegradable, hence environmentally suitable.

Keywords: Termites, Plant extracts, Repellency