Tag Archives: 1(3)

Marine macro algae Ulva: a potential feed-stock for bio-ethanol and biogas production

Anam Saqib1, Muhammad Rizwan Tabbssum1, Umer Rashid2, Muhammad Ibrahim3, Saba Shahid Gill1, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood1*

1Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Government College University Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan

2Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: draamer@gcuf.edu.pk


Present industrialization and global mobility era is an energy intensive period of the human history with an ever increasing energy demand. Unfortunately, fossil fuels are no more sustainable due to growing gap between the demand and supply. Biofuels are considered as promising alternative liquid fuels in recent global energy scenario. Food crops and ligno-cellulosic plant biomass have been widely studied as an alternative feedstock for biofuels production. After decades of research, the competition of fuel with food and recalcitrant nature of plant biomass, these feed stocks are losing their popularity. Marine macroalgae have come forward as another potential feedstock for biofuels production. Marine algae have several advantages over the traditional energy crops including absence of lignin, higher growth rates and no competition with human food. Moreover, along with several environmental benefits, they can be grown using saline and waste water and have higher abilities to sequester the atmospheric CO2 than traditional energy crops. Although there are several challenges associated with the algal biomass conversion to bioenergy yet these problems can be overcome using integrated biorefinery approach.

Keywords: Ligno-cellulosic biomass, Marine algae, Alternative feed stock, Bioenergy production

Enzyme analysis of endophytic new Streptomyces sp.viji10 isolated from velamen roots of orchid plant Vanda spathulata (L.) spreng

G. Senthilmurugan @ Viji1*, S. Sekar1, K. Suresh2

1Department of Botany, Thiagarajar College, Theppakulam, Madurai, Tamilnadu State, India.

2Department of Botany, Saraswathy Narayanan College, Perungudi, Madurai, Tamil Nadu State,


*Corresponding author: e-mail: viji.m6@gmail.com



The present study deals with enzyme analysis of endophytic new Streptomyces sp.viji10 isolated from the velamen roots of Vanda spathulata is an epiphytic orchid plant. The plant root samples were collected from Alagar kovil Hills, Madurai district, Tamilnadu state, India. An endophytic Streptomyces sp was isolated by using NA (Nutrient Agar) medium; it was then identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The endophytic actinomycete culture to produce different enzymes was analyzed. The endophytic actinomycete culture has the ability to produce cellulase enzyme (except amylase, laccase, lipase and protease). The result of the study suggested that endophytic Streptomyces sp associated with velamen roots of Vanda spathulata plant are potential source of cellulase enzyme production.

Keywords: Enzyme analysis, Streptomyces sp.viji10, Vanda spathulata, Velamen roots

Crop stand and phenology of wheat as affected by integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers

Sajjad Khan1*, Shad Khan Khalil1, Amanullah1, Zahir Shah2

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

2Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: agronomist_kpk@yahoo.com



Integrated use of organic and inorganic fertilizers play a vital role in the establishment of good crop stand and phenology. In this regard a field experiment was conducted at Livestock Research and Development Station, Surezai, Peshawar, for two crops seasons 2010-11 and 2011-12. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications. Experimental treatments consisted of poultry manure (2, 4 and 6 ton ha-1) farm yard manure (2, 4 and 6 ton ha-1) and nitrogen (60 and 90 kg N ha-1). Eighteen different combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers were applied to wheat crop. Poultry manure, farm yard manure and nitrogen significantly affected, leaves tiller-1, plant height, spike length and days to maturity. Higher leaves tiller-1, plant height and more days to maturity was observed with application of 6 tons poultry manure, 6 tons farm yard manure ha-1 and 60 kg N ha-1, while poor crop stand and phonological characteristics were observed in control plots. Good crop stand and phenological characteristics were observed with integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. It is concluded that a combine dose of 6 ton poultry manure, 6 tons farm yard manure ha-1 and 90 kg N ha-1 is recommended for good crop stand and phenology in wheat.


Keywords: Wheat crop stand, Phenology, Poultry manure, Farm Yard Manure, Nitrogen

Effect of edible coatings of carboxy methyl cellulose and corn starch on cucumber stored at ambient temperature

Adetunji Charles Oluwaseun1*, Arowora Kayode A1, Fawole Oluyemisi Bolajoko2, Adetunji Juliana Bunmi3 and Olagbaju AR1

1Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, Km 3 Asa Dam Road, P.M.B. 1489, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

2University of Ilorin, Department of Agronomy, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

3University of Ilorin, Department of Biochemistry, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding author e-mail: charliguitar@yahoo.com


Edible coating has been used for preserving the quality and safety of fresh fruit and vegetables. The ability of polysaccharide-based (carboxy methyl cellulose and corn starch) coatings to extend the shelf life and quality of cucumber fruit during storage at ambient  temperature of 25-28oC and relative humidity of  83-95%  was investigated . The results indicated that coated cucumber showed a significant delay in weight loss, firmness, pH, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid and total microbial counts compared to uncoated ones. Sensory evaluation results showed that coatings maintained the visual quality of the cucumber during the storage time. The results suggested using carboxy methyl cellulose and corn starch can extend the shelf life of cucumber during storage in ECS for 7 weeks.


Keywords: Carboxy methyl cellulose, Corn starch, Cucumber fruit, Edible coatings

Effect of different levels of nitrogen and plant population on growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Muhammad Aslam1, Ashiq Hussain Sangh2, Laila Khalid3* and Shamaun Javed4

1Senior Subject Matter Specialist (Agronomy), 2Senior Subject Matter Specialist (Plant Protection)

3,4Assistant Research Officer, Department of Adaptive Research Farm, Rahim Yar Khan Punjab- Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: laila_kld@yahoo.com



A field experiment was conducted during the Kharif season of two successive years 2007 and 2008.  The Effect of different levels of nitrogen and plant population on growth and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was conducted at Adaptive Research Farm Rahim Yar Khan in RCBD with Split plot arrangement in three replications. Field trials to study the effect of nitrogen doses (28, 56 and 84 kg ha-1) and levels of plant population (74100, 98800 and 123500 plants ha-1) on growth and yield of cotton variety BH-160 were evaluated. The levels of nitrogen and plant population significantly affected the plant height, number of mature bolls plant-1, seed cotton weight boll-1, and seed cotton yield ha-1. The interaction between nitrogen levels and plant population was non significant in plant height and number of mature boll plant-1 while significant in boll weight and seed cotton yield ha-1.  Two years average data of yield and yield components showed that application of nitrogen @ 84kg ha-1 gave significantly the highest seed cotton yield (2138 kg ha-1) over Nitrogen doses of 28 and 56 kg ha-1. Plant population of 98800 plants ha-1 produced the highest seed cotton yield (2234 kg ha-1). Maximum seed cotton yield (2327 kg ha-1) was produced at the Nitrogen level of 84 kg ha-1 and with plant population of 98800 plants ha-1.


Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum L., Plant population and Nitrogen doses.

Specific biomarker for sexing pupae in groundnut pest, Amsacta albistriga (Lepidoptera: Arctiidea)

Chandrasekar R1*, Murugan K2, Bhatacharyya A3

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, 238, Burt Hall, Biotechnology Core

Facility, Kansas State University,   Manhattan 66506, KS, USA

2Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046,

Tamilnadu, India
3Vidyasagar  College for Women,  Department of Zoology, Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata-

700006, India.


*Corresponding author: e-mail: biochandrus@yahoo.com



Determination and expression of sex in insects are important not only in basic biology but also in practical applications. The external morphological characters were evaluated for the determination of sex in Amsacta albistriga Walk. (Lepidoptera:Arctiidea) during the pupal stage for laboratory studies. Among the various parameters examined, size, length, weight, location of genital pore, anal pore and the ratio of distance between genital and anal pores are found to be reliable criteria for sexing pupae.  In addition, Storage protein1 (SP1) appropriately called as “female specific protein” could contribute towards the confirmation of the individual’s sex.  In A. albistriga, the SP1 was separated on 10% SDS-PAGE and their identity was confirmed using immunoblot analysis. This paper deals with two issues simultaneously: A simple technique to separate male and female pupae of A. albistriga in livable conditions for further behavioral, physiological and molecular studies. The efficient contribution of SP1 as a biochemical marker and its exploitation in reproduction and integrated pest management.


Keywords: anal pore, female specific protein, genital pore, storage protein 1, reproduction

Morphological identification of Aspergillus species from the soil of Larkana district (Sindh, Pakistan)

Hina Afzal1*, Saleem Shazad2 and Syeda Qamar Un Nisa3

1 Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

2 Department of Agriculture and Agribusiness Management, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

3The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of

Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: hina.afzal.siddiqui@gmail.com



Aspergillus is a large genus of anamorphic fungi. Aspergilli have great importance in many fields like plant, animals, and human health etc. The present study was conducted to identify Aspergillus isolates from district Larkana Sindh Pakistan. There are no reports that cover the whole mycoflora of Sindh province.  In this study two differential media, Czapek Solution  Agar (CZA) and Malt  Exract  Agar (MEA)  were used for the identification of Aspergillus species using macroscopic characteristics such as colony growth, conidial color, colony reverse, and microscopic characteristics including conidiophore,  vesicle, matulae, phialides  and conidia.  All the eight Aspergillus species viz., Aspergillus ficcum, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus flavus var.  columnaris, Aspergillus terreus  var.  aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus,  Emericella  nidulans,  Emericella  rugulosa  and Apergillus terricola  var. americana have been reported  for the first time from Larkana  whereas, Aspergillus terricola var.  americana appeared  to be a new records from Pakistan.


Keywords: Apergillus, Aspergillus ficcum, Aspergillus terricola var.  americana, Emericella rugulosa, Morphological  Observations, Czapek Solution  Agar, Malt  Extract  Agar.


Comparative assessment of wheat cultivars and sowing dates under agro-climate of Sheikhupura, Pakistan


Muhammad Abu Sufyan1, Azhar Mahmood1,5,  Anser Ali2,3, Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool2

and Muhammad Ahmad4*

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.

2UAF, Sub-Campus, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan

3Department of Crop Science and Biotechnology, Dankook University, South Korea

4Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

5Adaptive Research Farm, Sheikhupura, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: mahmada2003@yahoo.co.uk



With the objective to investigate the growth and yield response of three wheat varieties at two different sowing dates, a field study was conducted at Adaptive Research Farm, Sheikhupura, Punjab, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and replicated four times. The cultivars were Inqalab-91, Uqaab-2000 and AS-2002, whereas sowing dates were 24.11.03 and S­2 = 14.12.03, respectively. The sowing date was randomized in main plot and cultivars were randomized in sub plot. The study revealed that increase in all yield components (fertile tillers, number of spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight) of wheat was observed in November sown crop. The cultivar AS-2002 performed better than the rest of two cultivars. Cultivar AS-2002 with the highest grain yield of 3647 kg ha-1 and early (November) sowing were considered suitable for farmers under agro ecological conditions of Sheikhupura.  



Keywords: Wheat cultivars, Sowing date, Growth, Yield components

Growth and yield response of three chickpea cultivars to varying NPK levels

Abdur Rashid1, M. Ishaque2, Kiran Hameed3, Muhammad Shabbir4 and Muhammad Ahmad 4*

1Department of Agronomy, 2 Department of Forestry, 3CABB,

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

4Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: mahmada2003@yahoo.co.uk



There is a wrong perception with the farmers that gram being a legume crop does not need any nutrition. They usually grow it without supplying any fertilizer and get very low yield. The study was planned to observe the effects of NPK fertilizer on growth, yield and quality of gram cultivars to exploit their full genetic potential. The experiment was carried out at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during the winter season of 2007-08. It was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three blocks keeping gram cultivars (Punjab-2000,  Paunjab-91 and Paidar-91) in main plot and fertilizer application levels (0,0,0; 25,0,0; 25,50,0; and 25,50,25 Kg NPK ha-1) in sub plot. It was observed that Paidar-91 surpassed other two cultivars in grain yield, when it fertilized with NPK @ 25,50,0 Kg ha-1 due to taller in height, more number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plant, biological yield, seed protein content and profitable. However, exceeding above this fertilizer combination of NPK proved to be uneconomical.


Keywords: Gram, Cultivars, NPK Fertilizer application, Yield, Contributing parameters