Tag Archives: 7-2

Strip intercropping system of chickpea, lentil and arugula crop as a promising option in spate irrigated area of Punjab, Pakistan

Jawad Amin1, Khuram Mubeen1*, Matlob Ahmad2, Mudassir Aziz1, Muhammad Arif3

1Department of Agronomy, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

2Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

3Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


Studies were conducted to examine the effect of legumes and oilseed crop strips on inter-cropping properties and yield related parameters during the Rabi season 2017-18 at three selected locations in Mithawan Hill Torrent (spate) irrigated fields of Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab- Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three replications. The sole strips of chickpea, arugula (locally called taramira), lentil were evaluated. Chickpea-arugula alternate strip, chickpea-lentil alternate strip, arugula-lentil alternate strip and chickpea-arugula- lentil alternate strip in combination were also investigated. Data was analyzed through ANOVA technique and differences among the treatments were tested using HSD Tukey’s test. The obtained results shows that the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) of sole chickpea was 0.97 and LER of strip intercropping was 1.79 which shows distinct advantage of strip intercropping. Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCC) value for chickpea, arugula and lentil were 25, 9.44 and 0.1, respectively when compared with the sole strip cropping. It shows that intercropping of chickpea and arugula were effective. Chickpea and arugula strip inter crop resulted in better LER and RCC with reasonable yield of both crops under the spate irrigated conditions of Mithawan hill torrent command area Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab (Pakistan). Area time equivalent ratio could not bring significant differences among the strip inter cropping treatments. Lentil could not succeed in strip inter cropping in spate irrigated situations of Mithawan hill torrent. The obtained results recorded maximum 1000 seed weight of chickpea (144.80 g) and arugula (4.72 g); seed yield of chickpea (800.16 kg ha-1), arugula (433.14 kg ha-1), respectively when both crops were grown in the form of separate sole strip. Hence for achieving maximum yield, the farmers of spate irrigated area of Mithawan hill torrent area should sow chickpea or arugula as a sole strip.

Keywords: Arugula, Chickpea, Inter cropping, Lentil, Mithawan hill torrent, Spate irrigated area, Strip cropping, Yield

Correlation and path analysis studies of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) collected from Pala-U village, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Thailand

Pantipa Na Chiangmai1*, Monnat Yamying1, Sivalai Thammachaisophis1, Warisara Phuththa1, Siraprapa Brooks2

1Faculty of Animal Sciences and Agricultural Technology, Silpakorn University, Phetchaburi IT Campus, Cha-am, Phetchaburi, 76120, Thailand

2School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Muang district, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand


The decline in rice production experienced by ethnic minority (Pa-gha-ker-yor) farmers at Pala-U village, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Thailand, has multiple causes. The effect, however, is threatening the sustainability and well-being of the local populations. The objective of this study is to determine the relative yield and yield components of upland rice varieties collected from these farmers, both inside and outside of forested areas. Such information is then used to help determine the most promising breed varieties for future cultivation. Correlation and path coefficient analysis were conducted for yield, yield components, and related characteristics in seven genotypes of upland rice. The research was conducted during planting seasons in 2015 and 2016 in Prachuap Khiri Khan and Phetchaburi provinces, Thailand, respectively. Results show a significant positive correlation between grain yield hill-1 and seed number panicle-1.  Though non-significant, positive correlations were found between grain yield and four other criteria: panicle length, tiller number hill-1, plant height, and seed weight panicle-1. In 2015 and 2016, as for path analysis, grain yield hill-1 was directly influenced by factors either showed high positive effect such as: seed number panicle-1, panicle length, plant height and percent of grain filling, or high negative effect as 100 seed weight. Seed number panicle-1, percent of grain filling, seed weight panicle-1, and plant height were shown to have an indirect effect on grain yield hill-1. However, grain yield hill-1 was negative indirectly influenced through other characteristics by percent of grain filling. As such, seed number panicle-1, panicle length, and plant height demonstrated the greatest influence on yield may be considered as primary criteria, with percent of grain filling and seed weight panicle-1 qualifying as secondary criteria for high yield selection

Keywords: Upland rice, Indigenous varieties, Yield components, Correlation coefficient, Path analysis

Optimization of culture media for protease production by Aspergillus fungi

Raushan Blieva*1, Nurlan Akhmetsadykov1, Aigerim Zhakipbekova1, Aigul Kalieva2, Zhanar Rakhmetova1

1Department of Biochemistry, RPE Antigen, Almaty, Kazakhstan

2Aktobe Regional State University named after K. Zhubanov, Aktobe, Kazakhstan


Proteases are among the most important hydrolytic enzymes which have great potential in various industrial processes such as leather, detergent, textile, food, feed industries. Although many microorganisms produce these enzymes, in the recent period Aspergillus fungi have most widely been used for proteases production. The production of protease enzymes has been affected by a variety of physical and chemical factors, such as inoculum concentration, time of incubation, pH, temperature, carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources etc. However, composition of the cultivation medium (carbon and nitrogen sources) play significant role in enzymes production. The aim of the present study was the selection of suitable carbon and nitrogen sources of Aspergillus awamori 16 and Aspergillus awamori 22 mixed cultures for maximal production of extracellular protease. Sucrose (4.2 U/ml) and peptone (4.8 U/ml) were found as the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively.

Keywords: Protease, Aspergillus fungi, Carbon sources, Nitrogen sources

Potential of plant oils against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera; Bruchidae)on stored mung bean (Vigna radiata)

Anam Sarwar1, Sumera Afsheen1*, Syed Shakeel Shah2*, Sabila Afzal2, Ahmed Zia3, Inamullah Khan4,  Yousaf Hayat5

1Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Sub-campus Narowal, Punjab, Pakistan

3National Insect Museum, National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabadm Pakistan

4Department of Plant Protection, Agricultural University Peshawar, 25130, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

5Department of Statistics, Mathematics and Computer Science, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, 25130, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan


In the present study four plant oils including neem oil (Azadirachta indica), castor oil (Ricinus communis), mustard oil (Brassica rapa) and almond oil (Prunus amygdalus) were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera; Bruchidae) applied to mung bean (Vigna radiata) at a dosage of 10ml/kg. Free choice and no choice experiments were conducted to observe the oil effects on insect orientation, adult mortality, oviposition, adult emergence, seed weight loss and seed viability. All these oils showed 100% reduction in adult emergence and seed weight loss. Neem oil was proved to be most effective in oviposition deterrence as well as in deterring insects.  These oils also did not affect seed viability.

Keywords: Plant oils, Mung bean, Seed viability, Leguminosae, Callosobruchus maculatus

A simple, rapid, safe and low-cost method to extract DNA from phytopathogenic fungi

Adnan A. Lahuf1*, Ola H. Jaafar1, Zainab L. Hameed2

1Department of Plant protection, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq

2Department of Field crops, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq


The aim of this study was to develop an easy, fast, non-hazardous and inexpensive technique for extraction of genomic DNA from multiple plant fungal pathogens. Samples of pure fungal growth of Fusarium equesti , Neoscytalidium dimidiatum , Fusarium proliferatum and Alternaria alternata isolated from diseased wheat, grapevine, potato and lily plants respectively were ground with sterilized sand and NaOH (2N), followed by a centrifuging process to separate the sand grains and cellular components of fungi from the DNA. Subsequently, the DNA was mixed with Tris  buffer (1 M) pH 8. The ITS region of rDNA was successfully amplified, sequenced and analyzed from the extracted DNA of the four pathogenic fungi. This new approach provides a simple, rapid, safe and low cost way to obtain DNA samples of sufficient quantity and quality for use in molecular assays for the identification of plant fungi.

Keywords: DNA extraction, Fungi, PCR, Sequence, Phylogeny analysis

Allelopathic effect of Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts on plant germination

Arjay Julio, Wynsel Carven Tandoc, Hans Daniel Tipace, Yannah Franzine Vendivil, Zyrene Yanesa, Maria Violeta R. Tare, Elmar Jon Lactaoen, Ken Joseph Clemente

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Strand Strand, Senior High School, University of Santo Tomas, Sampaloc, Manila, 1015, Philippines


Allelopathy is a biological process where plants affect, often inhibitory, the growth and germination of other species within their space. This study aimed to demonstrate and compare the allelopathic effect of Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts on plant germination, with Vigna radiata as the test plant. Leaf extracts were assayed at 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% concentrations, and the corresponding allelopathic effects were compared to that of control. Findings indicated that L. camara and C. odorata leaf extracts inhibited V. radiata seedling growth and germination in increasing concentrations, with C. odorata leaf extract exhibiting greater inhibitory effect. The estimated marginal mean lengths (in cm) of root, hypocotyl, and epicotyl of V. radiata are 0.917, 5.937, and 3.263 under the control; 0.195, 0.813, and 0.499 under L. camara; and 0.101, 0.217, and 0.051 under C. odorata, respectively. Phytochemical analysis showed presence of several allelochemicals in both leaf extracts. These compounds were suspected to be the primary drivers of the observed allelopathic effect. It is suggested that the quantitative phytochemical analysis and herbicidal properties of L. camara and C. odorata be studied further.

Keywords: Lantana camara, Chromolaena odorata, Allelopathy, Invasive Alien Species, Bioassay

Simultaneous determination of ethanol and methanol in alcohol free malt beverages, energy drinks and fruit juices by gas chromatography

Ala Yahya Sirhan1,2*, Richard C.S. Wong 3, Lukman Bola Abdulra’uf4, Joumana Abd Aljabar2, Ahmad Mostafa2, Ahmad Talhouni5

1Dept. of Basic Science, Applied Science Private University, 11931 Amman, Jordan

2Food Lab Dept., Jordan Food & Drug Administration, Amman, Jordan

3Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

4Dept. of Chemistry, College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, P.M.B. 1530, Ilorin, Nigeria

5Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra’ University, 11622 Amman, Jordan


A simple, sensitive, and direct method to decide if “alcohol-free” beverages, energy drinks and fruit juices could result in positive “alcohol alerts” based on the use of the gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC– FID) has been developed. The chromatographic conditions such as injection volume and split ratios were optimized in order to increase the sample throughput and sensitivity. Unlike other conventional methods which also employ laborious sample preparations; this method analyzes samples directly without any prior treatment and thus cutting down the sample treatment time, as well as reducing the analysis cost per sample. Additionally, low ethanol concentrations as low as 6 mg/L were detected and quantified; making this method an appropriate technique for routine alcohols analysis in beverages. Optimization of chromatographic conditions gave recoveries in the range of 83.00% to 112.8% with relative standard deviations lower than 9%. The calibration curves were linear over the range from 6.250-200.0 mg/L for methanol and ethanol. The correlation coefficients (r2) were higher than 0.9997. The limits of quantifications (LOQ) are 4.48 mg/L for ethanol and 5.74 mg/L for methanol.  A total of 100 domestic and imported labeled "alcohol-free" in Jordan were analyzed for their alcohol content.  Concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 14.9 mg/L for ethanol and from non-detectable to 9.38 mg/L for methanol were found in energy drinks. On the other hand, non- quantifiable amounts of alcohols were found in malt beverage as well as fruit juices.

Keywords: Alcohol-free beverage, Energy drink, Flame ionization detector, Gas chromatography

A comparative, in-vivo anti-diabetic study of persimmon peel powder in alloxan induced rabbits

Maryam Sindu1, Umar Farooq2, Afshan Shafi2, Kashif Akram3, Zafar Hayat4, Muhammad Riaz5, Muhammad Shahbaz2

1Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

2Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture Multan, Pakistan

3Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4Department of Animal Sciences, CVAS-Jhang Campus, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

5Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan


Diabetes is a condition when body fails to maintain the glucose levels in the blood properly and the level cross the normal ranges. Natural treatments particularly through bioactive components from fruit and vegetable sources are becoming popular worldwide and are broadly accepted because of no side effects and cost effectiveness. In current study, the antidiabetic potential of persimmon peel powder was investigated by using alloxan induced diabetic rabbits as an animal model. The rabbits were divided into five groups. Persimmon peel powder supplemented diets (0%, 10% and 20%) were given to the diabetic rabbits for the duration of 21 days. The blood samples of rabbits were examined for glucose, serum creatinine and urea levels on weekly basis.  There was a significant decline in the levels of blood glucose in the alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. The reduction of blood glucose level was from 357.66 mg/dL to 256.45 mg/dL when the animals were fed on diet supplemented with 20% persimmon peel powder. Similarly, serum creatinine and urea levels were also significantly reduced because of supplementation of persimmon peel powder. It is concluded from the results that persimmon peel powder might be a potential natural best possible therapeutic option for the management and treatment of Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: Diabetes, Antidiabetic potential, Persimmon peel, Bioactive components