Tag Archives: 6(1)

Effect of insecticides on Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae); A review

Aqsa Sattar1, Iqra Azam1*, Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar1, Afifa Amjad1, Muhammad Faheem Malik2

1 Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Sub-Campus Narowal, Narowal, Pakistan

2 Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan


Coccinella septempunctata is the generalist, representative predator that is potentially used as biological control agent in many crop pest management programs. A comprehensive and critical review of published and formerly unpublished studies was accomplished to evaluate the effects of insecticides such as imidacloprid, hexaflumuron, dimethoate, deltamethrin, pyriproxyfen, spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, acetamiprid, fenazaquin, quinalphos and neemix on C. septempunctata. Data generated clearly indicates severe effects of used insecticides on its neurophysiological and behavioral responses indicating loss of co-ordination, paralysis as well as reduce fecundity, longevity and growth. Further studies are required to focus mainly on the measure to evaluate their real effects under field conditions

Keywords:  C. septempunctata, Biological control agent, Predatory efficacy, Imidacloprid, Pyriproxyfen

Salicylic acid improves physiological traits of Zea mays L. seedlings under copper contamination

Nosheen Elahi1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani*2, Abdul Majeed1, Muhammad Ahmad3

1Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, B. Z. University, Multan, Pakistan
2Department of Agronomy, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan
3Agricultural Extension Department, Govt. of Punjab, Sanghoie, Jhelum, Pakistan


A pot sand culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of copper (Cu) on maize plant growth with or without salicylic acid (SA). Nutrient medium (i.e. half strength Hoagland) along with sixteen different concentrations of Cu and SA were applied as rooting medium twice a week. The lower level of salicylic acid (0.1 mM) increased the biomass production, length of shoot and root, number and area of leaves. While higher level of salicylic acid (10.0 Mm) reduced all the growth parameters. The excess copper (10.0 mM) reduced the shoot and root length, biomass production, number and area of leaves. In both harvests copper accumulations in root had highest value by treating with 10 mM SA and 5 µM copper contamination and minimum value by applying the same concentration of SA but lowest concentration of copper 0.5 µM. While copper accumulation in shoot is not effected by addition of different levels of copper and salicylic acid at both harvest levels. Results indicate that SA application may be one approach to improve growth of this crop under copper contamination but high concentration of SA can decrease the crop growth and Cu accumulation in roots increased with increased Cu contamination.

Keywords: Plant hormone; Cu accumulation, Plant growth

Chemical characteristics, phytochemicals and cacao shell toxicity changes during the processing of cocoa beans

Mohamad Djali*, Imas Siti Setiasih, T. Sumondang Rindiantika

Faculty of Agro-Industrial Technology, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM.21 Jatinangor, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia


Cacao shell is one of the waste from cocoa field that still contains nutrition and bioactive compound. The amount of cacao shells produced is abundant and unused. If there is no handling, it will have an effect on environmental pollution. The handling has ever done is to make cacao shell as animals feed. Before using the cacao shell, it must go through testing of toxic substances. Fruit fusion, fermentation, and drying is an important steps as it influences of changing the nutrition and toxicity in seeds and cacao shell. The methodology used in this research is descriptive method. The toxicity test uses Brine Shrimp Lethality Test method by counting the value of LC50. There are several changing of nutrition of fresh cacao shell after fermentation and drying. There is an increase of fat, crude fiber, and polyphenols and the decrease of water and tannins. The fresh and after drying cacao shell contain phytochemical compounds such as polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids. After the fermentation process, cacao shells contain tannins only. Based on toxicity test using Artemia salina L., there is a changing toxicity of cacao shells from its LC50 value. Fresh cacao shells LC50 value is 57.38 ppm, after fermentation is 127.54 ppm and after drying is 220.15 ppm. The toxicity of fresh cacao shells, after fermentation, and after drying are less than 1000 ppm which indicates that cacao shells contain toxic substance.

Keywords: Cacao shell, Toxicity test, Artemia salina L.

Biochemical and pathogenic potential characterization of Serratia plymuthica UBCR_12 as promising biological agents for controlling Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

Jamsari Jamsari1*, Rahmi Kamelia2, Sumaryati Syukur2, Lily Syukriani1, Istino Ferita1

1Department of Agroecotechnolony, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Andalas, Campus Limau Manis, 25136 Padang-West Sumatera, Indonesia
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, University of Andalas, Campus Limau Manis, 25136 Padang-West Sumatera, Indonesia


In effort to develop bacterial based biofungicide, a rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica UBCR_12 showing antifungal activity against phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was successfully isolated. Prior to its mass application its safety aspect to the human being and environmental factors has to be characterized in detail as well as its efficacy. For this purpose, biochemical characterizations of the isolate involving chitinolytic activity assay based on colloidal chitin degradation, siderophore production assay using CAS medium, and hemolytic test to identify its pathogenicity potential was performed. Its antifungal activity based on its capability to inhibit mycelial growth of fungus finally was determined. The results showed that optimal chitinolytic activity (1.63 ± 0.15) of the isolate was at pH 7.0, temperature 30 ˚C. The isolate showed a typical response to substrate concentration 2% (w/v) of colloidal chitin. Furthermore, the isolate showed a positive reaction with CAS medium and could lyse red blood cell on the blood agar. This result will imply to mass production and future application of S. plymuthica UBCR_12 as a biocontrol agent for C. gloeosporioides. Hence precaution to the human health and environmental safety has to be taken into consideration for its application.

Keywords: S. plymuthica UBCR_12, Chitinase, Hemolysis, C. gloeosporioides

Efficacy of Biomax and Fiprokill against Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann)

Ayesha Aihetasham1*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Tayyaba Bibi1, Imran Bodlah3

1Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

2Department of Entomology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


Termites cause profound economic losses worldwide. Heterotermes indicola causes tremendous damages to wood work in the buildings and forest trees. Different types of insecticides have been used to control this subterranean termite. In the present study, efficacy of Biomax (Chlorpyrifos) and Fiprokill (Fipronil) against Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) was studied. Toxicities and repellencies of these chemicals were compared at same concentrations. Mortality during 8 hours exposure for Biomax at different concentrations 480, 240, 120, 60, 30, 15, 7.5 and 3.75 ppm was 93.3%, 80%, 73.3%, 63.3%, 56.6%, 50%, 45.6% and 43.3%, respectively. Fiprokill at the same concentration (480, 240, 120, 60, 30, 15, 7.5 and 3.75 ppm) caused 66.6%, 56.6%, 50%, 43.3%, 33.3%, 30%, 26.6% and 20% mortality, respectively. Biomax was found to be more toxic as compared to Fiprokill. LC50 values for H. indicola exposed to soil treated with Biomax and Fiprokill were 5.735 and 221.676 ppm, whereas LC90 values for H. indicola exposed to soil treated with Biomax and Fiprokill were 359.290 and 813.722 ppm, respectively. Biomax was repellent at 480, 240, 120 and 60 ppm while Fiprokill was found non-repellent at all the concentrations used.

Keywords: Toxicity, H. indicola, Repellency, LC50, LC90

Biogenic synthesis of iron nanoparticles from Catharanthus roseus

Beenish Zia Butt*, Sumera Javad, Saba Zia

Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan


Recently the biosynthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts has drawn the attention of researchers. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of Catharanthus roseus for the biological synthesis of iron nanoparticles and to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of the synthesized particles against the selected fungal strains. Biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles was performed through the n-hexane leaf extract of Catharanthus roseus. The structural properties of the synthesized nanoparticles (concentrations, 10%, 30%) were further investigated through UV-visible spectroscopy; particle size analyzer (PSA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results of the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the synthesized iron nanoparticles showed the absorption spectra of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs), prominent peak at 260 nm corresponding to the absorption of iron nanoparticles was obtained. Particles size analyzer revealed the average size of the iron nanoparticles that was calculated as 108 and 266 nm. Phenolics (OH group at 3350 cm-1) were observed as main bioactive phytochemical of the plant extract that acted as capping agent in iron nanoparticles synthesis. Surface morphology using SEM revealed the aggregates of irregular shaped iron nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of these biosynthesized FeNPs against Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus was also evaluated, nanoparticles showed high activity against A. terreus. This study concludes that the biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles is a safe and economical approach.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Catharanthus roseus, n-Hexane, capping agent, Economical approach.

Duration of storage and positioning of the egg before brooding: effect on the internal quality and hatchability parameters of local chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) eggs in Cote d’Ivoire

N’dri Aya Lydie1,2*, Ahouchi Simon Valencourt1, Fofana Nambate1, Yapi Jean Noel1

1Laboratory of Biology and Animal Cytology, Research and Training Unit of Natural Sciences-University of Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire.

2Laboratory of Genetic and Bioresources Improvement, Research and Training Unity- University of Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire.


In Côte d’Ivoire, the local hen breeding constitutes nearly 70% of national poultry livestock in Côte d’Ivoire. Local hens of Côte d’Ivoire in general, are less known by scientific community because it is almost fewer characterized. In this context, it is necessary to work with the aim of improving local hens’ productivity in order to contribute at food self-sufficiency. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the shelf life and placement of the egg before brooding.240 eggs from 82 local hens aged 36 weeks were divided in 6 batches of 40 eggs each. At first 3 batches were stored during 3 days, 5 days and 10 days respectively for batch 1, batch 2 and batch 3. Secondarily, the 3 others batches were stored during 5 days using 3 breeding positions namely vertical position with small end up, vertical position with the small end down and the horizontal position. Influences of storage duration on eggs weight and position of eggs on hatchability characteristics were evaluated.  The study showed that the positioning of the eggs significantly influenced hatchability and the horizontal storage position gave the best results compared to the two other positions. The average fertility of the local eggs recorded in this study showed out that long-term stored eggs presented lower hatching average. For the local hens, a storage of 5 days maximum before incubation of the eggs is advisableThe positioning and storage time significantly influenced the weight and hatchability of local eggs.

Keywords: Storage, Egg position, Hatchability, Local hens, Cote d’Ivoire

In vitro and In vivo antioxidant effect of Spirulina platensis against Lead induced toxicity in rats

Thura Alyasiri*1, Salah Alchalabi2, Ithar AlMayaly1

1Department of Biology, College of Science, Baghdad University, Iraq

2Biotechnology Research Center, Al-Nahrain University, Iraq


Lead is considered one of the wide spread environmental pollutants in Iraq. Nowadays, some types of algae can be the solution by utilizing them as natural medications to cure many diseases. This scientific article is intended to examine spirulina action as an antioxidant to cure lead acetate induced injury in rats. The total numbers of rats used were (48), the rats were divided into eight groups, (42 rats) represented the treated group and 6 rats represented the control group. 36 Rats of treated groups were injected initially with different concentrations of lead acetate; while the rest 6 rats were only fed with Spirulina. All our samples were examined by biochemical, hematological and immunohistological methods. Our experiments proved that Spirulina had an antioxidant action which can support the body defense system. Malondialdehyde (MAD), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were increased in lead injected group; while they decreased in the spirulina fed group. There was a significant enhancement in lipid profile values of treated group that were fed spirulina. In addition, it noticed that the values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in rats injected by lead, then fed spirulina were decreased; this decrement was evidence in the histological results. Moreover, the hematological results of rats fed with spirulina appeared that the leukocyte and platelet numbers also decreased; while the erythrocyte, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were increased, unlike, rats injected with only lead. The conclusion was that Spirulina ability to do obvious decrement in the poisonous action of lead was done by its scavenger free radical activity and its effective antioxidant activity.

Keywords: In vivo, Antioxidant, Spirulina, Lead toxicity, Hepatoprotective

Improving the growth of Centella asiatica using surfactant modified natural zeolite loaded with NPK nutrients

Noor Asyraf Noor Azman, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik Malek*, Norfarah Syuhaidah Mohd Noor, Muhammad Arshad Javed

Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering,

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia


There is great interest in using sustainable fertilizer to enhance medicinal plant quality such as Centella asiatica, which is known for its various medicinal properties. Here, we examined the performance of NPK-Organo-Zeolite (NPKOZ) as a controlled release fertilizer for the growth of C. asiatica. Natural zeolite that has been modified with surfactant hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and addition with ammonium (N), phosphate (P) and potassium (K) was characterized with X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a leaching study, it was found the NPKOZ showed fewer losses of nutrients. For the plant growth study, a comparison was made with eight different treatments including chemical fertilizers monoammonium phosphate and monopotassium phosphate for 70 days. Morphological (number of flowers, branches and leaves, specific leaf area and plant biomass) and biochemical growth parameters (N, P, K and chlorophyll contents) of the plant were analysed. Second cultivation was also conducted to compare potted, hydroponic and verticulture systems with or without NPKOZ. The NPKOZs treatments resulted in the highest number of leaves, branches and flowers among all treatments. In addition, the chlorophyll contents were also the highest with NPKOZs application. The NPK contents in the C. asiatica plants were comparable with that of chemical fertilizers tested. This study showed that NPKOZ fertilizer with verticulture system is a suitable sustainable controlled release fertilizer for the improvement of the growth of C. asiatica.

Keywords: Centella asiatica, Surfactant modified zeolite, Controlled release fertilizer

Co-inoculation of auxin producing PGPR and rhizobia enhanced growth of Vigna mungo (L.) under cadmium stress

Rabiya Ikram, Basharat Ali*

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium resistant bacteria to enhance the growth of black gram (Vigna mungo) under cadmium (CdCl2) stress. For this purpose, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and strains of rhizobia were isolated from the rhizosphere of different plants. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria confirmed the presence of the strains of Bacillus cereus, B. thuringiensis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Rhizobium. L-tryptophan dependent auxin production was determined colorimetrically by growing strains in Nutrient broth. B. Cereus HG, B. thuringiensis JAF and Rhizobium sp. IBA showed highest levels of auxin production that ranges from 140 to 146 µg ml-I. For pot trials, soil was amended with 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1. In single bacterial inoculations, significant shoot length response was up to 65% and 39% with P. fluorescens WN-1 and B. cereus CF at 200 mg kg-I, over respective CdCl2 treated control. Similarly, for fresh biomass, 2.2 and 1.3 fold increases were shown by B. cereus CF at 100 and 200 mg kg-I CdCl2 stress, respectively. For mixed culture of PGPR, combination MC-3 (CF-WN-1, A-2) significantly promoted shoot length (1 fold) at 50 mg kg-I CdCl2. In case of mixed culture of PGPR and rhizobia, up to 1 fold increases were observed for shoot length, root growth and fresh biomass with MCR-1 (IBA, HG, BS-1) at 100 mg kg-I CdCl2. Finally, it can be concluded that strains isolated from the rhizosphere of different pants showed promising results for plant growth promotion in cadmium amended soils.

Keywords: Bacterial auxin, Cadmium stress, PGPR, Growth promotion, Phytoremediation, Vigna mungo