Tag Archives: 2024-2

Characterization and identification of bioactive natural products in the ethanol extracts of Acacia nilotica, Melia azedarach, and Euphorbia hirta from Cholistan desert, Pakistan

Sobia Malik1,2, Nuzhat Sial1, Mirza Imran Shahzad3*, Shazia Anjum4, Arshad Javid5, Gildardo Rivera6

1Department of Zoology, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

3Department of Biochemistry, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

5Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

6Laboratorio de Biotecnología Farmacéutica, Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México



Cholistan desert plants form Fabaceae, Meliaceae and Euphorbiaceae families have always been recognized as an alternate source of medicine and used in different pharmacological activities due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. This study was aimed to characterize bioactive contents in ethanol extracts of Acacia nilotica (whole branch, bark), Melia azedarach (leaves, bark,) and Euphorbia hirta (whole plant). Characterization and composition of secondary metabolites were determined by both chromatographic and non-chromatographic techniques. TLC profile showed maximum spots in Acacia nilotica and M. azedarach. A. nilotica whole branch yielded nine spots for n-Hex, seven spots for DCM, 4 spots for EtAC while A. nilotica bark yielded 4 spots for n-Hex, nine spots for DCM and 4 spots for EtAC. M. azedarach leaves revealed seven spots for n-Hex, six spots for DCM, seven spots for EtAC, while M. azedarach bark revealed seven spots for n-Hex, five spots for DCM, and also five spots for EtAC. E. hirta yielded six spots for n-Hex, two spots for DCM and for EtAC two spots detected. FT-IR spectra showed the characteristic prominent peaks. The maximum number of functional groups were observed in M. azedarach bark, followed by A. nilotica whole branch/bark and M. azedarach whole branch. The least number of functional groups were observed in E. hirta. HPLC analysis was revealed that 9 compounds were majorly quantified in A. nilotica whole branch bark i.e., Gallic Acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, Gentisic Acid, Protocatechuic Acid, Catechin, Syringic Acid, Chlorogenic Acid, Vanillic acid, and Epi-catechin. twenty-three compounds were predominantly quantified in M. azedarach leaves bark i.e., Quercetin, Hydroxy ferulic acid hexoside, Rutin, Vanillic Acid, Ferulic Acid, Ferulic acid hexoside II, Feruloylquinic Acid, Myricetin hexoside, Kaempferol -3- O -rutinoside, Kaempferol -3- O – rhamnoside, Procyanidin dimer B, Toosendanin, Quercetin-7-O- glycoside, Kaempferol, Catechin-7-O- glycoside, Apigenin -7-O- glycoside, Kaempferol -7-O-glycoside, Catechin-5-O- glycoside, Capric acid methyl ester, 8- Hexadecene, Phytadiene, γ-n-Amyl butyrolactone, Apigenin, Luteolin, Kaempferol -3-O-glycoside and from E. hirta seven compounds were quantified i.e., Rutin, Gallic Acid, Tannic Acid, Resorcinol, Ellagic Acid, Benzoic Acid, Quercetin. The LCMS scan of A. nilotica whole branch demonstrated the presence of twelve active compounds showing 1.612 -11.183 retention time, fifteen compounds confirmed in A. nilotica bark with rt 0.700 – 14.202, M. azedarach leaves showed only eleven compounds with rt 1.494 -13.031, M. azedarach bark showed 14 compounds in with rt 1.659 – 13.039 and E. hirta revealed eleven compounds with rt 1.557 – 10.884. The GCMS scan of A. nilotica whole branch ten compounds were detected with rt 23.529 – 35.779, A. nilotica bark 9 compounds identified with rt 6.180 – 36.157. Only one compound from M. azedarach leaves identified with rt 34.116, while 5 compounds found in M. azedarach bark with rt 30.740 – 35.379. E. hirta revealed twenty-eight compounds with rt 6.411 – 36.933. The experimental data of studies suggest that the presence of active compound introduce the therapeutic use against infectious diseases and also based on assumption that Cholistan desert medicinal plants are rich source(s) that confers various biological activities.


Keywords: Cholistan desert, Medicinal plants, Ethanol extraction, Liquid-liquid fractionation, TLC, Phytochemical analysis

Nitrogen management in a sandy loam soil grown with cucumber plants and fertilized by vermicompost

Khaled Mohamed Lela, Abdellatif Saleh El-Sebaay, Shaimaa Hassan Abd-Elrahman*, Mahmoud Mohamed Elbordiny

Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 68–Hadayek Shoubra, Cairo 11241, Egypt


Global attention is shifting to using fertilizers organically produced from available wastes in the surrounding ecosystem to provide sustainability in agriculture and conserve the environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible changes in the yield and quality of cucumber resulting from different combinations of organic solid and liquid fertilizers prepared from different organic wastes, as compared to applying mineral fertilizers. Furthermore, detecting available N concentration in sandy loam soil and total N concentration in cucumber leaves considering the effect of the studied treatments every 15 days after transplanting (DAT) until 120 DAT. Four fertilizer treatments (3 organic fertilizers, i.e., vermicompost (VC), pigeon manure (PM), and compost (COMP) in addition to mineral fertilizers) were tested in a randomized complete blocks design with three replicates. The organic fertilizer treatments were divided into three categories, the first was solid added through two equal doses. The second category was like the first one plus adding vermicompost tea (VCT) through drip irrigation (DI). The third category was like the second one, but the VCT was substituted with pigeon manure tea (PMT). Obtained results showed that the treatments of PM50/50, and VC50/50 as ground applications plus PMT or VCT through DI were given significant increases in available N in the studied soil, and enhanced the cucumber plant growth parameters, yield traits, and the total concentration of N in leaves throughout the experimental period. Additionally, the highest benefit/cost ratio (5.68) was achieved with the application of organic treatments compared to traditional ones (3.28).

Keywords: Vermicompost, Pigeon manure, Organic aqueous extract, Organic farming, Detecting N in soil and plant, Cucumber plants

Effects of the multi-strain probiotic preparation LabMix on some immune indices and intestinal microbiota in an antibiotic associated diarrhea rat model

Duy Ha Nguyen1, Ngoc Anh Thi Ta2, Huong Giang Van2, Dinh Toi Chu3, Thai Son Nguyen1 , Van Mao Can1, Quynh Uyen Nguyen2*, Hoang Van Vinh2*

1Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam

2VNU, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Hanoi, Vietnam

3International School, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam


Diarrhea is a side effect of antibiotic misuse and is frequently associated with intestinal inflammation and imbalanced gut microbiota. Many studies have demonstrated that probiotics can exhibit potential to mitigate the effects of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). In this study, we employed Lincomycin to induce AAD in the rats and subsequently assessed the impact of the multi-strain probiotic preparation LabMix on this model. The rat groups, including healthy control rats, AAD-induced rats, AAD rats with no treatment (natural recovery rats), and AAD rats treated by LabMix preparation, were evaluated regarding the general assessments, some immune indices, and intestinal microbiota analysis. The results revealed that the LabMix preparation considerably lowered the effects of the antibiotic regarding the diarrhea score and the thickness of the ceca in the rats treated by LabMix preparation. Additionally, the LabMix preparation reduced inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-a, and IL-6, while increasing the IgA in sera and in intestinal mucosae. Furthermore, it altered the compositions and abundance of intestinal bacteria of the rats. In particular, the AAD rats treated by LabMix preparation decreased the levels of potentially harmful genera such as Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, and Pseudomonas. They also increased the levels of beneficial genera including Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Romboutsia, and Clostridium innocuum. In general, the multi-strain probiotic preparation LabMix showed the effective mitigation and the improvement of the intestinal microbiota of the AAD rat model.

Keywords: Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea (AAD), Cytokine, LabMix, Microbiota, Probiotic

A new nanofibre derived from Trichoderma hamatum K01 to control durian rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora

Pheaktra Phal1*, Kasem Soytong1,2, Supattra Poeaim3

1Department of Plant Production Technology, School of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand

2Research Institute of Modern Organic Agriculture, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand

3Department of Biology, School of Science, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand


Phytophthora rot of durian var Monthong caused by Phytophthora palmivora has been proven to be a serious threat to durian plantations in Thailand. The research was targeted to isolate the causal pathogen and prove its pathogenicity by Koch’s postulate. Morphology and molecular phylogeny have confirmed the identification of pathogenic and antagonistic fungi. Evaluation of antagonistic fungus against plant pathogen in vitro and greenhouse conditions, morphology and molecular phylogenetic identification confirmed antagonistic species Trichoderma hamatum K01 and pathogenic isolate P. palmivora PYSC01. The crude metabolite of T. hamatum K01, namely TK01-MeOH gave the most substantial inhibitory effect to inhibit colony growth and sporangia formation at ED50 (50% effective dose) values of 288 and 118 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, nanofibre namely nano-TK01M exhibited the best antifungal activity in inhibiting colony growth and sporangia formation at ED50 values of 11 and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Nano-TK01M treated on durian leaves induced the synthesis of scopoletin, which is known as a defense mechanism and marker of plant resistance or plant immunity. Moreover, the application of nano-TK01M significantly reduced disease incidence, the same as metalaxyl. Additionally, nano-TK01M treatment was the most effective in enhancing plant physiological parameters, including the synthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and promoted plant growth, compared to both metalaxyl and non-treated control. T. hamatum K01 produced antifungal metabolite pyrone 6-pentyl-2H-Pyran-2-one and sorbicillin. It is reported for the first time that pyrone and sorbicillin could be expressed as bioactive compounds in reduction of the disease incidence of durian rot caused by P. palmivora. The finding confirmed that nano-TK01M from T. hamatum K01 exhibited the most effective in controlling plant pathogen, which could be promoted as agricultural input for plant disease management, and it is also a nontoxic fungicide for living life and eco-friendly.

Keywords: Nanofibre, Trichoderma hamatum, Phytoalexins, Phytophthora palmivora, root rot

Assessment of drought tolerance capacity of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) on the basis of various growth and physio–chemical indicators

Sultan Ali1*, Rashad Mukhtar Balal1, Muhammad Mansoor Javaid2

1Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan


Bulbous crops like tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) needs abundant amount of water for its better growth and development as compared to other floricultural crops. A mismanagement of irrigation may lead to severe damages to the crop and huge economic loss. Thus, to understand basis of irrigation needs and its impact on tuberose plant, a pot experiment was performed. Drought tolerance capacity of tuberose was assessed by analyzing morphological, physiological, enzymatic and bio-chemical attributes of two tuberose cultivars (Mexican Single and Pearl Double) under different irrigation regimes. Plants were grown in the plastic pots arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). Seven irrigation intervals (2, 3, 4,5,6,7 and 8 days; viz. T2-T7 respectively; T1 = control) were applied. Pots were placed in growth chamber with 30/25°C day/night temperatures and 50±5 % relative humidity. Results revealed that growth parameters in tuberose plant in both cultivars showed better performance under minimum irrigation interval (2 days) followed by 3 days and 5 days interval. Drought caused significant decreases in height of flowering stem (HFS; T2: 20 cm; T8: 10 cm), leaf area (LA; T2: 53.3cm2; T8: 16.9cm2), plant height (PH; T2: 27.6; T8: 12.74), fresh weight of flowering stem (FWFS;T2: 37.5;T8: 12.6), relative water content (RWC), photosynthesis rate (A), transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (SC) and chlorophyll contents (Chl) and increases in leaf water potential (LWP), water use efficiency (WUE), antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, POD, SOD) and biochemical traits (Pro and Gly). However, enzymes activities like CAT, POD, and SOD; proline and glycinebetaine in the leaves of cultivar ‘Pearl Double’ were observed significantly higher than those in the leaves of ‘Mexican Single’ cultivar, regardless of irrigation intervals (water treatments). The results indicated that the growth performance of ‘Mexican Single’ cultivar was better than the ‘Pearl Double’ cultivar in drought conditions.

Keywords: Drought, Tuberose, Relative water content, Antioxidants, Photosynthesis

Plant parasitic nematodes associated with vegetable crops in the main agroecological zones of Côte d’Ivoire

Yao Akissi Sandrine1*, Yéo Gnenakan2, Nandjui Jacob3, Tiénébo Eric-Olivier1, Kassi Koffi Fernand Jean-Martial4, Kouadio Edouard Yves Gilchrist4, Konan Kan Ulrich Urbain1, Kakou Didier Junior4, Kouadio Kouakou Théodore1, Abo Kouabenan1

1Laboratoire de Phytopathologie et de Biologie Végétale. Département de Formation et de Recherche Agriculture et Ressources Animales. Institut National Polytechnique Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY. BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

2Centre National de Recherche Agronomique. Direction Régionale de Korhogo. Station expérimentale de Ferkessédougou. BP 121 Ferkessédougou, Côte d’Ivoire

3Laboratoire de Biotechnologie Végétale et Microbienne. Département de Formation et de Recherche Agriculture et Ressources Animales. Institut National Polytechnique Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY. BP 1093 Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

4Unité Pédagogique de Recherche de Physiologie et Pathologie Végétales. Laboratoire de Biotechnologie, Agriculture et Valorisation des Ressources Biologiques. Unité de formation et de recherche Biosciences. Université Félix HOUPHOUËT-BOIGNY. BP 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire


Vegetable crops in Côte d’Ivoire are attacked by numerous pests, including plant-parasitic nematodes that cause enormous crop losses. A survey was conducted in six agroecological zones (AEZ) to study the plant-parasitic nematodes associated with vegetable crops. 120 soil and root samples of seven plant species belonging to Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae were collected. These samples were subjected to various laboratory analyses, including extraction, counting, and identifying nematodes. Plant-parasitic nematodes belonging to nine genera have been inventoried: Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, Radopholus, Pratylenchus, Hemicycliophora, Rotylenchulus, Hoplolaimus, Xiphinema and Heterodera. Overall, all the populations were abundant in soils (more than 1000 individuals per kilogram) and roots (more than ten individuals per gram). However, segregation between the genera was observed according to the frequency of populations. The genus Meloidogyne was the most frequent and abundant in the whole localities and vegetable crops. Frequencies of 91% and 100% were observed for Meloidogyne in the roots of tomato and the rhizosphere of zucchini. Xiphinema, Hoplolaimus, Heterodera, and Rotylenchulus had very low-frequency values in soils, while the other genera had intermediate frequency values. The Principal Components Analyses based on nematode populations highlighted a strong correlation between the AEZ I and some genera’s abundance, notably Xiphinema 92% correlated in the roots samples. Similarly, a strong correlation was observed between the abundance of some genera and eggplant; notably, Meloidogyne correlated to 83% in the soil samples. This study highlights the importance of plant-parasitic nematodes in Ivorian vegetable crops, hence the need to implement integrated management measures to limit yield losses.

 Keywords: Plant parasitic nematodes, Vegetable crops, Density, Frequency, Agroecological zone

Oxidative stress modulates endocrine profiling in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients

Irfan Ahmad Mughal1, Ghulam Hussain1, Imran Mukhtar1, Shahzad Irfan1, Haseeb Anwar1*

1Department of Physiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Oxidative stress accelerates the pathophysiological development of various anomalies like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The current study aimed to assess the role of oxidative stress in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Adult women (n=100) aged ~20–40 years which were diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome on ultrasound following the Rotterdam criteria, were randomly selected from various hospitals within the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Fifty healthy women (n=50) with same age and regular menstrual cycles, biochemical and metabolic markers were designated as a control group. Blood samples were collected from both the groups on 2nd day of menstrual cycle. Serum was separated from the blood samples and evaluated for oxidative stress markers, lipid and hormonal profile in both groups. Stress scale-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire was employed to assess the depression and anxiety scale. Results exhibit a strong correlation of FSH levels with oxidative stress parameters. The questionnaire revealed severe depression, anxiety, and stress in patients of PCOS. Apart from elevated oxidative stress markers, dyslipidemia was also prevalent in the PCOS patients. In conclusion the current study highlights the permissive role of oxidative stress in PCOS which results in hormonal disruption.


Keywords: Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Oxidative stress, Lipid profile, Thyroid stimulating hormone, Dyslipidemia

Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic activities and acute toxicity of Calendula stellata n-butanol extract from Algeria

Amina Foughalia1, Sakina Zerizer1*, Boutheyna Aribi1, Zahia Kabouche2, Chawki Bensouici3

1Département de Biologie Animale, Laboratoire d’Immunologie et Activités Biologiques des Substances Naturelles, Université des frères Mentouri-Constantine 1, 25000 Constantine, Algeria

2Département de Chimie, Laboratoire d’Obtention de Substances Thérapeutiques, Université des frères Mentouri-Constantine1, 25000 Constantine, Algeria

3Centre de Recherche en Biotechnologie (C.R.Bt), Ali Mendjli Nouvelle Ville BPE.73 Constantine, Alegria


Calendula stellata (Asteraceae family), growing in North-East Algeria was investigated for its biological activities in laboratory animal model studies. The n-butanol extract was prepared from aerial parts using ethanol maceration followed by liquid-liquid extraction then, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and reducing power assay. Then acute toxicity was tested in mice using the Up and Down test and, the anti-inflammatory anti-arthritic activity was evaluated using formalin induced arthritis (FIA) in Wistar rats. Results indicated that, the extract was rich in phenolic and flavonoid contents (224.097 ±7.31 mg GAE/g and 207.36±10.081mg QE/g, respectively). It possessed considerable antioxidant activity, the extract showed no visible toxicity or mortality signs, and the LD50 was > 2000mg/kg body weight. Furthermore, in the FIA, the extract showed significant dose-dependent inhibition in paw edema. It also it decreased the C-reactive protein (CRP) plasmatic, preventing cartilage destruction and liver injury. In conclusion, C. stellata n-butanol extract possesses antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities, in addition to protective properties in hepatic tissue.


Keywords: Calendula stellata, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-arthritic, Algeria

Screening of promising sugarcane genotypes in relation to agroecological conditions of Tandojam district of Sindh, Pakistan

Wajid Ali Hisbani1, Shahbaz Khan2*, Muhammad Mahamood-ur-Rahman Jamro3, Nisar Ahmad Soomro4, Babar Hafeez5, Danish Ibrar6, Afroz Rais7, Safia Gul7, Sohail Irshad8, Mehjabeen Hameed7

1Sugarcane Research Institute, Agriculture Center, Tandojam, Pakistan

2Colorado Water Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

3Department of Agronomy, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Agricultural College Dokri, Larkana, Pakistan

4Water & Agricultural Waste Management Institute, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Tandojam, Pakistan

5Soil Fertility Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan

6Crop Science Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan

7Department of Botany, Sardar Bahadur Khan Women’s University, Quetta, Pakistan

8Department of Agronomy, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


Worldwide, sugarcane is the major sugar-producing crop and the sugar industry ranks second largest industry of Pakistan. Field experiments were conducted during the sugarcane cultivation seasons of 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 at Sugarcane Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan. Seventeen sugarcane genotypes (G1 to G17) were studied to select potential genotypes having better agronomic and quality performances. Results of both studied years indicated that the maximum sprouting (66%) was noted by G1 followed by G8 (64%) in the first season, while G10 recorded the highest sprouting of 62.66% in the second year. The lengthiest cane length of 3 and 2.7 m was observed by G1 in two consecutive seasons, respectively. The maximum number of nodes was recorded in G15 (29.67) and G12 (40.67) in the 1st and 2nd years of study, respectively. Regarding cane girth, G1, during the first of study, while G1 and G2 performed better in the second year of study. With respect to quality attributes of studied genotypes, the highest brix percentage (23.66 and 23.62) was recorded by G13 and G12 in the first season. In the case of second year, the maximum brix percentage of 23.77 and 23.63 was recorded by G11 and G4, respectively. The highest cane yield of 126.33 t ha-1 was recorded by G1 in the first season, and in the next season, both G1 (138.6 ha-1) and G2 (124.6 t ha-1) produced the maximum cane yield. Among the tested genotypes, G1, G2, G4, G11, G12, and G13 were observed as promising genotypes with the best potential for yield and quality attributes to fulfill the needs of growers and industry.


Keywords: Climate, Genotypes, Growth, Performance, Quality, Sugarcane, Yield

Controlled mycorrhization of Peganum harmala L by desert truffle Terfezia claveryi chatin from the eastern region of Morocco

Halima Bouchentouf¹*, Wissame Chafai¹, Abdelmajid Bechchari², Abdesselam Maatougui², Ahmed Khalid¹

¹Laboratory for the Improvement of Agricultural Production Biotechnology and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed I University, Oujda 60000, Morocco

²National Institute of Agronomic Research, CRRA Oujda, 10 Bd Mohamed VI, B.P. 428, 6000 Oujda, Morocco


This work aims to study the effects of mycorrhization of Terfezia claveryi on the growth of Peganum harmala L. It takes place in two types of substrates: sandy-loamy soil, (from the natural habitat of the desert truffle in eastern Morocco (Beni Mathar)) and peat, under controlled conditions. The intensity and frequency of mycorrhizae are thus compared for the two substrates. The roots of Peganum harmala L on sandy-loamy soil, are characterized by low levels of organic matter, phosphorus and nitrogen, these roots form with Terfezia claveryi a typical arbuscular endomycorrhizae. The intensity and frequency of mycorrhization are found to be higher (30% and 96.66%, respectively), than in roots of the same plant inoculated with the same fungus, on peat rich in organic matter and phosphorus (20.25% and a frequency of 58.66% respectively). The symbiotic associations between Peganum harmala L and Terfezia claveryi on peat, lead to the formation of ectomycorrhizae with a Hartig net without fungal mantle. These results demonstrate the plasticity of Terfezia claveryi to form different mycorrhizal types. The parameters of Peganum harmala L inoculated with Terfezia claveryi on sandy-loamy soil, are higher than those of seedlings inoculated on peat. Mycorrhization of Peganum harmala L with Terfezia claveryi, under in vivo culture conditions was achieved for the first time. These encouraging results prompted us to perform a transplant in Beni Mathar. The objective is to observe their growth and development and to verify whether this Terfezia-Peganum harmala L combination, leads to the formation of sporocarps in the field.


Keywords: Terfezia claveryi, Peganum harmala L, Inoculation, Arbuscular Endomycorrhizae, Ectomycorrhizae