Tag Archives: 5(4)

Yield, nutrient content and rumen in vitro digestibility of giant sensitive tree (Mimosa pigra) as dairy feed

Suntorn Wittayakun, Wera Innaree, Pat Pranamornkith

Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Lampang Campus, Lampang 52000, Thailand


The objective of this study was to evaluate quantity and quality of Mimosa pigra as dairy feed. Parts of Mimosa pigra including leaf, leaf with rachis, and seed pods were determined for yield, nutritive value, and in vitro digestibility using rumen fluid form a dairy bull. The overall percentage of feed parts including leaf, leaf with rachis, and seed pods accounted for 43.97 % fresh weight of the whole plant. The crude protein (CP) of Mimosa pigra was similar among plant parts ranged from 16.36 to 18.87% while seed pods was relatively high in ADF (P<0.05).

It was also observed that in vitro true digestibility and in vitro digestibility coefficients in leaf and leaf with rachis were higher than those in the seed pods (P<0.05). This study demonstrates that Mimosa pigra, especially leaf and leaf with rachis has potential to use for substitution or supplement in dairy ration.

Keywords: Mimosa Pigra, Giant Sensitive Tree, Nutritive Value, Digestibility, Dairy Cattle

The re-extraction of oil from oil palm empty fruit bunch residues and oil palm mesocarp fibers and measures in reducing greenhouse gas emission

Hotman Manurung*1,2 , Jansen Silalahi3, Donald Siahaan4, Elisa Julianti5

1Study Program of Natural Resource and Environmental Management, Graduate School University of Sumatera Utara, Jalan. Prof. Maas, Medan, Indonesia, 20155

2Department of Agricultural Products Technology Faculty of Agriculture, University of HKBP Nommensen, Jalan Sutomo No.4A Medan 20234

3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sumatera Utara, Jalan. Tri Dharma No. 5 Medan 20155

4Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute, Jalan. Brigjen Katamso 51 Medan 20158

5Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Jalan. Prof. Sofyan No. 3 Medan 20155


Oil palm Mill (POM) produces oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) and oil palm mesocarp fibers (OPMF) which still contain oil and carotenoids. POM utilizes EFBS and OPMF as a fuel to heat up the boiler and to generate electrical energy leading to the dissolve of oil and carotenoids in vain and causes greenhouse gas (GHG). The research is aimed at isolating and investigating the quantity and quality of oil of EFBS and OPMF, OPMF oil characteristics comprising of fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity and to determine the effect of GHG emission reduction after OPMF oil is macerated. The residual sample used is collected from 4 POMs. Oil isolation was done by maceration. EFBS and OPMF were compared with a hexane ratio of 1:20 (w/w), while the duration for maceration lasted for 48 hours in a room with temperature. Oil quantity parameters include residual oil content with soxhlet method and macerated oil yield. Oil quality parameters include: carotenoid levels, deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI) and free fatty acids (FFA). OPMF oil characteristics included oil fatty acid composition which was determined by GC method and antioxidant activity with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and GHG reduction by emission factor method. The quantity and quality of oil isolated from OPMF residues is higher than oil isolated from EFBS due to: oil content was higher by 3.91% (2.86% in EFBS), oil yield was 3.47% (2.26% in EFBS) carotenoid levels were higher at 2305 ppm (915.25 ppm in EFBS), DOBI is higher by 3.49 (1.14 in EFBS), and FFA is lower by 9.68% (21.58% in EFBS). The fatty acid in OPMF oil has generally the same composition as the CPO fatty acid which is dominated by palmitic acid by C16:0 and oleic acid by C18:1, respectively at an average of 30.31% at CPO of 44.0%) and 33.22% at CPO of 39.2%). OPMF Oil antioxidant activity half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was at 8.49 ppm. The effect of GHG emission reduction after OPMF oil macerated could reach 88.77% of the total amount of GHG emissions resulted from OPMF burning before maceration.

Keywords: EFBS, OPMF Oil, Carotenoids, DOBI, Antioxidants, GHG

A removal of Zn metal concentrate using Rhizophora apiculata mangrove plants

Mohammad Razif, Isbir Farhan

Department of Enviromental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Sukolilo Surabaya 60111, Indonesia


Pollutants from industrial waste can pollute the river water and have a negative impact in estuary ecosystem, changes in heavy metal content. One of the industries whose waste contains heavy metals (Chromium, Cyanide, Copper, Zinc, Nickel, Lead and Cadmium) is the electroplating industry. The purpose of this study is to calculate how much the efficiency of Rhizophora apiculata mangrove plants in Zn metal removal made from ZnSO4.7H2O artificial solution using laboratory scale reactor with the batch system.

Plant acclimatization process has been done with Zn metal exposure test for seven days using soil media without pollutants and using tap water. After the acclimatization, preliminary test in the form of Range Finding Test (RFT) was conducted. The results of the RFT were concentrations of 100 mg /L, 200 mg /L, 300 mg /L which were feasible to be used in the main study phase. The main study phase was done by adding artificial solution into each tub of plastic reactor measuring 270 mm x 233 mm which has been filled with Rhizophora apiculata mangrove plant along with soil media. Samples were taken every five days within 20 days, and Zn concentration was measured using a spectrophotometer. The pH and temperature measurements were intended to monitor whether the pH and temperature of the waste water during the study were within the normal range for Rhizophora apiculata growth.

Based on the result of the study, the efficiency of metal removal of Rhizophora apiculata mangrove plant at a concentration of 100 mg/L was 89,83%, at concentration 200 mg/L the efficiency of metal removal was 84,92% and at the concentration 300 mg/L the efficiency of metal removal was 74,94%.

Keywords: Mangrove, Zn metal, Rhizophora apiculata, Spectrophotometer

Influence of copper and lead on germination of three Mimosoideae plant species

Ahmed M. Abbas1, Sabah Hammad1, Wagdi Saber Soliman2

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt

2Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt


Contamination with heavy metals is a critical problem facing large areas of agricultural soils. Seed, a developmental stage, is considered highly protective against environmental stresses. This study aimed to examine the influence of two heavy metals; copper and lead, on the germination of Acacia tortilis, A. raddiana, and Prosopis juliflora.

Seeds were exposed to different concentrations of copper and lead including control, low (1000 ppm) and high (2000 ppm) copper or lead, low mix (500 ppm of copper and lead), or high mix (1000 ppm of copper and lead).

High copper and high mix had highly negative effects on germination of A. tortilis. Germination of A. raddiana was slightly affected under stress. While all stress treatment showed significantly negative effects on germination rate of Prosopis juliflora. Both Acacia species were not significantly affected after recovery, while the germination of stressed seeds of Prosopis juliflora has been induced after recovery. The 1st germination day was greatly affected with treatments, especially for Prosopis juliflora, where 1st germination day delayed about eight days under high mix treatment compared to control.

The results suggested that heavy metals had negative impacts on germination rate. Prosopis juliflora was more sensitive to heavy metal stress compared to Acacia species.

Keywords: Copper; Lead; Germination; Acacia tortilis; Prosopis juliflora

Physical condition and maintenance of agricultural workers: a survey in a depopulated municipality in Japan

Akihiro Kihara, Hiromi Kawasaki*, Satoko Yamasaki, Hideaki Hanaoka, Shingo Yamane,

Md Moshiur Rahman

Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan


In most of the countries, agriculture is until now, one of the most important sectors. In general, farmers usually carry out heavy physical activities for the long duration. We aim to explain the conditions for examining health guidance and maintaining physical fitness of older farmers. Questionnaire survey and measurement of body function were carried out in this study. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out using the data from 43 males of the same corporation. They took part in all the physical condition measurements and responded to the entire questionnaire. The concept of after harvest physical condition of those who think 'maintaining a good physical condition’ and ‘exercise after work is easy’ was significantly higher compared to those who did not share this view (p value = 0.021 and 0.044, respectively). Strong positive feelings still remain in the corporation and agricultural continuation among the older farmers. As this number increases so does the action intention related to health. The attitude, the subjective norm, and a feeling of control to action are related to an action intention which is a proactive stage to maintain good physical condition.

Keywords: Agriculture, Older Farmer, Physical Condition, Safety, Japan

Effect of soil type on growth, productivity, and essential oil constituents of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis

Saber Fayez Hendawy1, Mohamed Salah Hussein1, Heba M. Amer1, Ahmed E. El-Gohary1,

Wagdi Saber Soliman2

1Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Dep., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University, Aswan 81528, Egypt


Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., is a remarkable medicinal plant containing number of phytochemicals with pharmaceutical and flavoring uses. As part of development of agro technology package of practices for large scale cultivation of rosemary, experiments were designed to examine the influence of soil texture using different ratios of sand and loam soil.

Pot experiments were conducted at the Experimental Station of National Research Centre during 2015 and 2016 successive seasons. To determine the best soil texture and type for rosemary cultivation, seven different combinations of sand: loam (100:0, 75:25, 66.75: 33.25, 50:50, 33.25:66.75, 25:75, and 0:100) were filled in 30cm pots where shoot tip cuttings of rosemary were planted.

All growth characters such as plant height, number of branches, herb fresh and herb dry weight were measured. Maximum values were recorded in 100% loam soil comparing with other soil types. Essential oil yield was also higher in 100% loam soil compared to others. Results showed that soil types had a pronounced effect on chemical constitutions of essential oil with higher major constitutions, camphor and α-pinene, under sand soil.

These results suggest cultivation of rosemary in loamy soil for higher productivity as well as in sandy soil for higher quality.

Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis, Essential oil, Sandy soil, Loamy soil, Camphor

Impact of pesticides on Trichoderma harzianum and on its possible antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum under In vitro conditions

Nowara A. Mohamed1, M. A. Radwan*2

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida, Libya

2Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt


In vitro study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fourteen selected pesticides including six fungicides, four insecticides and four herbicides on the growth of a local strain of Trichoderma harzianum and on possible antagonistic activity of the treated fungus against Fusarium oxysporum. For compatibility study, each pesticide was tested at seven concentrations using poisoned food technique. While for the antagonistic activity study, treated T. harzianum was tested against F. oxysporium using dual culture technique under laboratory conditions. Significant differences were observed between the pesticides and the concentration used in the inhibition of mycelial growth and the inhibition increased with concentration increase. None of the concentrations tested of wettable sulphur, copper oxychloride, diazinon, cypermethrin, oxamyl, tribenuron-methyl and metribuzin suppressed the mycelial growth and the antagonistic potential of T. harzianum against F. oxysporium indicating the possibility of the integration between these pesticides and T. harzianum without any fear. However, the use of incompatible pesticides at all tested concentrations such as penconazole, iprodione, fenarimol and mancozeb and high concentrations of oxyfluorfen, glyphosate and imidacloprid may lead to inhibition of the growth and the antagonistic activity of T. harzianum as well as caution must be taken when using these pesticides in the disease management program. The obtained results will enable choice of combining T. harzianum with the selected pesticides within integrated disease management strategy.

Keywords: Antagonistic activity, Compatibility, Fusarium oxysporum, Pesticides, Trichoderma harzianum

Spectroscopic and morphological characteristics of genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) and genus Jojoba (Simmondsiaceae)

Mohamed Amin Aboelghar, Ghada Ali Khdery

National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Cairo, Egypt


Using second generation of biofuel that does not affect food crop production is an issue of global concern.  Remote sensing (RS) proved to be efficient technique for inventory and monitoring the spatial distribution of biofuel plants at both local and regional scales. It is used also for site selection of the most suitable sites for the plantation of these plants through the integration of multi spatial layers. Spectral identification of these plants and the relationship between spectral and morphological parameters were not observed.

This work is considered the first step of a series of studies deals with the identification of the spectroscopic parameters and their relation with morphological parameters of the most common Egyptian natural vegetation. At this stage, two sources of fossil oil plants Jatropha and Jojoba were investigated. Spectral reflectance was measured using ASD spectroradiometer device and the spectral signature was identified for the two taxa. Secondly, optimal spectral zone and wavelength/s were identified for each sample. A Strong relation was found between chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance at visible spectral region. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was found to be highly correlated with chlorophyll content. Further work will be carried out to quantitatively relate the amount of ingredient fossil oil of these plants with spectroscopic characteristics.

Keywords: Jatropha, Jojoba, Spectroscopic Characteristics, Morphological Characters

Population characteristics of Suncus murinus in rural commensal habitats of Pothwar, Pakistan

Surrya Khanam*, Muhammad Mushtaq, Muhammad Sajid Nadeem, Amjad Rashid Kayani

Department of Zoology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


The present study was aimed to determine the population characteristics of the House shrew, Suncus murinus, in rural commensal habitats of Pothwar, Pakistan. The trapping campaign was conducted in four village sites of Pothwar on a seasonal basis from March 2012 through February 2014. In each village, snap traps were set in three types of structures (including, village households, shops and farm houses). The results showed that the shrew population in the rural human habitations had an unbiased sex ratio. Reproductively active individuals were present throughout the year. Reproductively active females outnumbered the inactive individuals. The species was predominantly eating animal food (mainly insects) in its diet along with the sufficient amount of plant matter. Overall, these results indicated that in commensal conditions shrew populations had diversity in their diet with the relatively continuous reproductive activity.

Keywords: Ecology, Food Habits, House Shrew, Indoor Habitats, Villages

Grain losses caused by the commensal rodents in rural Pothwar, Pakistan

Muhammad Mushtaq*, Surrya Khanam

Department of Zoology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


Commensal rodents are serious pests of household food storage items and cause significant losses to the farming community in many parts of the world including Pakistan.  The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of damage caused by the commensal rodents in various types of household structures in rural Pothwar. Losses were calculated on the bases of average population of rodents per structure, amount of cereals consumption by rodents and the average amount of food, a rat consumes in a day. Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures suggested a population of 1,060 rodents (3.02 per structure) from 350 structures (houses, shops and farm houses) of 12 sampled villages of Pothwar. Results on the grain losses caused by commensal rodents reflected that 9700.24 kg of wheat and other cereals were annually lost due to rodent’s consumption, from all the sampled structures, from an average village of Pothwar. In addition, sufficient amount of food items were contaminated by the rodent urine and / or feces and thus are unavailable for human use and may cause health issues.

Keywords: Cereals, Grain losses, Commensal rodents, Rural Pothwar.