Tag Archives: 7-3

Inhibitory effect of various fungicides on mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata; cause of Alternaria leaf spot disease on Rosa Indica L. in Pakistan

Muhammad Asim1*, Yasir Iftikhar1, Muhammad Arshad2,3, Sonum Bashir4, Mohsin Raza1, Saqib Bilal5, Faheema Bakhtawar1

1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

2Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

3Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Daskapi, Ankara, Turkey

4Department of Plant Pathology, PMAS University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

5College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing, China


Rosa indica L. (family: Rosaceae) is an important and widely grown plant in the floriculture industry. Alternaria leaf spot disease of rose was observed in rose plantation at College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha. The study was carried out to isolate and purify the pathogen, which was identified as Alternaria alternata. Additionally, in vitro efficacy of five fungicides; success, copper oxychloride, metalaxyl+mancozeb, topsin M and kumulus against A. alternata were tested by using food poisoning technique. Three concentrations (100, 200 and 300 ppm) of each fungicide were used. Mycelial growth after 3rd, 5th and 7th day was measured. All the fungicides significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of A. alternata. Among those, metalaxyl+mancozeb was the most effective as compared to others. Maximum inhibition was observed after 3rd (89%), 5th (91.6%) and 7th (93.3) day by metalaxyl+mancozeb followed by success 43.3%, 41.0% and 29.6% respectively.  After 3rd and 5th day copper oxychloride was least effective with 19.6% and 9.6% mycelial inhibition respectively while after 7th day the minimum 4.3% mycelial inhibition was observed by topsin M instead of copper oxychloride. Therefore, A. alternata is responsible for alternaria leaf spot disease of rose and metalaxyl+mancozeb was found to be the most effective fungicide against A.alternata in vitro.

Keywords: Rose, Mycelial growth, Alternaria alternata, Management

The addition of fish Salmon Omega-3 in tris egg yolk diluents on the quality of Simmental bull frozen semen

Wilmientje Marlene Mesang Nalley1*, Tri Sukma Adhe Meidina2, Asep Kurnia3, Raden Iis Arifiantini2

1Department of Animal Production and Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, Nusacendana University. Jl. Adisucipto, Penfui, Kupang, NTT 85001, Indonesia

2Department of Veterinary Cinic, Reproduction and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University. Jl Agatis Raya Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

3Lembang Artificial Insemination Centre, Lembang, Bandung, Jl. Kayu ambon, Lembang, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40391, Indonesia


The sperm plasma membrane is drastically altered by cryopreservation. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the sperm plasma membrane during the cryopreservation process. Omega-3 is a supplement that can protect plasma membrane. This study aimed to compare the quality of Simmental bull frozen semen in Tris Egg Yolk (TEY) diluents with and without omega-3. Semen samples from five Simmental bulls belonged to Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (AIC) were collected using artificial vaginas. The semen samples were evaluated immediatelly (macro and microscopically) after collection. The semen samples then divided into two tubes and diluted with TEY or  TEY with Omega-3 (TEYO) diluents respectively. The semen were packed into 0.25 mL straws and equilibrated at 5 ℃ for 4 hours and froze using automatic freezing machine and stored in liquid nitrogen tank (-196 oC) for further evaluation. The quality of  frozen semen were evaluated after 24 hours of storage. The data were analyzed using independent sample T-test. The results showed that the sperm post-thawing motility in TEY and TEYO diluents were 45.17±1.98% and 47.48±3.55%, respectivelly. No significant difference between TEY and TEYO (P>0.05) was found in the sperm motility, individual score, sperm viability as well as membrane integrity. The research conclude that omega-3 supplementation in Tris egg yolk did not improve the semen quality of Simmental bull after freezing.

Keywords: Frozen semen, Tris egg yolk, Omega-3, Simmental bull, Sperm

Silicon application improve maize (Zea mays L.) performance through ionic homeostasis and ameliorating adverse effects of brackish water

Muhammad Jan1*, Muhammad Anwar ul Haq2, Tanveer ul Haq3, Anser Ali4, Muhammad Yousaf1, Saqib Bashir1, Shahbaz Khan4

1Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

2Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, University of Agriculture, Multan Pakistan

4Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan


Water scarcity is an alarming issue in arid and semi arid regions of Pakistan, which cause drought stress and reduced plant growth. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effective role of Si for the growth of maize hybrids (FH-922, FH-949, FH-988 and FH-1137) with brackish water application. The physical parameters like plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight; number of leaves per plant and chlorophyll contents (SPAD Value) were recorded. The ionic parameters like sodium (Na), potassium (K), silicon (Si) concentration and K: Na ratio were also recorded. The results revealed a relatively different response of four maize hybrids among all the studied parameters. Among all the variable maize hybrids, FH-988 showed the considerable increase in plant height; shoot fresh and dry weight and leaf chlorophyll contents. However, maize hybrids FH-922 and FH-1137 were more sensitive as compared to FH-988 and FH-949 due to less production in dry matter, chlorophyll contents, K concentration and K: Na ratio.

Keywords: Chlorophyll contents, Hybrids, Potassium, K:Na ratio

Assessment of variability in performances of F3 rice populations on inland swampland in Indonesia

Mohammad Chozin*, Sumardi Sumardi

1Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu, Jl. WR Supratman, Kandang Limun,  City of Bengkulu, Bengkulu Province, 38126, Indonesia


Rice improvement program for swampland areas is mainly addressed to develop high yielding varieties with the desirable agronomic characteristics along with the improved adaptability to all growth limiting factors inherent in the ecosystem. This study was implemented to evaluate the growth and yield performances of 10 rice F3 populations generated from the crosses involving Bengkulu swamp rice landraces (Hanafi Putih, Batubara, Harum Curup, Tigo-tigo, and Lubuk Durian) and the cultivated varieties (Diah Suci, Bestari, and Sidenuk) on a swampland. The experiment was laid out on a shallow inland swamp with stagnant inundation up to 50 cm depth during the plant growth period. Data were collected for plant height, tiller number, number of productive tillers clump-1, heading date, maturity date, panicle length, number of grain panicle-1, 100-grain weight, and grain yield clump-1. High variability among the populations was observed for most of the traits and readily explored for the development of rice varieties well adapted to swampland. The principal component analysis showed that the populations were distinguishable on the basis of the observed traits. The magnitude of broad sense heritability and genetic advance estimates denoted that simple phenotypic selection should be sufficient for gaining genetic improvement for the majority of the traits, excluding panicle length.

Keywords: Genetic advance, Heritability, Inland swamp, Local rice varieties, Principal component

Role of salicylic acid and ascorbic acid in alleviating the harmful effects of water stress in Maize (Zea mays L.)

Muhammad Qasim1, Mudassir Aziz1*, Fahim Nawaz1, Muhammad Arif2

1Department of Agronomy, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

2Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


Water scarcity is threatening productivity of crops throughout the globe. Different osmoprotectants such as salicylic acid and ascorbic acid have potential to mitigate the harmful effects of water deficit. Current study was conducted to examine the possible role of salicylic acid and ascorbic acid individually and in combination in improving the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to drought at different growth stages. Drought was imposed by skipping irrigation at two water sensitive crop growth stages i.e. 6 fully expanded leaves (V6 as per Feekes scale) and initiation of silking (R1 as per Feekes scale). Water deficit significantly decreased cob diameter (19.2%), cob weight (13.8%), grain rows per cob (14.4%), cob length (12.8%), 1000- grain weight (6.2%), stover yield (17.7%), grain yield (10.6%), biological yield (8.2) as compared to normal irrigation. Drought imposed at R1 (as per Feekes scale) was more lethal in terms of reduction in different yield and yield components including 1000-grain weight, grain yield and biological yield by 0.2, 6.9 and 0.9 %, respectively. Exogenous application of combination of salicylic acid + ascorbic acid @ 0.5mM each + tween 20 (0.1%) applied at V6 stage (as per Feekes scale) was more effective in mitigating the harmful effects of water deficit by improving cob diameter (6%) biological yield (1%) and grain yield of maize (6.9%) as compared to drought imposed at R1(as per Feekes scale).

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Drought, Maize, Salicylic acid, Yield

Comparative leaf and stem anatomy of ten Piper species from Indonesia

Laurentius Hartanto Nugroho1*, Sutikno1, Ratna Susandarini1, Indah Rafika Yuliati1, Yosep Priyono1, Esti Munawaroh2, Inggit Puji Astuti2

1Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia

2Center for Plant Conservation, Bogor Botanical Garden, Indonesian Institute for Sciences, Indonesia


The genus Piper with over 700 species distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the world has a considerable number of species with economic importance as spices and herbal medicine. In this study the anatomical characters of leaf and stem on 10 species of Piper from Bogor Botanical Garden, Indonesia were observed in relation with their function as oil-accumulating organs. The objective of this study was to explore the anatomical variability among species. Observations on anatomical characters were done on leaf epidermal and cross section as well as stem cross section prepared using paraffin embedding method. Results indicated that there were structural variations on the epidermal features, mesophyll, secretory cells and secretory cannals of leaves, as well as variation on the ratio of medullary and peripheral vascular bundles on stem. Results of this study provide additional taxonomic evidence to confirm differences between Piper species, and serve as supporting data for identification based on internal structures. Data on the comparative anatomy of leaf and stem also contributes to the selection of the right materials for the extraction of essential oils from various Piper species based on the presence of secretory cells.

Keywords: Piper, Plant internal structure, Medicinal plant, Taxonomic evidence

Comparative tolerance of different Cotton cultivars against Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) under ecological conditions of District Layyah

Jamshaid Iqbal1, Chaudhary Muhammad Irshad2, Ijaz Ahmad2, Asmat Nawaz2, Muhammad Aamir2,  Arsalan Ali1*, Hasnain Yaseen1

1Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan

2Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides, Agriculture Department of Punjab,  D.G.Khan, Pakistan


Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) is a serious threat to cotton crop in Pakistan. The current research trail was designed to assess the response of six cotton genotypes viz: IUB-13, BS-15, FH-142, MNH-886, NIAB-999 and MNH 1026 and role of abiotic factors on the infestation of pink bollworm on squares, flowers and green bolls of cotton cultivars under agro-climatic conditions of District Layyah from July to October 2018 on weekly basis. The results of the study revealed that maximum infestation of Pink bollworm (4.02%) on squares was noted at temperature of 31.23°C and relative humidity of (41.83%). Maximum infestation on green bolls (5.50%) was recorded at temperature 31.23°C and relative humidity 41.83% respectively. Among all tested varieties IUB-13 was found to be relatively susceptible under unsprayed condition and MNH-1026 was found to be comparatively resistant against Pink bollworm infestation on flowers. No rainfall in the experiment area was recorded during study period. Present study can be helpful in selection of resistant cultivars against Pink bollworm for good quality production of cotton.

Keywords: Gossypium hirsutum, Genotypes, Pink bollworm, Abiotic factors

Food Allergy and its clinical symptoms among people of Soran City, Erbil, Iraq

Karzan Muhammad Khalid1,   Bushra Hussain Shnawa1,2*,  Shorish Mustafa Abdullah1,2

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Soran University, Kurdistan, Iraq

2Scientific Research Center, Soran University, Kurdistan, Iraq


Food allergy is an immune mediated non-toxic adverse reaction to a certain type of foods. It is a worldwide health problem. Several recent researches highlight awareness and concern about this issue. The current study performed by randomized cross–sectional survey and the data were analysed statistically. The present finding showed that among the 248 individuals whom participated in the questionnaires, 134 were considered as allergic subjects, whereas 114 of the participants had no food allergy. Regarding gender, 63 (47.1%) of the allergic people were male and 71 (52.9%) were female. According to age, all age groups (<10 – >29) were sensitized at least to one type of foods. The most common three allergic foods were hot pepper, followed by eggs and garlic. The timing of the immune reaction is critical began within 10 minutes of exposure to the allergen to more than one hour. Furthermore, the most appeared symptoms that these individuals suffering from were redness, urticaria, vomiting and diarrhoea, which correlated significantly with type of allergen. Food allergy in Soran city was high and more people suffered from it. Young ages were more affected than adults, and redness was the main noticed symptom. Hot pepper and eggs were the most causative food allergy among the selected foods .Food allergy is a growing health concern, so more studies directed toward prevention with more effective management strategies are needed.  

Keywords: Food allergy, Food allergens, Symptoms, Questionnaire

Sauropus species containing eudesmin and their DNA profile

Nuttapong Sawasdee1, Arunrat Chaveerach1, Tawatchai Tanee1,2, Kittiya Silawong Suwannakud1,

Pornpimol Ponkham1,3, Runglawan Sudmoon1,4

1Genetics and Environmental Toxicology Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

2Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahasarakham University, Thailand

3Faculty of Science and Technology, Mahasarakham Rajabhat University, Thailand

4Faculty of Law, Khon Kaen University, Thailand


Some Sauropus and Breynia species were investigated for phytochemicals as well as their DNA profile for genetic relationships. S. bicolor and S. thorelii are important species that contain eudesmin concentrations of 36.445 mg and 32.190 mg from 2 g fresh leaves and 1.5 g dried leaves, respectively, and 10.620 mg from 2 g dried leaves was revealed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The genetic relationships calculated via inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) dendrogram construction, as shown by similarity indices, revealed Breynia and Sauropus separation accuracies, with S values of 0.71-0.81 between genera, S values of 0.76-0.85 at the interspecific level of Breynia and S values of 0.69-0.80 in the Sauropus species, in agreement with the criteria for category distinction. Barcodes with rpoB and trnH-psbA spacer regions can be used to identify some species of the two studied genera.

Keywords: Barcode, ISSR fingerprint, Sauropus species, Eudesmin, Breynia species

Endophytic bacteria from Theobroma cacao L. with antifungal activities against Phytophthora palmivora

Ishak Zubir1,2, Ernie Eileen Rizlan Ross3, Ainon Hamzah1, Wan Syaidatul Aqma1*

1School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor Malaysia

2Malaysia Cocoa Board, Cocoa Innovative and Technology Centre, Lot 12621, Kawasan Perindustrian Nilai 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

3Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam Selangor, Malaysia


Black pod disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Phytophthora palmivora is a serious threat to the cocoa industry causing the destruction of cocoa plants in many plantations across Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to determine the antifungal activities of the endophytic bacteria isolates and to identify the isolates. Four selected endophytic bacteria previously isolated from tissues of healthy Theobroma cacao L. designated as isolate LKM-UL, LKM-PA, LKM-PD, and LKM-BL were assessed for their abilities to inhibit the growth of P. palmivora in vitro. Preliminary tests using dual culture method showed that the isolate LKM-BL had the strongest inhibition towards the growth of P. palmivora after 24 h of incubation compared to the other isolates. The growth of LKM-UL, LKM-PA, LKM-PD, and LKM-BL revealed that the antifungal activities against cocoa pathogen increases as the number of endophytic cells increases. The cell-free supernatant from isolate LKM-BL produced the highest antifungal activity against cocoa pathogen with an inhibition zone of 19.5 ± 0.50 mm during the highest cell growth at 24 h of incubation. The endophytic bacteria were characterized morphologically and based on biochemical tests. Based on the analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences, isolate LKM-UL, LKM-PA, LKM-PD, and LKM-BL were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pantoea agglomerans, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis respectively. The findings indicate that among the four endophytic bacterial isolates studied, B. subtilis LKM-BL showed the highest antifungal activity and has the potential to be used as a biological control agent towards the cocoa pathogen P. palmivora.

Keywords: Endophytic bacteria, Antifungal, Phytophthora palmivora, Black pod, Cocoa