Tag Archives: SI-2019

Characterization of endophytic bacterial isolates from shallot as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)

Haliatur Rahma*, Novri Nelly, Nova Susanti

Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia


The rhizosphere of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) might harbored by many bacteria that have potency as Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). Therefore, we isolated and characterized the endophytic bacteria from shallot and found the potency as PGPR. This study was done in two stages, the diversity of endophytic bacteria and the colonization of various endophytic bacteria as plant growth promoters. The results showed that the endophytic bacteria had a high diversity of morphological characters. Endophytic isolate B2 has potential as PGPR in increasing shallot growth indicated by the number of leaf 35 sheet, weight of plant 875 g, and weight of bulb 46.50 g.

Keywords: Bacteria, Endophytic, Shallot, PGPR

Effect of fruit age and post-harvest maturation storage on germination and seedling vigor of wood apple (Feronia limonia L. Swingle)

Endang Dewi Murrinie*, Prapto Yudono, Azis Purwantoro, Endang Sulistyaningsih

Faculty of Agriculture, Muria Kudus University, Gondangmanis, PO Box 53 Bae, Kudus, Indonesia


Wood-apple is commonly propagated generatively using seed. Seed commonly is obtained from the waste of mature wood-apple with 3-6 days of post-harvest maturation storage. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of post-harvest maturation storage on various fruit age on wood-apple seed germination and seedling growth. This experiment was arranged by using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors i.e. fruit age and the duration of post-harvest maturation storage. The first factor was fruit age of four levels i.e. 6 months after anthesis (MAA), 7 MAA, 8 MAA, and mature fruit exactly detached from the tree, hereafter the fallen mature fruit. The second factor was the duration of post-harvest maturation storage which consist of three levels i.e. 0 days of post-harvest maturation storage (DOP) (without storage), 3 DOP, and 6 DOP. An Analysis of Variance followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test with 5% significant level was used. The results showed that post-harvest maturation storage and fruit age affected the seed germination and seedling growth. Germination and seedling emergence increased with the increase of fruit age and post-harvest maturation storage duration. The highest seed germination and seedling emergence were occurred from seed which came from fallen mature fruit either with or without post-harvest maturation storage. Six days of post-harvest maturation storage on fruit aged 8 MAA significantly increased the percentage of germination and the emergence of wood-apple seedling which was similar to the percentage of seed germination from fallen mature fruit.

Keywords: Germination, post-harvest maturation storage, seed, wood-apple

Management effects of ultisol on soil physical and chemical properties as well as maize growth in oil palm replanting area

Teguh Budi Prasetyo*, PK Dewi Hayati

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Andalas, Kampus Unand Limau Manih, Padang 25163, Indonesia


This experiment was conducted at ultisol under oil palm replanting area.  The objectives of this research were to study the effect of tillage and soil amelioration techniques on soil physical and chemical properties, to find the appropriate tillage system to intensify maize production, and to find out best maize variety. The experiment was conducted in Split Plots under RCB design with 3 replications. The main plot was a combination of tillage and soil amelioration techniques, i.e. intensive tillage (A), intensive tillage with application of lime (B), intensive tillage with application of organic matter (C), minimum tillage (D), minimum tillage with application of lime (E), minimum tillage with application of organic matter (F), and zero tillage (G). Lime and organic matter were applied at the rate of 1x exchangeable Aluminium and 10 t/ha, respectively. The sub plot was maize genotypes, i.e. hybrid and open pollinated varieties. Each plot consisted of four 3-meter long rows. Results revealed that combination of intensive and minimum tillage system with soil amendments improved soil permeability (41.10 – 50.14 cm h-1 and 13.52 – 18.52 cm h-1 for combination of tillage with lime application and organic matter application respectively), exchangeable aluminium, P availability and cation exchange capacity. Both responded similarly on maize plant height, cob and pod dry weight, but became better maize performance compared to zero tillage. Sukmaraga variety performed higher plant height (18.3 cm) and pod dry weight (12.9 g) than the commercial hybrid, indicating high tolerance of Sukmaraga to acid soil.

 Keywords: Amelioration, Soil management, Ultisol, Tillage

The application of Trichoderma viride -T1sk rice straw compost to suppress Fusarium wilt on banana seedling

Nurbailis*, Endang Dwiki Ningrum, Jumsu Trisno

Department of Plant Protection, Agriculture Faculty, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia


Fusarium wilt is one of the most destructive diseases in banana that needs to be addressed. We used T. viride -T1sk, an antagonistic fungus as well as a decomposer to decompose rice straw, and applied the resulted compost to banana seedlings infected by Fusarium wilt to find a dosage that potential to suppress the disease. A greenhouse study was conducted in RBD with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments were the dosages of T. viride-rice straw compost (g/seedling), they were 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 0 (Control I), and without compost (Control II). The parameters were the density of T. viride-T1sk in seedling’s rhizosphere, the appearance of the first symptom, the percentage of symptomatic leaves, and the intensity of corm damage. The result showed that the density of T. viride in rhizosphere of banana seedlings before planting differed significantly among the dosages. The highest density was found at the dose of 140 g/seedling (8.23 x 104) which was not significantly differ with the doses of 120 and 100 g/seedling. Two months after planting, the density of T. viride in rhizosphere was increased. The highest density was found in the treatment of 120 g/seedling compost (9.85 x 104) which was not differed with the doses of 140 and 100 g/ seedling.

Keywords: Banana seedling, Fusarium wilt, Rice straw compost, T. viride-T1sk


Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as probiotic on total colonies of bacteria, pH and cellulase activity in the small intestine of domestic chicken

Wizna*, Eka Putri Yanti, Robi Amizar

Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Andalas, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia


This study aimed to determine the effect of the addition of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens into drinking water on the total colonies of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Lactobacillus sp, pH, and cellulase activity in the small intestine of domestic chicken in starter period. This study was used 200 days old of domestic chicken CP 808 kept for 8 weeks. Type of cage used 20 units cage measuring 85 cm x 70 cm x 30 cm which each unit contained 10 chickens. The study used the Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments in 5 replications. Treatment was the addition of B. amyloliquefaciens into drinking water (without B. amyloliquefaciens, 45 x 109 CFU/ml, 65×1010 CFU/ml, and 43 x 1012 CFU/ml). The variables observed were the total colonies of B. amyloliquefaciens, Lactobacillus sp, pH, and cellulase activity in the small intestine of domestic chicken. The results showed that addition of B. amyloliquefaciens in drinking water of domestic chicken increased the total colonies of B. amyloliquefaciens, Lactobacillus sp, and cellulase activity in the small intestine, but did not affect the pH. The highest total colonies (B. amyloliquefaciens and Lactobacillus sp) and cellulase activity were found on the addition of B. amyloliquefaciens at a level of 43 x 1012 CFU/gram. Meanwhile, the pH intestine added B. amyloliquefaciens tended to be lower than without B. amyloliquefaciens.

Keywords: Cellulase activity, Domestic chicken, pH, Total colonies, Waretha probiotic

In vitro direct organogenesis of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using different types of explants

Dwi Susanto*, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat Hussin

Faculty of Agro-Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK) 17600, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia


Kenaf (Hisbiscus cannabinus L.) is grown mainly for its fiber. In Malaysia, this species is relatively known as a new plant and has a potential to be cultivated and improved to produce high quality of fibers. Direct organogenesis of explants is one of the ways to provide high quality of seedling for the purpose. This study aimed to develop protocol for producing kenaf plantlets through direct organogenesis of explants. Different types of explants (shoot tips, nodes, leaves, and petioles) of kenaf were surface sterilized and cultured on the MS media supplemented with different combination of hormones. The results showed that shoot could be induced using different combination of hormones in both shoot tip and node cultures, but not in leaf and petiole cultures. On the other hand, root could form in all cultures easily even on MS basal media without hormones added.                                                                                   

Keywords: Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, Java jute, Direct organogenesis, Explant

A path analysis on the impact of population increase on rice field conversion

Rusda Khairati, Rahmat Syahni*

Social Economic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang 25162, Indonesia


Rice field conversion is a transformation of rice field function from rice production to other uses. The accumulation of the case will threaten Indonesian food security in the future if early anticipation is not prepared. The objectives of this research were to figure out the amount of rice field conversion and to identify a path of the impact of population increase on the rice field conversion in Padang city, Indonesia. This research was conducted in Padang city from July to September 2017. Data was collected from Statistics of Padang city and official documents of Padang city from 2006 to 2017. Variables are the number of population, per capita income, land for settlement, length of road constructed, price of rice, and area of rice field. The methods of analysis were trend analysis and path analysis using IBM SPSS 23 and Smart PLS 3 softwares. The result showed that there was about 31.9 ha/year of rice field converted to other uses in Padang city within the last ten years. The population increase cause the indirect impact on the rice field conversion. The impact of population increase on the rice field conversion passes through per capita income and land for settlement as mediating factors.

 Keywords: Path analysis, Population increase, Rice field conversion

Effect of compost application on organic Fe composition in the soil, Fe uptake, and rice yield at Inceptisols in Meko, Indonesia

Ita Mowidu*, Kamelia Dwi Jayanti, Yulindatanari Ridwan, Dolfie Tinggogoy

Faculty of Agriculture, Sintuwu Maroso University, Poso, Indonesia


Iron can be in form of crystalline, amorphous and organic in the soil. The objective of this research was to study the effect of compost application on soil organic Fe composition, Fe uptake and the plant content as well as rice yield at Inceptisol, in Meko. The treatment used was the application of 5 t ha-1 compost that was mixture of rice straw and cocoa pods with various composition. The treatments were K0: without compost, K1: 100% straw compost, K2: 75% straw compost + 25% cocoa peel (CP), K3: 50% straw compost + 50% CP, K4: 25% straw compost +75% CP, and K5: 100% CP compost. Observations regarding Fe-p (Iron-organic) were recorded using selective solvents 0.1 M Na-pyrophosphate, likewise, Fe uptake; and rice yield were also estimated. The results showed that the application of compost had a significant effect on Fe-p at 40 and 70 days after planting (DAP), the Fe content in rice at 14, 40, 75 days and harvest time, as well as on Fe uptake at 40, 75 DAP and harvest time; However, it had no significant impact on grain weight per clump. The peak of Fe-p formation occurred at 40 DAP because of high Fe reduction. Rice Fe levels > 500 mg kg-1 during observation followed by Fe uptake which continued to increase with increasing plant age. The yield of rice increased by 7.90-27.30% compared to control and 2.60-21.04% compared to the average yield according to the description of Inpari-1 variety.

Keywords: Compost, Fe content, Fe uptake, Organic Fe

Pathogenicity of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. to several varieties of peanut on various dosages of dolomite in peatland

Irvan Subandar1, Lukman Hakim2*, Irfan Suliansyah3, Syakur Syakur2

1Student of Doctoral Program of Agricultural Sciences, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia

2Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Indonesia

3Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Andalas, Indonesia


Stem rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and soil acidity are the two problems that need to be addressed on peanut cultivation in peatland. Dolomite addition not only reduces soil acidity but also affect fungal pathogenicity. To study this, we used split plot design with dolomite dosages of 0, 10, and 20 t ha-1 as the main plots, and peanut varieties viz. Hypoma-1, Hypoma-2, Jerapah, Talam-1, Talam-2, Talam-3, Bison, and Takar-2 as the subplots. Three replications were used for these combinations. Dolomite dosages and peanut varieties interacted significantly on the pathogenicity of S. rolfsii at 15 DAI and filled pod percentage. The highest pathogenicity (30%) was found in Takar-2-20 t ha-1 dolomite, while the lowest pathogenicity (1%) was found on Hypoma-2-0 t ha-1 dolomite. The highest percentage of filled pods was on Bison-10 t ha-1 dolomite (79%), and the lowest was on Takar-2-0 t ha-1 dolomite (29%). Singly, the highest pathogenicity of S. rolfsii was found on Takar-2, while Hypoma-2, Jerapah, Talam-2, Talam-3 & Bison were more resistant. Dolomite dosage singly was only affecting the growth and the percentage of filled pods. The highest filled pods were on 10 t ha-1 dolomite, however if the increase to 20 t ha-1 dolomite had insignificant effect to enhance filled pods. These results indicated that resistant-high-yielding variety of peanut is most likely to survive stem disease and being productive in peatland enriched with proper amount of dolomite.

Keywords: Stem rot disease, Sclerotium rolfsii, Peatland, Acidity, Pathogenicity

Prediction and alternative conservation techniques of erosion at sugarcane plantation under wet tropical region

Yulnafatmawita Yulnafatmawita*, Hermansah Hermansah, Ratih Purwaningsih, Zainal Abdul Haris

Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia


Soil erosion is a kind of the worst soil degradation phenomenon in the world which could be due to soil mismanagement. The research aimed to predict the amount of soil erosion and to find out the alternative controlling techniques was conducted at sugarcane plantation in Lawang, Agam Regency and soil laboratory of Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia. Soil sampling was taken at 5 slopes (0-8%, 8-15%, 15-25%, 25-40%, and >40%). Soil parameters were collected and analyzed at field and laboratory to get soil erodibility data. Soil erosivity was calculated based on rainfall data in that area from the last 10 years. Soil erosion was predicted using USLE formula and tolerated erosion using Hamer concept. The results showed that eroded soil increased by steeper slope from 0 to 40%. The predicted soil erosion was higher than the tolerated one for each slope level except under rather flat area (0-8% slope). The erosion hazard level in the research site belonged to low (for 0-8% slope), medium (for 8-15%), and high (for >15% slope). Therefore, alternative techniques should be introduced to control the erosion, among which were soil hummock for all slope levels and terraces for steep slopes. Constructing traditional terrace at area having 8-15% slope, and perfect bench terrace at area having >15% slope would decrease the actual erosion from 34.73 to 18.52 t/ha/y (at 8-15% slope), from 147.4 to 6.55 t/ha/y (at 15-25% slope), from 415.4 to 18.46 t/ha/y(at 25-45% slope), and from 203.2 to 18.04 t/ha/y (at >40% slope).

Keywords: Conservation techniques, Predicted erosion, Slope, Sugarcane plantation, Wet tropical region