Category Archives: d_short_communication

Short Communication

Comparative peptidomics analysis reveals the peptides involving tobacco seed ageing

Guoping Wang1, Yunye Zheng1, Wenlong Suo1, Dongjie Zhou1, Jie Xu1, Yongqi He2, Zhoufei Wang2*,

Limeng Zhang1*

1Yuxi Zhongyan Seed Company Ltd., Seed Engineering Technology Center of Yunnan Province, Yuxi 653100, China

2Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Breeding, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China


Improvement of seed ageing tolerance is critical for germplasm conservation and field cultivation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). However, whether peptides involved in the regulation of seed ageing remains unknown. In this study, a comparative peptidomics analysis conducted to reveal the regulators involving seed ageing in tobacco. Seed vigor was significantly reduced after 5 days artificial ageing treatment compared with that of the unaged seed. A total of 2812 and 4604 peptides identified in the 5 days aged seeds and unaged seeds, respectively; in which 542 peptides were differentially expressed between the aged and unaged seeds. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that the majority precursor proteins of the differentially expressed peptides involved in response to oxygen-containing compound, response to abscisic acid, and response to lipid. Further, the peptides derived from the precursor proteins, such as late embryogenesis abundant protein, peroxiredoxin, catalase, and globulin proteins, involved in seed ageing in tobacco. The identified peptides provide a foundation for the further exploration of seed ageing tolerance in tobacco.

Keywords: Peptidomics, Peptides, Seed ageing, Nicotiana tabacum L., Vigor index

Occurrence of Shiga toxin producing E. coli in zoo animals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad zoos

Muhammad Basit Rasheed1, Aitezaz Ahsan2, Hamid Irshad2*, Muhammad Armaghan Shahzad2, Muhammad Usman2, Aayesha Riaz3, Tamoor Hamid Chaudhry4, Afreenish Amir4, Mohsina Zubair5, Asghar Khan6, Arfan Yousaf6

1Jungle World Theme Park and Zoo, Army Heritage Foundation, Ayub National Park, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Animal Health Research Laboratories, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan

3Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

4Public Health Laboratories Division, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan

5National Environmental Quality Standard, Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, Islamabad, Pakistan

6Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are considered pathogens of zoonotic importance. Zoo animals have been reported as reservoirs of STEC and many STEC human outbreaks have been linked with zoo animals. Available information about the occurrence of STEC in zoo animals in Pakistan is limited. Therefore, the current study was executed to estimate the occurrence of STEC in zoo animals of two zoos of Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities in Pakistan. Total of 110 faecal samples were collected from 24 species of zoo animals. The samples were analysed for determination of eae, stx1, stx2, and ehxA genes using multiplex PCR. The positive samples for any of these genes were further analysed for isolation using sorbitol MacConkey agar. Out of 110 fecal samples, 15 samples (13.6%) contained targeted virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, ehxA). Six different combinations of virulence genes were observed in positive samples. Only two E. coli isolates with targeted virulence genes could be isolated from PCR positive samples. The study indicated that the wild animals maintained in zoos of Rawalpindi and Islamabad are carriers of STEC and may be the source of infection for humans.

Keywords: STEC, Wild animals, Zoo, Virulence genes, Pakistan

Rose and eucalyptus essential oil as potent anti-liver cancer agents

Shabnam Javed1, Amna Shoaib2, Ayesha Malik3, Bushra Ijaz3, Shagufta Perveen2 

1Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

3National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore-53700, Pakistan


The present study was designed to investigate the anti-cancer potential of essential oil obtained from Rosa indica (REO) and Eucalyptus citriodora (EEO) against the liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Firstly, the cytotoxic activity was assessed using increasing concentrations ranging from 3.12 to 200 µg/ml via MTT assay. EEO showed only 2% cell viability while REO represented 18% at the highest concentration (200 μg/ml). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of EEO and REO was found to be 17.741 µg/ml and 18.55 µg/ml respectively. Additionally, evident morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed after 24 hours of essential oil treatment compared to control or untreated cells. Furthermore, to strengthen the anti-cancer perspective of essential oils, the anti-metastatic potential was evaluated through the wound healing assay. EEO promisingly inhibited migration (4% wound closure, **p > 0.01) in HepG2 cells after 24 hr treatment. Likewise, REO also exhibited good results (37% wound closure, ***p > 0.001). Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that REO and EEO are potent anti-cancer agents against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: Essential oil, Metastasis, HepG2, Cytotoxicity, Liver cancer

Detection of Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Epsilon and Clostridium chauvoei A toxin genes in Blackleg

Azam Ali Nasir1*, Muhammad Usman Ashraf1, Asma Kausar1, Nofil Mustafa1, Zain-ul Fatima1,

Mobeen Sarwar2, Rabia Riaz1, Waseem Shahzad1, Abdul Khaliq2, Riaz Hussain3

1Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore Cantt, Pakistan

2Provincial Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Cooper Road, Lahore, Pakistan

3College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detected concurrent infection of Clostridium (C.) perfringens type D and C. chauvoei in samples of three cattle out of five which were submitted to Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) for confirmation of C. chauvoei. The animals had a history of fever, lameness and crepitating sound with death occurring within 48 hours after the onset of clinical signs and seemed to be typical cases of black leg. Furthermore, the traditional methods including clinical examination, necropsy findings, cultural and biological methods are not solely enough for the confirmation of disease and are not sufficient to determine the number of pathogens involved in such cases.


Keywords: C. chauvoei, C. perfringens type D, Cattle, PCR, Concurrent infection

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from Beni-Guil lamb carcasses in eastern Morocco

Belhaj Kamal1*, Farid Mansouri2, Darouiche Oumaima3, Khamri Mohamed3, Chaouki Belbachir3,4, Elamrani Ahmed1

1Laboratory for Agricultural Productions Improvement, Biotechnology and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed First, BP-717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco

1,2Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BP-159, 34000 Taounate, Morocco

3Regional Laboratory of Analysis and Research, National Office for Food Safety, BP 73, 60000 Oujda, Morocco

4Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Science, University Mohammed First, BP-717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco


This study aims to assess the microbial quality and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from Beni-Guil lamb carcasses. 103 samples were used for the study. The mean values obtained for microbial quality were 4.65, 3.07, 1.26, 0.99 and 0.69 (log10 CFU/cm2), respectively for total aerobic Flora counts, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.70% of tested Escherichia coli strains were resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, as for Staphylococcus aureus, 100% of strains tested were resistant to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to erythromycin. Regarding gentamicin and benzylpenicillin, 70 % and 60% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant, respectively.                                               

Keywords: Beni-Guil sheep, Carcass, Microbial quality, Antimicrobial resistance

Effects of cassava starch supplementation on behavioural characteristics and oxidative status in Drosophila melanogaster

Olarewaju M. Oluba1*, Motunrayo M. Ayodele1, Abigail G. Adeyonu2, Ayoola J. Shoyombo2, Olayinka O. Alabi2, Oghenerobor B. Akpor3

1Department of Biochemistry, Food Safety and Toxicology Research Unit, College of Pure & Applied Sciences, Landmark University, P.M.B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, P. M. B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Landmark University, P. M. B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria


Studies have revealed that adaptive life-history behaviour and reproductive capacity of an organism are influenced by the amount and quality of nutrients. Furthermore, it has been established that the balance between energy production and utilization is crucial to the animal’s survival and reproduction vis-a-vis the organism’s ability to adjust their developmental, physiological or behavioural response to environmental conditions. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the effect of cassava starch supplementation on chill-coma recovery, reproductive capacity and some metabolic-induced changes in oxidative status of Drosophila melanogaster, which was raised on a normal fly diet supplemented with 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500 and 2000 mg/mL starch extracted from three cassava cultivars (TMS 92/0326, TMS 30572 and Omu-Aran local sweet cassava). Data generated from this study showed that flies consuming starch-supplemented diet have a higher level of cold resistance, an increased survival rate as well as enhanced egg to adult viability. However, flies raised on starch-supplemented diet showed a significantly higher concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with a compensatory significant increase in activities of antioxidant defense enzymes, and nitric oxide scavenging capacity compared to flies raised on the normal fly diet. In conclusion, data obtained from this study revealed that supplementation to the D. melanogaster diet with cassava starch enhances the organism’s survival rate, and adaptive response to cold stress, with concomitant improvement in antioxidant status.

Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster diet, Starch supplementation, Adaptive behaviour, Oxidative stress

Antimicrobial activity of Indonesian plant extracts against food borne microorganisms

Khoirun Nisa*, Wuri Apriyana, Vita Taufika Rosyida

Research Unit for Natural Products Technology, Indonesian Institute of Science, Jl. Jogja-Wonosari Km. 31.5, Playen, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta 55861, Indonesia


Many pathogens such as fungi, yeast or bacteria commonly infect food supplies throughout post-harvest process including transportation and storage. Consequently, in order to prevent food borne diseases, some preservation way is required to stop or significantly slow down spoilage. This study evaluated the antifungal and antibacterial activities of some Indonesian plants against the food spoilage fungi and pathogen bacteria. The plants were extracted by distilled water and ethanol to investigate the antifungal and antibacterial activities by the broth micro-dilution methods. At 0.5 mg/ml concentration, A. altilis aqueous extract had the most significant antifungal activity against Penicillium sp with the antifungal activity (AFA) value of 140.36 ± 3.76%. In contrast, C. burmanii inhibited the growth of Aspergillus nidulans with the AFA value of 90.52 ± 15.97% in the same concentration. In the inhibition of Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypii growth, A. altilis ethanol extract gave the remarkable antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 0.025 mg/ml of each.

Keywords: Plant extracts, Antifungal activity, Antibacterial activity, Food preservatives

Parasites bared in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi

Florencia G. Claveria

Biology Department, College of Science, De La Salle University 2401 Taft Avenue, 1004 Manila, Philippines



This paper documents the richness of parasites inhabiting Rattus tanezumi and Rattus norvegicus. Rattus spp. revealed six ectoparasites, namely: mites genus Chirodiscoides, and Radfordia ensifera, Laelaps nutalli and Ornithonyssus bacoti, fleas Xenopsylla cheopis, and lice Polyplax spinulosa. While infestation with L.  nutalli was heavy in 15 (100%) and 13 (86.7%) R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi, respectively, only R. tanezumi harbored Chirodiscoides and P. spinulosa at 80.0%. Endoparasites identified were two kinds of nematodes belonging to genus Nippostrongylus (Class Secernencea) and Capillaria hepatica (Class Adenophorea), and tapeworms identified as genus Raillietina, and Hymenolepis, and Taenia taeniaformis. While all 30 rats showed 100% parasitism with ecto- and endoparasites, Babesia infection was detected only in eight rats (26.6%), with seven cases recorded in male rats.  Most dominant endoparasites were Nippostrongylus in R. norvegicus at 73.3%, and R. tanezumi at 100.0%; while R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi revealed 86.6% and 66.6% prevalence with C. hepatica, respectively. Interestingly, Taenia taeniaformis and Raillietina were detected only in R. norvegicus at 80.0% and 20.0% infection, respectively. While both species of rats examined revealed susceptibility to different kinds of parasites, the heavier R. norvegicus seemed to nurture and support greater parasite species richness and density. In view of the argument of a clear accumulation of  helminth  diversity and species burden with increasing age of  rat species and in the absence of information of the ages of rats used in the present survey, studies to cover an expanded rat population in the Philippines  is recommended.

 Keywords: Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, Philippines, Parasites