Tag Archives: 5(4)

Survey of honeybee viruses in Syria

Humam Shaaban Barhoum, Hisham Adib Alrouz, Ahmad Mouhamad Mouhanna

Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria.


Beekeepers in Syria have reported higher-than-usual colony losses in the last 8 years. These elevated losses average is more than 20% nationally. This study aimed to detect seven honeybee viruses in some provinces in Syria. RT-PCR was used in 240 Samples, which collected from eight provinces. It is shown that there is presence of four-honey bee’s virus (Deformed wing virus DWV, Acute bee paralysis virus ABPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus CBPV and Sacbrood virus SBV). The single viral infection rates were 100% (DWV), 18.89% (ABPV), 5.56% (CBPV) and 13.33% (SBV). DWV positivity prevalence in all studied regions, while the ABPV prevalence in four regions, and both CBPV and SBV prevalence in only two regions. This study is the first report of presence CBPV and SBV in Syria and adding a new recording of the ABPV in a new region.

Keywords: Honeybee viruses, RT-PCR, CCD

Rohi Sarsoon: A new high yielding rapeseed variety released for general cultivation in south Punjab (Pakistan)

Muhammad Aslam Nadeem, Hafiz Muhammad Zia Ullah*, Abdul Majid Khan, Fida Hussain,

Muhammad Jamil, Idrees Ahmad

Oilseeds Research Station, Khanpur, District Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan


This paper reports the release of new variety “Rohi Sarsoon” which is high yielding with erect growth habits. This variety was released in the year 2016 for arid and irrigated areas of agricultural lands. Rohi Sarsoon has been evolved from an elite line selected from progeny of a cross between KN-120 and KN-131 at Oilseeds Research Station, Khanpur during 2001-2002. Progenies F2-F5 were advanced by pedigree selection method. It is tolerant to Alternaria Blight, Powdery mildew, Downy mildew and white rust with yield potential 3927 Kg/hectare. The sowing time of this variety is 1-15 October with seed rate 0.60-0.80 Kg/acre. Plant color is light green with height of 160-173 cm and growth habits is determinate type. Its 1000 seed weight has been observed about 4-4.5 g. Leaf color is light green and seed contains 44-47% oil contents in it. Its meal contains 30-35% protein. This variety takes 155-160 days to mature and due to good performance it is recommended for the Southern Punjab and Cholistan areas in meeting of Federal Seed Certifiation and Registration Department held on 12 August 2016. Moreover, Rohi Sarsoon has got resistance against lodging, tolerant to aphid and best suited for Wheat­­­­­, Mung bean, Rapeseed, Bt Cotton, Wheat, Fodder, Rapeseed, Sugarcane crop rotation.

Keywords: Brassica napus, Disease resistant, Rohi Sarsoon, Variety, Yield

Economics of direct seeding methods of upland rice production in the Northern Guinea Savanna

Nwokwu Gilbert Nwogboduhu

Department of Crop Production and Landscape Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.


This study assessed the economic impacts of direct seeding of rice as an alternative crop establishment method for farmers in Samaru, Zaria in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Specifically, it examined the changes in farmers’ inputs (labour and inputs) and level of productivity and incomes among direct-seeded methods such as broadcasting, drilling and dibbling and measured the economic returns on investment in direct seeding. Analyses included cost and return, and economic surplus framework. The economic analysis of upland rice production at both locations indicated that production of  NERICA 8 and JAMILA by either broadcasting or drilling method at the seed rate of 80 kg ha-1 gave the highest gross margin as well as return on investment. The result revealed that NERICA 8 and JAMILA sown by broadcasting method at 80 kg ha-1 was the most profitable with gross margin of N246, 166.50 with return on investment of N6.72. This was followed by broadcasting JAMILA at 120 kg ha-1 seed rate which gave a gross margin of N194, 583.50 and return on investment of N4.32. However, the least gross margin of N61, 249.85 was observed when NERICA 4 was dibbled at 120 kg ha-1    which brought a loss of N16, 716.50 and N 0.62k was lost per every naira invested.

Keywords: Economics, Direct Seeding, Upland Rice, Production

Effectiveness of multi-strain biofertilizer in combination with organic sources for improving the productivity of Chickpea in Drought Ecology

Maqshoof Ahamd1, Azhar Hussain*1, Muhammad Fakhar-U-Zaman Akhtar1,

Muhammad Zafar-Ul-Hye2, Zafar Iqbal1, Tayyaba Naz3, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal4

1Department of Soil Science, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan

3Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

4Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research, Chiniot, Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab-Pakistan.


The present study was conducted in Bahawalpur, which is characterized by extremely dry and harsh desert conditions with very little rainfall and water availability. Due to less availability of water, the production of food crops is unpredictable that is not enough to feed the local population. To cope with the shortage of cereal grains and water, it is need of the hour to arrange some alternate food sources that can be produced with limited water. Chickpea can be successfully grown under water limited conditions. Biofertilizers have the ability to improve the growth and nodulation of chickpea enables it to withstand the periods of drought. The study was involved evaluation of multi-strain biofertilizer (developed from novel strains of Mesorhizobium cicri, Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp.) effectiveness in combination with organic sources for improving the productivity of chickpea in Cholistan desert area of Bahawalpur. Four field trials were conducted in different villages of Bahawalpur. Biofertilizer along with enriched compost and farmyard manure were applied under field conditions with three replications. The combined application of farm yard manure and biofertilizer improved nodules formation, plant growth, yield and chemical parameters as compared to control. It can be concluded that the use of biofertilizer in combination with farm yard manure is significantly effective in improving the productivity and profitability of chickpea. So, the farmers of Cholistan area should be recommended to adopt the biofertilizer technology along with organic manures that will not only enhance the grain yield but also rejuvenate the soil health.

Keywords: Biofertilizer, ACC-deaminase activity, Water scarcity, Food security

Foraging behavior of pollinators leads to effective pollination in radish Raphanus sativus L.

Syed Usama Zameer, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Imran Fazal, Asif Sajjad*

Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences,

The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan


To study the pollinator community of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and the best pollinators for radish production in terms of their foraging behavior, an experiment was performed at the research farm of University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. A total of 771 individuals of insects were observed, 51 percent of which were the flies (Diptera) and remaining 49 percent were the bees (Hymenoptera). The most abundant species was Episyrphus balteatus followed by Andrena sp., Apis florea, A. dorsata, Eristalinus aeneus and E. laetus. The maximum visitation rate was recorded in case of E. balteatus and Andrena sp. The maximum stay time was recorded in case of E. aeneus and E. laetus. The maximum number of pollen grains was deposited on stigma by A. dorsata (196.32 pollen grains) followed by Andrena sp. (155.47), E. laetus (143.47), A. florea (108.47), E. aeneus (102.74) and E. balteatus (62.63). Only A. florea and E. balteatus exhibited nectar robbing behavior i.e. 86% and 28% nectar robbing events, respectively. All the pollinators except A. florea came in contact with stigma and fed either for pollen or for both nectar and pollen. Apis florea mostly (82% of its visits) fed for nectar alone. All the bees preferred feeding on both nectar and pollen while all the flies preferred feeding on pollen alone. Conserving and enhancing these pollinators may boost the R. sativus production in Pakistan.

 Keywords: Raphanus Sativus, Pollinator Community, Pollination Behavior, Effective Pollinators

Impact of Cholecalciferol (D3) supplementation on biology and cocoon yield of silkworm, Bombyx mori L.

Sehrish Akram1, Shakil Ahmad Khan2, Fakhar- un- Nisa1, Mubashar Hussain*3, Maimoona Kanwal3, Fatima Zafar3

1Govt. College Women University Lahore, Pakistan, 2Sericulture Research Laboratory, Lahore, Pakistan

3University of Gujrat, Pakistan 


The impact of different levels of the Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) supplementation on silkworm larvae was evaluated by rearing under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod (25 ± 1 °C, 75 ± 5 % and 16:08 h of light to darkness ratio, respectively) at Sericulture Research Laboratory, Lahore, Pakistan. Larvae were fed on mulberry leaves of “Chinese Husung” variety supplemented with vitamin ‘D3’@ 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 % solutions. The significant increment in larval length (2.81, 4.17 and 5.91 cm in D3 (2%) as compared to 2.69, 3.79 and 5.56 cm in control) were recorded in 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, respectively. The results also delineated significant variations in larval weight (0.39, 1.0 and 2.81 g in D3 (2%) as compared to 0.28, 0.78 and 2.54 g in control, during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars, respectively). Larval food consumption recorded during 3rd, 4th and 5th instars showed significantly higher mean values (2.63, 3.23 and 4.43 g in D3 (2%) as compared to control (2.26, 2.60 and 2.74 g), respectively. The dietary supplementation also affected cocoon weight (1.39 g) and Shell Weight (0.33 g) and consequently Cocoon Shell percentage (23.74 %) recorded in D3 (2%) in comparison with 1.25 g, 0.24 g and 19.2 % in control, respectively. The results indicated improvement in better food consumption, larval weight and length and cocoon production when mulberry leaves supplemented with D3. The study highlighted the significance of dietary supplementation with vitamin D3 of “Chinese Husung” mulberry variety for rearing of silkworm.

 Keywords: Larval Length, Cocoon Weight, D3, Mulberry, Sericulture Pakistan



Pathogenic activity of Fusarium equiseti from plantation of Citrus Plants (Citrus nobilis) in the village Tegal Wangi, Jember Umbulsari, East Java, Indonesia

Dalia Sukmawati* and Mieke Miarsyah

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Campus A,

Jl. Rawamangun Muka East Java. Hasyim Ashari Building, 9th floor, Indonesia. 


Some fungi associate with fruit and dead or dying plant tissues as pathogen on a wide range of agricultural plants. This work comprised the isolation, identification and pathogenic assay from citrus fruit plantations (Citrus nobilis), Tegal Wangi, Jember, Jawa Timur, Indonesia with 34 mold isolates obtained. Color of 7-day-old colonies cultures on PDA was dominated by white while the reverse was whitish to pale yellow. Based on the pathogenicity test, four representative mold isolates were identified as pathogenic fungi using the sequence of internal transcribed regions Spacer (ITS) in the region of ribosomal DNA selected. Molds were identified as UNJCC (D5) D5K3A (Fusarium equiseti with 98% homology bootstrap value 100%), UNJCC (D6) D6. K3.B (F. equiseti with 99% homology bootstrap value of 100%), and UNJCC (D7) D7.K2.B (F. equiseti with 99% homology bootstrap value 66%) and UNJCC (D8) D3.K2.B (F. equiseti with 99% homology bootstrap value of 55%). F. equiseti is a main source of trichothecenes, zearalenone and other mycotoxins which can cause serious disease in humans and animals. Present information regarding the Fusarium equiseti damage to citrus leaves can be used help identify the occurrence of pathogenic fungi in citrus fruit plantations.

 Keywords: Citrus nobilis, Fusarium equiseti, Pathogenicity, ITS rDNA region

Intraspecific variation in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks (Family Ixodidae) isolated from goats raised in a small private farm in San Jose Del Monte, Bulacan, Central Luzon, Philippines

Priscilla Hope Swann*, Florencia G. Claveria

Biology Department, College of Sciences, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila Philippines



This study was carried out to ascertain tick infestation of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) grown in a small private farm in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan, Central Luzon, Philippines. Prevalence of infestation was assessed and ticks examined based on their developmental stages and sex were identified as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Adult ticks displayed intraspecific polymorphic variations (ISPV). Male Rh. (Bo.) microplus manifested variations in the distinctness of the ventral anal plate spurs (88.2%), and in the visibility of these same spurs when specimens were viewed dorsally. ISPV was detected in the shape or contour of the genital aperture lips in 37.5% of female ticks. To our knowledge, this study represents the first documentation of Rh. (Boophilus) microplus infestation in Philippine goats vis-à-vis demonstration of intraspecific polymorphic variations between male and female individual ticks.

 Keywords: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Ticks, Intraspecific polymorphic variation, Goats, Philippines

Isolation and identification of phytoplankton from aquatic ecosystems of Lampung Mangroves Center (LMC) as biological feed

Tugiyono1*, Jani Master1, Suharso2

1Department of Biology, 2Department of Chemistry,

Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia


In this paper we studied the isolation and identification of phytoplankton from aquatic ecosystems of Lampung Mangroves Center (LMC) as biology feed. The analysis of sea water quality parameters in the location of the study consisting of pH, salinity, brightness, water temperature, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate, revealed that all the parameters meet the quality standard, except for nitrates and nitrites. Isolation and identification of Phytoplankton taken from aquatic ecosystem of the LMC using net plankton ± 15 was carried out to obtain pure cultures in Live Feed Laboratory of the Center for Marin Culture Lampung, Indonesia. The Phytoplankton samples were isolated in the bacto agar and were added the fertilizers Conwy and Gillard to spur the growth of green and brown algae. The isolation of media was done by scratch method and cultured in a petri dish with upside down position for seven days, and observed every day for evaluating the algae growth. The results showed that there were 14 genera of phytoplankton identified. Six types of 14 genera of phytoplankton identified have potential to be developed as a biological feed: Thalassiosira, Cyclotella, Chaetoceros, Tetraselmis, Nannochloropsis, and Isochrysis, The isolates of phytoplankton produced can be stored in the refrigerator as pure stock cultures and can last for up to 6 months before being used in a medium culture or laboratory culture scale.

 Keywords: Aquatic Ecosystem, Phytoplankton, Isolation, Biological Feed.

Morphological, phytochemical and antifungal analysis of Aloe vera L. leaf extracts

Nafeesa Zahid Malik1, Muhammad Riaz2, Qum Qum Noshad1, Neelum Rashid1,

Qurrat Ul Ain3 and Adil Hussain2*

1Department of Botany, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Pakistan

2 Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University H-10 Islamabad, Pakistan

3Department of Biological Sciences, Karakoram International University Gilgit Pakistan



This study was undertaken with the aim of analysing some morphological parameters, screening of important phytochemical compounds and the activity of Aloe vera leaf extracts against two fungal species viz; Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus. Morphological assessment of A. vera plant showed significant differences in leaf and root attributes including its color, length and weight under both dried and fresh form. Pendulous and yellow to whitish color flowers were found. Phytochemical analysis of glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, reducing sugar, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, carbohydrates, amino acid, tannins and saponin gave positive consequences and negative for cyanogenic glycosides in both the methanol and ethanol leaf extracts. Alkaloids were found only in the methanol extract but not in that of ethanol extract. Glycosides, reducing sugar, phenolic compounds, steroids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were present in the aqueous extract. Both methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. vera showed significantly greater inhibitory effect whereas aqueous extracts were found with lesser inhibitory effect against Rhizopus and A. niger. This investigation strongly suggests A. vera plant leaf extracts with ethanol and methanol as better antifungal candidates.

 Keywords: Aloe vera L., Morphology, Phytochemical screening, Antifungal action.