Tag Archives: 7-3

Effects of mineral supplementation on reproductive efficiency of Simmental heifers

Khalil1*, Andri Bachtiar2, Zaituni Udin3

1Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Andalas University, Campus II Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia

2Department of Livestock Business and Social, Faculty of Animal Science, Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

3Department of Livestock Production, Faculty of Animal Science, Andalas University, Campus II Payakumbuh, West Sumatra, Indonesia.


The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effects of mineral supplementation on estrus onset, growth, and hematological and biochemical parameters in Simmental heifers. The study was initiated by a field survey to determine the reproductive problem of the exotic breed cattle raised by smallholders. Complete minerals were then formulated and fed to 18 Simmental heifers for 14 weeks across three groups as follows: P0, no supplementation (control), P1, supplemented with mineral feed in meal form, and P2, supplemented with mineral in block lick form. Each treatment consisted of six heifers stratified by body weight into six groups for replication. Parameters measured included estrus onset time, body weight gain, mineral intake, blood mineral levels, hematology, total protein, and progesterone levels. Simmental heifers raised by smallholders were delayed in onset of first estrus (20.4 months) and first calving (30.17 months). Heifers supplemented with minerals (P1 and P2) had an earlier estrus in the 2nd and 4th weeks, while in the control groups (P0), the first estrus appeared in the 8th and 9th weeks. Heifers supplemented with block minerals (P2) had lower body weight gain, and Fe, Zn, and progesterone levels than those supplemented with minerals in meal form (P1). The results showed that mineral supplementation in meal form positively affected estrus onset, growth rate, and biochemical parameters in Simmental heifers.

Keywords: Simmental heifer, Mineral supplement, Estrus onset, Hematology

Spectral measurements for monitoring of sugar beet infestation and its relation with production

Mona Sayed Yones1*, Mohamed Amin Aboelghar1, Ghada Ali Khdery1, Abdelraouf Massoud Ali1,

Nasser Hussien Salem1, Eslam Farag1, Shireen Ahmed Mahmoud Ma’mon2

1National Authority of Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Cairo, Egypt

2Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt


Identification of the best spectral zone and wavelength to be used for the discrimination of healthy and infected sugar beet plants and also to discriminate between the different infections of sugar beet plants is the goal achieved in this research. Field hyperspectral radiometer was used to measure spectral reflectance characteristics. By comparing spectral reflectance for the three infections of sugar beet plants (Cotton leaf worm, Aphid and Whiteflies), showed high pattern similarity. HSD Tukey’s analysis showed that the NIR and Blue spectral zone are the best for the discrimination between healthy sugar beet plant and the different infections; on the other hand SWIR-1 and SWIR-2 was the worst but Red and Green spectral zones showed reasonable discrimination. Also, Spectral discrimination was clearer in case of old leaves than young ones. Hence a result of this study is significant, as remote sensing technologies can be used for early detection for plants infections, and thus can be used for integrated pest management system.

Keywords: Hyperspectral data, Sugar beet, White fly, Aphid, Cotton leaf worm

First record of Melanaphis donacis (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Quetta, Balochistan: westernmost range in Pakistan

Muhammad Amin1,3, Imran Bodlah2, Muhammad Qasim3, Naveed Iftikhar Jajja3

1Department of Entomology, Balochistan Agriculture College, 87300 Quetta, Pakistan

2Insect Biodiversity and Conservation Group, Department of Entomology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, 46000 Rawalpindi, Pakistan

3Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Entomology, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan


Melanaphis donacis (Passerini) is reported on Arundo donax L., for the first time from Quetta (Balochistan). The species was collected during spring 2018; its presence signifies the westernmost locality/range for this species in Pakistan and the subcontinent. Detailed diagnostic features, morphometric data and comparison with type specimens of the species hitherto-described from the subcontinent, distribution and ecology with supportive photograph of the colony is presented in this manuscript. 

Keywords: Melanaphis donacis (Passerini), Quetta, Westernmost range, Pakistan

Histological and histochemical study on the large intestine of one-humped camel in Iraq

Eyhab RM AL-Samawy1, Ahmed Sami Jarad2*, Fayak J Al-Saffar3, Diyar MH Kadhim4

1Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Medicine, AL-Muthanna University, Samawa, Iraq

2Department of Pathology and Poultry Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Fallujah, Anbar, Iraq

3Department of Anatomy, Histology & Embryology, College of Veterinary Medicine, AL-Muthanna University, Samawa, Iraq

4Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq


The aim of the study was to investigate the histological aspects of the large intestine of adult one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) domiciled in Iraq. To conduct that, large intestines samples of twelve adult camels (six males and six females) obtained directly after animals slaughtering. Tissue specimens from different segments of the intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum) were collected, fixed, processed routinely, and subsequently stained with H&E, Lillies Allochrome, Periodic Acid Schiff, Combined AB–PAS, and Gomori Aldehyde-Fuchsin stains. The microscopic examination showed the composition of tunica mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa layers. Lining epithelium of all segments showed their consistency of simple columnar and goblet cells. Distinctly, the muscularis mucosa separates mucosa from submucosa layers. Tunica muscularis structured of two distinct layers (inner circular and outer longitudinal); the outer layer is organized by three separated bands, that is known as taeniae coli. The histochemically stained sections revealed scattered goblet cells of all segments that were strongly reacted to PAS. Staining with PAS-AB showed negative or faintly bluish stained epithelial cells due to the reaction with AB contents, whereas goblet cells showed toughly positive reaction due to the PAS contents. The gomori Aldehyde-Fuchsin stain showed goblet cells strongly reacted to the acidic, non-sulfated, mucopolysaccharides but columnar epithelium were showing poor reaction toward this stain. the unique structure of large intestine of one-humped camels has investigated and its composed layers have remarkably observed in this work.

Keywords: One humped camel, Large intestine, Colon, Cecum, Rectum, Mucin

Foliar application of Chitosan modulates the morphological and biochemical characteristics of tomato

Ibrar Hussain, Sohail Ahmad, Izhar Ullah, Imran Ahmad, Mehboob Alam, Sajid Khan, Sumbal Ayaz

Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan


Chitosan is a very important linear polysaccharide used in agricultural and horticultural practices primarily for plant defense and yield increase in recent decade. This proposed research study was conducted at the Ornamental Nursery Horticulture Department, The University of Agriculture Peshawar to investigate the response of foliar application of chitosan on vegetative growth and quality characteristics of tomato during the year 2016 using experimental design Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with one factor repeated three times. Tomato plants were sprayed with different chitosan concentration (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 mg/1000ml) with 25 days interval under plastic tunnel condition. The analysis of results showed significant effect of chitosan concentration on all growth and quality attributes of tomato. The results of foliar application of chitosan on different growth (number of leaves plant-1, number of branches plant-1 and plant height) and quality traits of tomato (chlorophyll content, , dry matter content, total nitrogen content and total phosphorus content) were found significantly higher @ 90 mg/1000ml than other concentration of chitosan. On the basis of above results, it is concluded that tomato plant could be sprayed with chitoson @ 90 mg/1000ml for achieving maximum growth and quality of tomato under plastic tunnel condition.

Keywords: Chitin, Chitosan, Phytoalexins, Natural defense, Adaptability

Optimization of organosolv pretreatment of starch waste from sugar palm trunk (Arenga pinnata) for the production of reducing sugar

Tri Widjaja, Ali Altway, Lily Pudjiastuti, Fibrillian Zata Lini, Dennis Farina Nury, Toto Iswanto

Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Keputih Sukolilo-Surabaya 60111, Indonesia


Arenga pinnata is rich in hemicellulose (27.95 %) and lignin (36.98 %). In this study, it was processed in a three-step process to produce reducing sugar; lignocellulose pretreatment, optimization and enzymatic hydrolysis. A combination of acid and organosolv pretreatment was expected to remove a significant amount of lignin from the biomass, but not dissolve much hemicellulose. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine optimum operational conditions (ethanol concentration, pretreatment time and temperature) for the organosolv pretreatment, which minimized inhibition by lignin in the enzymatic hydrolysis process. Lignin content was analyzed using gravimetric method. Reducing sugar was analyzed using the 3.5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS method) and validated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). From the RSM results, it can be concluded that all the variables studied were significant (p<0.05), apart from the interaction between pretreatment time and temperature (p>0.05), which had an R2 of 99.38 %­. The optimum conditions for organosolv pretreatment were obtained at 30.35% (v/v) ethanol concentration, 107 °C, and 33 minutes pretreatment time. The enzymatic hydrolysis process was conducted with different combinations of enzymes, and with Tween 80 as a surfactant. The best yield of reducing sugar was 20.28 % by using the combination of cellulase-xylanase enzymes with Tween 80, while the combination of enzymes without Tween 80 resulted in a yield of 18.15 %.

Keywords: Enzymatic hydrolysis, Organosolv pretreatment, Response surface methodology, Sugar palm starch waste, Tween 80

In vitro antimycotic activity of chemical constituents from Dipterocarpus verrucosus, Dipterocarpus cornutus and Dipterocarpus crinitus against opportunistic filamentous fungi

Wan Zuraida Wan Mohd Zain1,2,3*, Norizan Ahmat3,4, Yaya Rukayadi5, Che Puteh Osman3,4,

Nor Asma Husna Yusoff5, Neneng Winda6

1Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Jasin Campus, 77300 Merlimau, Melaka, Malaysia

2Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam Campus, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

3Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

4Atta-ur-Rahman Institute for Natural Product Discovery, Universiti Teknologi MARA Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

5Faculty of Food Science and Technology and Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

6Department of Science Education, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Education, Sunan Gunung Djati State Islamic University, Bandung, Indonesia


This paper will discuss, in vitro investigation of chemical constituents extracted from the stem bark of Dipterocarpus verrucosus, Dipterocarpus crinitus and Dipterocarpus cornutus against opportunistic filamentous fungi. In this research, 17 compounds comprised of twelve oligostilbenoids, (-)-e-viniferin ,(-)-laevifonol,  (-)-hopeaphenol , (-)-isohopeaphenol, vaticanol B,  diptoindonesin E, hemsleyanol D, davidiol A, resveratrol, ampelopsin A, ampelopsin F, together with three other phenolic; gallic acid derivative, (-)-bergenin, scopoletin and 4-methoxygallocathecin and also two terpene; β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside have been isolated. In this study, the crude extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated regarding to their antifungal activity; in terms of MIC, MFC and germination assay against pathogenic fungi strains, namely Aspergillus flavus (AF), Aspergillus oligosporus (AO), Rhizophus oryzae (RO) and Fusarium oxysporum (FO) using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methods.  The MIC of crude extracts and isolated compounds against all fungi ranged from 3.8 – 500 µg/mL. F. oxysporum shows the most sensitive microorganisms on crude extract: D. verrucosus, D. cornutus and isolated compound: ε-viniferin with MIC of 3.8 µg/mL. The MIC was lower compared to amphotericin B (4 µg/ml). The strain was killed at the MFC of 31.3, 31.3 and 15.6 µg/mL respectively, as compared to amphotericin B (8 µg/mL). Compounds: resveratrol, laevifonol, ε-viniferin, ampelopsin F, vaticanol B, vaticanol A, isomer of hopeaphenol and isohopeaphenol, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterolglucoside possessed an inhibitory activity on the conidial germination of  F. oxysporum at the concentration of 4× MIC. On top of that, D. cornutus, ampelopsin A and hemsleyanol D possessed a complete sterility at the concentration of 2×MIC while D.verrucosus achieved its inhibitory activity at 1× MIC. To the best of our study, there is no data discussing the inhibition of conidial germination of filamentous fungi using the tested compounds and crudes tested.

Keywords: Antifungal, In vitro, Opportunistic fungi, Phenolic compounds, Stilbenoid

The ecology and saponins of Vietnamese ginseng – Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus in North Vietnam

Pham Quang Tuyen1, Tran Thi Kim Huong2, Trinh Ngoc Bon1, Phung Dinh Trung1, Bui Thanh Tan1, Nguyen Thi Hoai Anh1, Nguyen Thanh Son1, Hoang Thanh Son1, Trieu Thai Hung1, Ninh Viet Khuong1,  Nguyen Thi Thu Phuong1, Nguyen Van Tuan1, Nguyen Quang Hung1, Do Thi Ha3, Pham Tien Dung1, Nong Xuan Cu1, Tran Van Do1*

1 Silviculture Research Institute, Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam

2 Department of Science and Technology of Lai Chau, Tan Phong, Lai Chau City, Lai Chau Province, Vietnam,

3 National Institute of Medicinal Materials, 3B Quang Trung, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi, Vietnam


Species of the genus Panax L. known as ginsengs are perennial forest herbs. The medical values of ginsengs are well known. Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus was found in Laichau province, North Vietnam in 2003 and is known as Laichau ginseng. Understanding the ecology and saponin of high economically valuable Laichau ginseng is becoming important for sustainable development and management. Plots of 400 m2 (20 m × 20 m) were established to survey for Laichau ginseng’s ecological characteristics. In addition, its root samples from natural forests and garden of local people were collected for saponin analysis and anatomy. The results indicated that Laichau ginseng naturally distributes in evergreen broadleaved forests in elevation zones up to 2,100 m above sea level. It can grow in both old-growth forests and anthropogenic-disturbed forests.  However, the total crown area of tree (stem with a diameter at breast height ≥5 cm) layer must be high, ranging from 3.2 to 8.6 times of the land area. In addition, the cover of herb layer is also important, which must be ≥44% land area. The saponin content of Laichau ginseng in natural forest (23.85%) is statistically significantly higher than that of other ginsengs (3÷22.29%) naturally distributing in Vietnam. While saponin content of Laichau ginseng (18.48%) grown in the garden of local people is statistically significantly lower than that collected from natural forests. It is concluded that Laichau ginseng could be a potentially perennial forest herb for poverty reduction. However, growing this herb may be restricted to very narrow areas in high elevational evergreen broadleaved forests with a high cover rate of both tree and herb layers.

Keywords: Laichau, Panax L., Saponin, Sustainable management, Vietnamese ginseng

Biocontrol potential of Bacillus gibsonii and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans in suppression of Fusarium stalk rot of maize: a sustainable approach

Raufa Batool1, Shafiq ur Rehman2, Mazhar Rafique1, Amna1, Javed Ali1, Tehmeena Mukhtar1,

Shehzad Mahmood1, Tariq Sultan3, Farooq Hussain Munis1, Hassan Javed Chaudhary1*

1Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan

2College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Punjab Lahore 54000, Pakistan

3Land Resource Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad, Pakistan


Natural interactions between plant and associated microbes have vital importance in plant growth and vigor. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) modulates growth promotion and suppression of plant diseases. Maize (Zea mays L.) being an important cereal crop faces loss in annual yield due to stalk rot caused by fungal pathogen Fusarium moniliforme. Native bacteria can be used to reduce fungal disease and could provide a sustainable solution to reduce yield loss by pathogen attack. Two antagonistic PGPR, Bacillus gibsonii and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans were investigated for their potential to enhance growth and ameliorate the negative effects of F. moniliforme on both diseased effected and normal plants. Two maize varieties TP-1217 (Variety A) and TP-1221 (Variety B) were subjected to different treatments under greenhouse conditions by using a completely randomized design. Analysis of plant growth parameters, chlorophyll and proline contents, electrolyte leakage, antioxidant enzyme activities, and disease index assessment was done to examine the induced tolerance and plant growth promotion by applied PGPR. Results indicated potential antifungal activity of bacterial strains. Inoculation of bacterial strains to plants reduced disease and enhanced plant growth parameters. Disease suppression was influenced by 67% and plant growth was enhanced significantly. Relative electrolyte leakage reduced by 52 -55% and more than 80% disease control in both varieties of the plant was observed. Application of bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with current disease protection strategies could aid in global food security.

Keywords: Biocontrol, Phytopathogens, Antagonistic activity, PGPB, Stalk rot disease, Fusarium moniliforme