Tag Archives: 8-1

Effects of cassava starch supplementation on behavioural characteristics and oxidative status in Drosophila melanogaster

Olarewaju M. Oluba1*, Motunrayo M. Ayodele1, Abigail G. Adeyonu2, Ayoola J. Shoyombo2, Olayinka O. Alabi2, Oghenerobor B. Akpor3

1Department of Biochemistry, Food Safety and Toxicology Research Unit, College of Pure & Applied Sciences, Landmark University, P.M.B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, P. M. B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Landmark University, P. M. B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria


Studies have revealed that adaptive life-history behaviour and reproductive capacity of an organism are influenced by the amount and quality of nutrients. Furthermore, it has been established that the balance between energy production and utilization is crucial to the animal’s survival and reproduction vis-a-vis the organism’s ability to adjust their developmental, physiological or behavioural response to environmental conditions. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the effect of cassava starch supplementation on chill-coma recovery, reproductive capacity and some metabolic-induced changes in oxidative status of Drosophila melanogaster, which was raised on a normal fly diet supplemented with 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500 and 2000 mg/mL starch extracted from three cassava cultivars (TMS 92/0326, TMS 30572 and Omu-Aran local sweet cassava). Data generated from this study showed that flies consuming starch-supplemented diet have a higher level of cold resistance, an increased survival rate as well as enhanced egg to adult viability. However, flies raised on starch-supplemented diet showed a significantly higher concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with a compensatory significant increase in activities of antioxidant defense enzymes, and nitric oxide scavenging capacity compared to flies raised on the normal fly diet. In conclusion, data obtained from this study revealed that supplementation to the D. melanogaster diet with cassava starch enhances the organism’s survival rate, and adaptive response to cold stress, with concomitant improvement in antioxidant status.

Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster diet, Starch supplementation, Adaptive behaviour, Oxidative stress

Screening of resistant germplasm against powdery mildew of pea and its management through nutrients and plant activators

Amna Ikram1, Hafiz Muhammad Usman Aslam2*, Muhammad Atiq2, Luqman Amrao2, Safdar Ali2, Nasir Ahmad Khan2, Khalid Naveed3

1Department of Pest warning and Quality control of Pesticides, Punjab, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Sub-campus Depalpur, Okara, Pakistan


In Pakistan, powdery mildew of pea is an emerging pathogen to notable production of pea. The research was conducted to evaluate the currently available resistant source against the powdery mildew (Erysiphe pisi) and its management through nutrients (micronutrients and macronutrients) and plant activators (citric acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, K2HPO4, KH2PO4). Thirteen varieties/lines were grown under a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The data of disease incidence were examined at weekly intervals to evaluate the resistant source against this disease. Varieties/lines including No. 267, F-16, and Peas-2009 exhibited a resistant response to E. pisi with a disease incidence of 3.3, 6.6, and 1.6% respectively. The winner showed moderately resistant response with disease incidence 23.46%. Green grass (45.05%), VIP (37.7%), Peas meto (29.50%), Aleena (30.63%) and Azad (36.00%) were moderately susceptible. The Varieties PF-450 (65.00%), and Sprinter (61.70%) showed susceptible response. The Varieties Climax (74.00%) and Meteor (73.53%) were highly susceptible to powdery mildew. The macronutrients proved to be the highly effective with lowest disease incidence as 8.14%. Salicylic acid was the most effective plant activator followed by K2HPO4 that exhibited the minimum diseases incidence 16.38% and 22.62% respectively. Our findings concluded that the variety Peas-2009 was highly resistant against the powdery mildew. Macronutrients and salicylic acid (SA) were highly potent nutrient and plant activator in minimizing the development of this radical fungal pathogen.

Keywords: Screening, Pisum sativum, Nutrients, Erysiphe pisi, Plant activators

Morphological, phylogenetic and pathogenicity characterisation of Fusarium species associated with wilt disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus)

Asma Aris1, Zainap Ab Easa Hasan1, Shamarina Shohaimi1, Noor Baity Saidi2, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin1

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia

2Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia


Fusarium is a well-known soil-borne fungus where most species belonged in this genus is prominently phytopathogenic. Nevertheless, this pathogenic species has affected the production of pumpkin worldwide. This study underlines the morphological, phylogeny and pathogenicity characteristics of Fusarium for a better disease-control strategy. Twenty-six Fusarium isolates were collected from wilt infected pumpkin in various locations of Peninsular Malaysia. From the combinations of morphological and molecular identifications, four species were identified as F. oxysporum (2 isolates), F. solani (4 isolates), F. proliferatum (7 isolates) and F. incarnatum (13 isolates). Microscopic and macroscopic observation visualized distinct characteristics of the identified Fusarium species. Sequence analyses of tef1α and β-tub genes inferred by maximum likelihood tree resulted in distinct section-specific characteristics. Meanwhile, pathogenicity test of Fusarium isolates presented by the seed inoculation produced various degrees of severities. Fusarium solani C2526P recorded the highest severity of 93.8% after 30 days of post inoculation (dpi). Symptoms have been identified as early as 10 dpi producing stunted growth of the plants. On the other hand, Fusarium oxysporum D2532P recorded 85.3% disease severity. Pathogenic Fusarium caused stunted growth, chlorosis, wilting and necrosis especially at the root of pumpkin plants. This study provides valuable information and methods to manage wilt infected pumpkin in the future.

 Keywords: Fusarium wilt, Cucurbita pepo, Phylogeny, Pathogenicity

Evaluation of fungicides and nutritional amendments against powdery mildew of pumpkin

Maryam Yousaf1, Romana Anjum1, Nadeem Ahmed4, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan2*, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Usman Ghani3

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

3Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

4Department of Plant Pathology, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


Sphaerotheca fuliginea is the most commonly recorded fungus that cause powdery mildew of cucurbits. The outbreak of this disease occurred in Pakistan in Neelam valley. Current study was conducted to minimize significant economic losses by using different combinations of fungicides and nutritional amendments. Fungicides Bravo (Chlorothalonil) and Score (Difenoconazol) and nutrient solutions of Agsil (Potassium silicate) and Peak (mono potassium phosphate) were applied alone and in combination to manage the disease. Bravo and Score were applied @ 1.5ml/L and 2.5ml/, respectively while 0.1% solutions of both Agsila and Peak was used. Nutritional amendments were used before the onset of disease and fungicides were applied after the appearance of disease. All the treatments were randomized in three replications. The findings described the combination of fungicides was most efficient in decreasing disease incidence as it reduced the powdery mildew incidence upto 60%. In individual fungicidal applications, Bravo treated plants showed less disease incidence (36%) than Score (40%). However to avoid from the environmental hazards nutritional amendments is the safest option which gave 50% reduction in disease incidence. Agsil was more effective than Peak in individual applications and it showed 47% disease incidence that was 49% in case of Peak.

Keywords: Powdery mildew, Pumpkin, Management, Evaluation

Analysis of genotype-environment interaction in fennel using Sudoku design

Ali F. Al-Mehemdi1*, Medhat M. Elsahookie2, Mohammed H Al-Issawi3

1Center of Desert Studies, University of Anbar, Iraq

2Department of Field Crops Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Iraq

3Department of Field Crops Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar, Iraq


Two trials were carried out over two locations, Ramadi and Fallujah included nine genotypes of Fennel, in order to assess the interaction between genotypes (G) and locations (E) using real data from the two experiments. The nine genotypes of fennel were randomly distributed under with Sudoku square design using type-I and model-I for combined analysis. The methodologies of this type and model solution were explained in details in the current study. Genotypes were significantly differed (P>0.01) in the first location. In the combined analysis, the genotype by location (G X E) interaction was also significant (P>0.01) which is due to the effect of the genotype. It can be concluded that Sudoku square design is suitable for selecting better genotypes as a honeycomb design and to test the multi-environment trial yield. Therefore, augmented studies should be conducted to extract the efficiency of this design using other types and models embedded in this design.

Keywords: GxE interaction, Fennel, Locations, Sudoku design

Impact of farm manure application on maize growth and tissue Pb concentration grown on different textured saline-sodic Pb-toxic soils

Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal1*, Tayyaba Naz2, Hafeez-u-Rehman3, Sehar Nawaz4, Muhammad Abdul Qayyum5, Mazhar Iqbal Zafar6, Omer Farooq7, Atiqure-urRehman7, Muhammad Imtiaz8, Ghulam Murtaza2, Abid Mahmood9, Shahzada Munawar Mehdi10, Shahid Javed11, Muhammad Aleem Sarwar12, Muhammad Ishaq Javed13

1Soil and Water Testing Laboratory, Chiniot. Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab, Pakistan

2Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Soil and Water Testing Laboratory, Sialkot. Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab, Pakistan

4Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

5Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences. Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

6Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

7Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

8Environmental Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan

9Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab, Pakistan

10Rapid Soil Fertility Survey and Soil Testing Institute, Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

11Provincial Reference Fertilizer Testing Laboratory, Raiwind, Lahore, Pakistan

12Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan

13Agricultural Economics Section, AARI, Faisalabad, Pakistan


The impact of applied farm manure (FM) on growth of maize and tissue Pb concentration in maize grown on saline-sodic sandy loam and sandy clayey loam textured Pb-toxic soils was evaluated in present pot study. The soils were spiked with Pb at 200 kg ha-1 soil and equilibrated for 60 days at about field capacity. Treatments were comprised of three levels of FM (0, 20 or 40 g kg-1 soil) arranged in completely randomized design each replicated thrice. The highest dry matter of maize shoots from sandy loam soil was recorded with the applied 40 g kg-1 FM. From sandy loam soil, maximum dry matter of shoots was noted with FM at 20 and 40 g kg-1. Applied FM at 20 and 40 g kg-1 produced statically similar dry matter of maize roots in sandy clayey loam soil. While in sandy loam soil, 20 g kg-1 FM application resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher dry matter of maize roots than control treatment and 40 g kg-1 FM application. The applied FM at 20 and 40 g kg-1 consequence in statically similar shoot and root Pb concentration grown on both textured Pb-toxic soils but lower compared to that of the control soils. For post-experiment soils, minimum plant available Pb in sandy loam soil with FM at 40 g kg-1 was recorded while in sandy clayey loam, minimum plant available Pb was observed with the addition of FM at 20 and 40 g kg-1.

Keywords: Farm manure, Organic matter, Pb concentration, Salinity, Sodicity, Pb venomous soil

Nutrient and antinutrient retention in indigenous white cassava gari and provitamin A biofortified yellow cassava gari fermented over different time periods

Olarewaju Michael Oluba*

Department of Biochemistry, Food Safety and Toxicology Research Unit, Environment and Technology Research Cluster, College of Science and Engineering, Landmark University, P.M.B. 1001, Omu Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria


This study evaluated the interaction between changes in fermentation period and nutrient/antinutrient composition of indigenous white cassava (IWC) gari and provitamin A biofortified yellow cassava (pVABYC) gari. For both the cassava varieties, as the fermentation time was increased from 2 to 5 days, the moisture and fat contents increased significantly whereas the ash and fibre contents reduced significantly. Phytate level decrease by 15.8% and 10% in the IWC gari and pVABYC gari respectively due to increase in fermentation period from 2 to 5 days. Tannin reduced by 3.4% and 5.1% while cyanogenic potential decreased by 10% and 27.8% in the IWC gari and pVABYC gari respectively due to increase in fermentation period from 2 to 5 days. As the fermentation time increased from 2 to 5 days, the total carotenoids, β-carotene, and provitamin A carotenoids reduced by 20.7%, 22.2%, and 23.4%, respectively, for pVABYC and by 22.6%, 21.4%, and 20.7%, respectively, for IWC. The percentage retention of the total carotenoids, β-carotene, and provitamin A carotenoids in the gari samples obtained from the two cassava varieties decreased significantly with an increase in the fermentation time. In conclusion, as the fermentation time increases, pVABYC is found to have a better nutritional retention capacity than IWC. Thus, pVABYC gari retains more nutrient in addition to providing 100% more β-carotene than IWC.

Keywords: Biofortified cassava, Vitamin A deficiency, Provitamin A carotenoids, Anti-nutritional factors, Fermentation, Food processing

Response of hybrid maize to multiple soil organic amendments under sufficient or deficient soil zinc situation

Naeem Sarwar1*, Khuram Mubeen2, Allah Wasaya3, Atique-ur-Rehman1, Omer Farooq1, Muhammad Shehzad4

1Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

3College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Bahadur Sub-Campus, Layyah, Pakistan

4Department of Agronomy, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJ&K, Pakistan


We studied the role of addition of various organic supplements for zinc uptake and overall maize crop performance. In field experiment, different sources of organic matter were added as supplement doses in the form of compost, biochar, humic acid and biofertilizer with or without soil zinc application. All other agronomic practices were remained normal as per farming community recommendation. Results revealed that various organic supplements significantly improved the crop performance not under zinc applied soil while also under zinc deficient soil. Crop showed accelerated growth in term of leaf area index, leaf area duration, crop growth rate etc which further leads toward better crop yield and quality. Organic supplements (biochar>compost>humic acid>biofertilizer) improve the crop production in zinc deficient as well as in zinc fertile soil but this effect was most prominent under biochar application. Findings suggest that farmers can enhance the maize crop productivity with the addition of organic supplements under zinc fertilization.

 Keywords: Crop, Soil fertility, Organic supplements, Yield

Investigation of the association between dietary fibre, protein and fat with Manganese content in food

Madhura  Jayasinghe1*, Binosha Fernando2, Subhashinie Senadheera3, Pubudu Gunawardene4, Somathilaka Ranaweera1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka

2Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer’s disease Research and Care, Sir James McCusker Alzheimer’s Disease Research Unit, School of Medical and health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia

3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Saliyapura, Sri Lanka

4Zooplus AG, Sonnenstraße 15, Munich, Germany


Manganese deficiency may cause severe health disorders and is becoming prevalent in societies that are rapidly urbanising.  Determining the Manganese contents and its relationship with the intake of protein, fibre and fats is important; which may allow people to select Manganese rich foods based on their major macronutrients. A cross-sectional study including detailed dietary assessment for two weeks, followed by proximate analysis of regularly consumed diets was conducted using 1200 adults from three different social segments as; lecturers/teachers (400), managerial employees in the private sector (400), and houses wives (400). Each social segment was assumed to elicit different lifestyles and different daily Manganese and Macronutrient intake levels. Most frequently consumed food items by them and their respective portion sizes were identified. Those were prepared using mostly practiced cooking methods and chemically analysed for proximate compositions of fat, protein, dietary fibre and Manganese contents. Regression and general liner models were used to estimate the association between protein, fibre and fat intake and Mn levels. The average daily protein, fibre and fat intakes were 53.51, 36.85 and 41.85 grams respectively. The average Manganese intake was 1.87 grams. There were significantly negative association between dietary Manganese levels and fat intake (β=-0.041, p<0.00). Increased dietary fat intake was associated with low levels of Manganese (β=-0.041, p<0.00) for all social segments. Higher protein (β=0.019, p=0.01) or fibre intake (β=0.013 p=0.002) reduced the risk of Manganese deficiency. Overall, dietary Manganese elicited a positive correlation with proteins and fibre in foods, but a negative correlation with dietary fat.

 Keywords: Manganese, Dietary fibre, Fats, Protein

Organic fertilizer modulates IAA and ABA levels and biochemical reactions of date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. Hillawi cultivar under salinity conditions

Hussein Jasim Shareef*

Date Palm Research Center, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq


Organic fertilizer can be viewed to diminish the negative effect of saltiness on the plant. Foliar application of yeast (4 g l-1) and algae (4 ml l-1) extracts on Hillawi offshoots, watered with salt or freshwater examined. The outcomes demonstrated that yeast extracts improved both the hormone levels and the date palm biochemical reactions. Salinity reduced all examined growth parameters (leaf area, plant height, and leaves number). Likewise, chlorophyll content in leaves decreased. Organic fertilizers improved date palm growth. Yeast application increased chlorophyll content, organic solutes, and substances growth included indole-3-acetic acid, zeatin, and gibberellin. However, the yeast extracts increased amino acids and ascorbic acid. The organic fertilizer lowered the accumulation of sodiumin the leaf. It increased uptake of potassium, bringing about a higher K+/Na+ ratio. Improving plant development under saltiness conditions was identified with an enhancement in the content of amino acids and carbohydrate content. The use of yeast extract could induce the recovery of the plant exposed to salinity. Organic fertilizers (yeast and seaweed extracts), which are economically and environmentally friendly, can be recommended to farmers for alleviating salinity.

 Keywords: GA3, Auxins, Algae extracts, Yeast extracts