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Immune enhancing activity of garlic polysaccharide, selenizing Codonopsis pilosula compounds in chickens

Li Liang-liang1,2, Liu Kuan-hui3, Xie Shi-hui3, Li Ting3, Zhu Guang-huang3, Mikhlid H. Almutairi4, Muhammad Zahid5, Mushtaq Ahmad Gondal6, Qudratullah6, Khalid Mehmood5*, Yi Wu1*

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

2College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China

3Wuhu Institute of Technology, Wuhu, China

4Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

5Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

6Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Bahawalpur, Pakistan


Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide is a main ingredient of Codonopsis. The key component in Condoposis is identified as Codonopsis pilosula. This Codonopsis has multiple functions including stimulation of spleen, lungs and tonifying the middle Jiao and Qi. Allium sativum has functions of regulating vital energy, appetizing, detoxification, and disinfection. Polysaccharide of the bulbous is key component to perform the functions of this bulbous. In current study, the immune enhancing activity of GP, sCPP and GP-sCPP through in-vivo and in-vitro trials was evaluated. For in-vivo trials, a total of 150 one day old white roman chicks were randomly divided into five groups, namely immune control (VC), blank control (BC), GP-sCPP, sCPP and GP groups. Chicks in group GP-sCPP, sCPP and GP was intramuscularly treated with 0.5 mg, 0.5 mg and 4.5 mg of polysaccharide, respectively, in all experimental days, and chicks in VC and BC were treated with equal volume of normal saline injections daily. All chicks were bred according to the standards for the rearing of laying hens. For in-vitro trials, lymphocyte cells were cultured in a 12-well plate along with different concentrations of GP-sCPP, sCPP and GP were supplemented in the cells and incubated at 37.5℃. After that, MTT was employed to measure the cytotoxicity of those polysaccharides. The results showed that GP, sCPP and GP-sCPP could increase immune-enhancing activities by releasing cytokines of IL-2 and IFN-γ. In-vivo experiments in chicks showed significantly higher serum antibody titer, T lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 levels in GP-sCPP group. These results demonstrated that GP-sCPP can significantly promote immune enhancing activity, which could be recognized as a novel candidate for new type of immune modulator.                          

Keywords: Lymphocyte proliferation, Codonopsis Pilosula, Chickens, mRNA expression, Antibody titer, Cytokines

Sciadopitysin attenuates paraquat induced renal toxicity by modulating Nrf-2/Keap-1 pathway in male albino rats

Muhammad Umar Ijaz1*, Ayesha Kalsoom1, Ali Hamza1, Nazia Ehsan1

1Department of Zoology, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide that has the potential to instigate nephrotoxicity in animals and human. Sciadopitysin (SPS) is a biflavonoid that is extracted from Taxus cuspidate and displays diverse biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to evaluate the mitigative potential of SPS against PQ prompted renal toxicity in albino rats. 48 male albino rats were divided into 4 groups, such as control group, PQ treated group (5 mgkg-1), PQ + SPS co-treated group (5 mgkg-1 and 2 mgkg-1 respectively) and only SPS treated group (2 mgkg-1). The exposure of PQ significantly reduced Nrf-2 as well as anti-oxidant enzymes expression, while increasing Keap-1 expression. Moreover, anti-oxidant enzymes such as, glutathione reductase (GSR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione (GSH) activities were decreased. However, in PQ-treated rats malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were significantly increased. PQ exposure also increased the serum level of urea, urinary protein, urobilinogen and creatinine while decreased creatinine clearance and albumin protein levels. Moreover, KIM-1 and NGAL levels were also increased in PQ exposed rats. Additionally, inflammatory indices including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity were increased in PQ administrated rats. Besides, it escalated the Bax and Caspase-3 expression. Contrarily, a substantial decrease was observed in anti-apoptotic marker, Bcl-2 expression. The exposure of PQ also induced significant histopathological damages in renal tissues. Nevertheless, SPS supplementation recovered all these damages due to its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nature.

Keywords: Paraquat, Sciadopitysin, Renal damage, Oxidative stress, Inflammation

Effect of the moisture adsorbents on shallot bulb drying

Muftia Chairin Nissa1, Dewi Qurrota A’yuni1, Setia Budi Sasongko1, Aji Prasetyaningrum1, Mohamad Djaeni1*, Ching Lik Hii2

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof H. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia

2Food and Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Ingredient deterioration, extended drying times, and inefficient energy use are still issues with current shallot bulb drying. As a result, it is suggested that air dehumidification using solid adsorbents increase the driving force in shallot drying. Zeolite and silica, which were used in this study as moisture adsorbents, increased the mass transfer of water from shallot to air. Dehumidification was used to dry about 25 kg of fresh shallots for 4 hours at temperatures of 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C, with an average air velocity of 7.8 m/s. Results indicated that using adsorbents throughout the drying process could speed up the reduction of moisture content. In addition, Page’s model predicted accurately the rate of shallot bulb drying for any variable. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) decreased at higher drying temperature and longer drying time. The addition of zeolite can keep the TPC high. Meanwhile, the thermal energy efficiency rose at higher temperatures. Response surface methodology (RSM) determined that air dehumidified by zeolite at a drying temperature of 50 °C produced the best of shallot drying results.

Keywords: Shallot bulbs, Adsorbent drying, Total phenolic, Mathematical modeling

The effects of Cryptosporidium infection on gut fungi and enzyme abundance in Sus domesticus

Wang Lei1,3, Lu Sijia1, Zou Wen1, Sun Na2, Muhammad Usman Saleem5, Mudassar Nazar6, Mohammad Farooque Hassan7, Farid Shokry Ataya8, Kong Qinghui4, Li Kun1*

1Institute of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine & MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

2Shanxi key lab. for modernization of TCVM, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, Shanxi, China

3College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China

4Key Laboratory of Clinical Veterinary Medicine in Tibet, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College, Linzhi, Tibet, China

5Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

6University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Sub-Campus Burewala 61010, Pakistan

7Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan

8Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia


Pigs are known to be natural hosts of Cryptosporidiosis, which poses a serious threat to public health. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Cryptosporidiosis is the major cause of severe diarrhea which causing death in infants. Many researchers suggest that gut fungi have an indispensable function in host metabolism and immunity. However, few studies have been performed to understand how Cryptosporidium infection induces alterations in the intestinal fungal communities of Tibetan pigs. Therefore, fecal samples from Cryptosporidium infected and Healthy Tibetan pigs were examined by internal transcribed spacing (ITS) gene amplification sequencing. Results showed that a total of 2 phyla, 5 classes, 9 orders, 10 family, 13 genera of fungi were detected from both the H (Healthy Tibetan pigs) and INF (Cryptosporidium infection pigs) groups. The results manifested that proportion and profile of the total fungal population obviously changed under the Cryptosporidium infection, marked by a reduction in the abundance of beneficial fungi, i.e., Leotiomycetes (p < 0.05), Aspergillaceae (p < 0.05), Penicillium (p < 0.05), Xenoacremonium (p < 0.05) and Eurotiales (p < 0.05) and an increase in the abundance of disease-causing fungi that threaten health, i.e. Colletotrichum (p < 0.05) and Clarireedia (p < 0.05). In addition to these changes, some enzymes including Arabinose-5-phosphate isomerase, Quercetin 3-0-methyltransferase and Amylosucrase were found to be significantly altered (p < 0.01) after Cryptosporidium infection using fungal function prediction analysis. This study also focused on the Cryptosporidium infection in Tibetan pigs in terms of gut fungal diversity, composition, and the abundance of enzyme. It is providing a better understanding of Cryptosporidium infection in Tibetan pigs and insights for further development of therapeutics against Cryptosporidium from the gut fungal perspective.

Keywords: Sus domesticus, Tibetan pig, Cryptosporidium, Gut fungi, Enzyme, Microbiota

Metabolic profiles and some physiological traits of three rice cultivars differing in salinity tolerance under salinity stress at the germination stage

Thitiwan Jumpa1, Jutarop Phetcharaburanin2, Manida Suksawat2, Kunlaya Pattanagul3, Wattana Pattanagul1*

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 Thailand

2Department of Systems Biosciences and Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 Thailand

3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 Thailand


This study aimed to investigate salinity’s impact on the germination process and the metabolic profile of germinated seedlings in three rice cultivars known for their varying levels of salinity tolerance. The seeds of three rice cultivars, KDML105 (salt-sensitive), IR29 (salt-sensitive), and Pokkali (salt-tolerant), were germinated in two different treatments: distilled water and a 40 mM NaCl solution. Salinity delayed seed germination and caused root shape abnormalities. The root length of all cultivars was significantly decreased by salinity; however, Pokkali showed the highest root length among these cultivars. Salinity also decreased total soluble sugar, glucose, and fructose content, while starch content was unaffected. Na+/K+ ratio in root and shoot was significantly increased in all cultivars; however, the increase was much lower in the tolerance cultivar. Metabolic profiles revealed several biomarkers of the salt stress response among cultivars and between the control and stressed groups. Gamma-aminobutyric acid was increased in all cultivars. Citric acid, L-lysine, and L-valine were reduced, while uracil was increased in KDML105. L-lysine, succinic acid, and L-methionine were decreased, while adenine was increased in IR29. Oxalacetic acid, L-proline, and urea increased while melatonin decreased in Pokkali.


Keywords: Metabolic profiles, Physiological traits, Rice cultivars, Pokkali, Salinity stress


Biological activity of leaves of three Morinda species detected by stimulation and suppression of gene expression of collagen, elastin, melanin and other related genes

Runglawan Sudmoon1, Sanit Kaewdaungdee2, Tawatchai Tanee3, Pornnarong Siripiyasing4, Arnold Ang5, LiTing Lee5, Xue Jing Wong5, Shiou Yih Lee5, Arunrat Chaveerach2*

1Faculty of Law, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

3Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahasarakham University, Thailand

4Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Mahasarakham University, Thailand

5Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University, Malaysia


Morinda coreia, M. elliptica and M. tomentosa leaves were investigated. α-EG and pinoresinol were found by GC-MS and GC-FID. MTT and comet assays did not reveal toxicity in normal PBMCs and DHFa cells, but the ethanol and hexane M. coreia and M. tomentosa extracts were toxic to CHL-1 cancer cells. Biological activities were detected by gene expression through qRT-PCR. Ethanol M. tomentosa extract can stimulate collagen type I, II, III and elastin creation through expression of COL1A, COL1A2, COL2A1, COL-II, COLL2, COL3A and ELN genes; inhibit enzyme synthesis for collagen and elastin degradation through ELANE, MMP1, MMP13, TIMP1 genes; does not affect DHFa cells, but does affect CHL-1 cells through the NRF2 gene; can stimulate DHFa cell proliferation through the FGF1 and FGF7 genes; has anti-inflammatory effects on DHFa cells, and has no effects on CHL-1 cells through the TGF-β gene. Ethanol M. tomentosa extract can suppress melanin production through the α-MSH and TYR genes. In summary, M. tomentosa can be used in human health and skin care products, the research was accomplished with the aim of deducing how more plant species with high bioactivities can be utilized without toxicity, the leaves of M. tomentosa can be easier to use correctly than fruits depending on the season and smell.

Keywords: Collagen, Elastin, α-EG, Morinda species, Pinoresinol, qRT-PCR

Optimization and antimicrobial properties of biosurfactant production by four indigenous soil bacterial species

Oghenerobor B. Akpor1*, Elisha O. Ezekudo1, Oguntope A. Sobajo1, Paul A. Edoh2, Samson O. Mabayoje1

1Department of Biological Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

2Department of Civil Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


Biosurfactants of microbial origin are metabolites; hence their production is dependent on the growth of the producing microbe. The objective of this study was to assess the optimum conditions for biosurfactant by four bacterial species. Biosurfactant detection was carried out using emulsification index, drop collapse and oil displacement assays. Functional composition of the crude biosurfactant was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In the presence of Pseudomonas fuscoginae significantly higher EI24 of 53.98% and 52.60% was observed in media that contained glucose or sodium acetate as carbon source, respectively. When P. fuscoginae or P. aeruginosa was used for inoculation, highest EI24 of 61.18% and 48.40% was observed in media that contained potassium nitrate as nitrogen source. In the medium that was inoculated with either B. subtilis or B. proteolyticus, highest EI24 of 53.65% and 49.63% was observed in the presence of tryptone and peptone, respectively. At the respective pH used for investigation, significantly highest EI24 was observed at pH 6, when inoculated with the respective isolates. In the case of incubation temperature, positive results were obtained throughout the incubation period at 25 and 30 oC. This was also irrespective of the isolate used for inoculation. All the extracted biosurfactants showed antimicrobial potentials against the test pathogens used for investigation. Characterization of the crude biosurfactant revealed the presence of compounds with antimicrobial properties. The study was able to provide useful information on optimum conditions for biosurfactant production by test bacterial species and the potential for possible application of the biosurfactants as antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Biosurfactant, Surface tension, Emulsification, Bacterial species

A review on stingless bee (kelulut) honey composition and its contribution to quality of honey products

Muhammad Nur Shazwan Jamzuri, Muhammad Amirun Che Hassan, Fisal Ahmad, Amir Izzwan Zamri, Muhamad Fauzi Mahmud, Shamsul Bahri Abdul Razak, Tuan Zainazor Tuan Chilek*

Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia



The kelulut farming industry in Malaysia has experienced exponential growth, driven by the increasing demand for kelulut honey, which can be attributed to the widespread dissemination of information about its benefits. Previously, many researchers worked out on factors responsible on improving the quality of honey. However, the data of honey as a food ingredient and its functions is lacking and should be retrieved in order to have a clear picture on the importance of the specific composition of honey-based products.  The composition of kelulut honey such as sugar contents, acidity, antioxidants, water content, minerals and Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) play an important role in determining the quality of kelulut honey. The illustrious Malaysian Standard MS2683: 2017 was firmly established with the noble objective of safeguarding the pristine purity and unparalleled excellence of both raw and processed kelulut honey, assuring their unwavering compliance with the exalted guidelines and unrivalled standards set forth. Generally, the utilization of kelulut honey as a preservative in food products are not fully discovered yet. In addition, the presence of good bacteria such as Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributes to a special attribute in kelulut honey. However, kelulut honey is also highly susceptible towards harmful bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus and Shigella as reported in previous work. This may occur due to inappropriate handling of the kelulut honey during harvesting. Furthermore, kelulut honey as food ingredient which contains antibacterial value is very useful and can be used in food preservation due to its function in prolonging the shelf life. Therefore, the shelf life of honey and honey-based products are related with the composition, handling practice and the method of storage implementation throughout the food supply chain.

Keywords: Composition, Food ingredient, Food preservation, Kelulut honey, Shelf life

The reliability of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase enzyme as detection factor of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains isolated from different olive growing areas in Jordan by PCR-RFLP

Bilal Ibrahim Wreikat*

Department of Plant Production and Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, Jordan


The virulence gene Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase was detected in different isolates of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Smith, 1908), through amplification of 857 bp band by Polymerase Chain Reaction, it was confirmed in all isolates that were isolated from different olive cultivars growing in different areas in Jordan. Also, digestion of the amplified PCR product of this gene for all isolates of the pathogen, using Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction-Fragments Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), it was found that the catA gene is highly conserved for all isolates, after digestion with KpnI and BamHI Endonucleases. Further identification was performed for all isolates; by biochemical tests and pathogenicity on olive seedlings, and detection the virulence gene iaaL through PCR amplification of 454bp in all isolates. Interestingly, this study revealed that detection and identification of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi by catA gene is reliable and certified and will give further prospects in management between olive knot through crosstalk of olive plant and their knot bacterium.

Keywords: Olive Knot, Pseudomonas savastanoi, Catechol dioxygenase, Virulence factor

IAA-producing and phosphate solubilizer of rhizosphere actinobacteria consortium to promote plant growth in soybean (Glycine max L.)

Umi Fatmawati1*, Dewi Puspita Sari1, Slamet Santosa1, Sri Martina Wiraswati2

1Biology Education Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia

2Biology Study Program, Faculty of Biology, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Central Java, Indonesia


Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are microbes that inhabit the rhizosphere and rhizoplanes environment and can enhance plant growth. The application of PGPR in agriculture can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers on soil. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the actinobacteria consortium to produce Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA), solubilize phosphate, and improve soybean growth in the greenhouse. The results of this study showed that the actinobacteria (Streptomyces sp. ASR58, Streptomyces sp. ASR67) and Rhizobium sp. which are used in this study are mutually compatible and tolerant to several types of fungicides and bactericides. Meanwhile, the consortium of Streptomyces sp. ASR58 and Streptomyces sp. ASR67 produces the highest concentration of IAA i.e. 25.11 ppm compared to each isolate and other bacterial consortia. Accordance to the quantitative phosphate solubilization assay, Streptomyces sp. ASR67 resulted in the highest dissolved inorganic phosphate i.e. 179.7 + 13.3 mg / L. Inoculation of Streptomyces sp. ASR58 and Streptomyces sp. ASR67 consortium into soybean seeds can significantly increase 54.6% in stem length, 29% root growth, and 20.4% in plant dry weight. This research indicated that Streptomyces sp. ASR58 and Streptomyces sp. ASR67 consortium resulted in the best growth toward soybean plants compared to other bacterial  consortia.

Keywords: Actinomycetes, IAA, Phosphate solubilization, Rhizosphere