Tag Archives: 8-3

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from Beni-Guil lamb carcasses in eastern Morocco

Belhaj Kamal1*, Farid Mansouri2, Darouiche Oumaima3, Khamri Mohamed3, Chaouki Belbachir3,4, Elamrani Ahmed1

1Laboratory for Agricultural Productions Improvement, Biotechnology and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed First, BP-717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco

1,2Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BP-159, 34000 Taounate, Morocco

3Regional Laboratory of Analysis and Research, National Office for Food Safety, BP 73, 60000 Oujda, Morocco

4Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Science, University Mohammed First, BP-717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco


This study aims to assess the microbial quality and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from Beni-Guil lamb carcasses. 103 samples were used for the study. The mean values obtained for microbial quality were 4.65, 3.07, 1.26, 0.99 and 0.69 (log10 CFU/cm2), respectively for total aerobic Flora counts, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.70% of tested Escherichia coli strains were resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, as for Staphylococcus aureus, 100% of strains tested were resistant to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to erythromycin. Regarding gentamicin and benzylpenicillin, 70 % and 60% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant, respectively.                                               

Keywords: Beni-Guil sheep, Carcass, Microbial quality, Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial disinfectants and sanitizers: An effective tool for breaking the circle of pandemic disease

Nur Izyan Wan Azelee1,2*, Hesham El-Enshasy1,2,3, Daniel Joe Dailin1,2, Nor Hasmaliana Abdul Manas1, Roslinda Abd Malek2, Mohd Akmali Mokhter3, Nurrulhidayah Salamun3, Roshanida A. Rahman2

1Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

2School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

3Bioprocess Development Department, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications (CSAT), New Burg Al Arab, Alexandria, Egypt

4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia


The recent outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic has triggered the world in finding and developing efficient disinfectants and sanitizers. This deadly contagious virus has urged all scientist to study the natural characteristic of the virus and thus, to be able to produce the suitable antiviral drug. As developing vaccine is long time-consuming process, the development of disinfectants and sanitizers are necessary to reduce the spread of this pandemic disease. Many types and version of these products have developed and marketed. Several issues, such as the high percentage of alcohol, the high flammability of the product, and many more have arisen. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the type of chemicals used as antimicrobial in general and antiviral in specific agents. In addition, it also discusses the chemical and herbal formulations, factors affecting the performance of antimicrobial agents, the safety precautions, and the future trend of sanitizers and disinfectants. Ultimately, the choice for the best disinfectants and sanitizers formulation would depend on the sensitivity of the surfaces regardless of on skin or other surface materials.

 Keywords: Sanitizer, Disinfectant, Pandemic, Antimicrobial, Antiviral

Inhibitory effects of ethanolic extract of two Iranian pomegranates peel cultivars on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium

Marzieh Tadi1, Hamdollah Moshtaghi Boroujeni1, Mahmoud Rafieian-kopaei2, Elham Khalili Sadrabad3*

1Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

2Department of Pharmacology, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

3Zoonotic Diseases Research Center, Department of Food Safety and Hygiene, School of Public Health, Yazd Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran


In last decades, the antibiotic resistance is considered one of the essential problems. Therefore, uses of waste agricultural products such as pomegranate peel have drawn attention to be used as an effective preservative in food industry.  Ethanolic extract of pomegranate peels (Naderi and Mallas) were prepared. Then, the antibacterial effects on two foodborne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium) in meat broth and TSB media at two temperatures levels (4 °C and 15 °C) during storage were investigated. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of Naderi and Mallas cultivar for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were measured 15.62 and 62.5 mg/ml, and 19.5 and 64.5 mg/ml respectively. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of Naderi and Mallas cultivar were evaluated 125 and 130 mg/ml for both bacteria. All concentration of Mallas and Naderi Pomegranate Peel Extract (PPE) in meat broth at 4 °C and 15°C inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth.  It was reported that PPE was less effective in decreasing the S. typhimurium growth compared to the S. aureus. Naderi cultivar showed better effects on bacterial inhibition in compared to Mallas cultivar. According to achieved results, it could be suggested to use the ethanolic extract of pomegranate peel as a useful preservative against foodborne bacteria in the food processing industry.

Keywords: Pomegranates peel, Naderi cultivar, Mallas cultivar, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium

Antibacterial potential of ethanol leave extracts of Helianthus annuus, Moringa oleifera, Euphorbia heterophylla and Physalis angulata

Oghenerobor B. Akpor1*, Faith U. Hussein1, Olarewaju M.  Oluba2, Tomilola D. Olaolu2, Olayinka O. Alabi3, Ayoola J. Shoyombo3

1Department of Microbiology, Landmark University, PMB 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, PMB 1001, Omu Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Agriculture, Landmark University, PMB 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria


Natural substances with medicinal properties have been isolated from several plants and are advocated for use as antimicrobials. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of four plants against selected bacterial species. The plants examined were Helianthus annuus, Moringa oleifera, Euphorbia heterophylla and Physalis angulata while the bacterial species were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was carried out, using the agar diffusion method while the growth profiles of the test bacterial species were carried out in broth media.  The plant extracts were observed to contain phenol, terpenoids, saponins and tannins as phytochemical constituents. All the extracts showed inhibition against most of the test bacteria, although the degree of inhibition was observed to be directly proportional to the concentration used. However, Klebsiella sp was recorded to show resistance to most concentrations of the extracts with resistance to all concentrations of the Physialis angulata. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis was observed to be 500 mg/L. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MIC of 500 and 2000 mg/L were observed for Physalis angulata and Euphorbia heterophylla, respectively while 1000 mg/L was observed for the Helianthus annuus and Moringa oleifera.   In presence of the extracts, extended lag period was observed during growth, when compared to the control broth culture. In some cases, growth was not evident in the broth cultures containing the extracts throughout the period of incubation. The findings of this study could help in the development of advanced products that can be of medical and pharmaceutical importance.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Growth inhibition, Plant extracts

Mycelial growth of Philippine mushroom Lentinus tigrinus in selected cucurbit-based media and its antioxidant activity

Efraim Jose Liwanag, Rich Milton Dulay*, Sofronio Kalaw

Bioassay Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines


Lentinus tigrinus, a basidiomyceteous fungus, is known to be nutritious and exhibits biological activities. The mycelial growth performance of L. tigrinus on selected cucurbit-based solid and liquid media, the ability to scavenge 2,2’diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals, and the phenolic content of ethanolic extract of mycelia were investigated. Squash decoction gulaman (local crude agar) recorded the widest mycelial diameter (71.99 mm) regardless of the amount. However, 500 g/L of all cucurbit species registered the widest colony diameter of 73.35 mm. In liquid culture, both squash decoction and luffa decoction showed the highest mycelial biomass (0.09 g dry wt.). The highest mycelial biomass (0.14 g dry wt.) was noted at 500 g/L of all broth media. Extract of mycelia grown in winter melon decoction showed the highest scavenging activity (51.56%) and phenolic content (25.04 mg GAE/g sample). Therefore, decoction of the cucurbit fruits could be used as main ingredient of culture media for efficient production of mycelial biomass and improvement of antioxidant properties of L. tigrinus.

Keywords: L. tigrinus, Cucurbit fruits, Antioxidants, Phenolics, Submerged culture

The compatibility of single and combined applications of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis indica with imidacloprid against red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.)

Aqsa Arshad1,2, Asim Munawar*1,3, Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi4, Samar Sohail5, Faiza Bashir2, Chengjuan Liang3,6

1Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, College of Basic Sciences, University ofNarowal, Punjab, Pakistan

3Institute of Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, China

4Plant Sciences Division, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, PARC, Islamabad, Pakistan

5Insitute of Horticulture, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

6Institute of Applied Ecology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China


The present study aimed to investigate the biological potential of the entomopathogenic nematode (Heterorhabditis indica) for the management of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus O. and to evaluate its possible synergies with an insecticide application. Entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) and imidacloprid were applied either individually or in combinations. The virulence of EPN and imidacloprid was tested for three larval stages and the adults of R. ferrugineus. Moreover, pupation rate, adult emergence and egg eclosion were determined at sub-lethal doses. Our results showed that the mortality rate in all three larval stages and adults of R. ferrugineus was highest in combined treatments in comparison to single treatments. However, when compared to fourth and sixth instar larvae, second instar larvae were most susceptible, while the mortality rate was increasing over time. The mean mortality rate in adults was lower than in the larval stages. Furthermore, egg eclosion, pupation and adult emergence were lowest in the combined applications of EPN and imidacloprid. This research could contribute to the effective management of R. ferrugineus, especially in areas where it has developed pesticide resistance.

Keywords: Nematode-insecticide, Date palm, Mortality, Development, RPW, Insect stage

Investigation of agrobiological properties of ctb (cholera toxin B subunit) transgenic tomato under in vivo condition

Nguyen Hoang Loc*, Le Thi Thinh

Institute of Bioactive Compounds, University of Sciences, Hue University, Hue 530000, Vietnam


The study aimed to evaluate some agrobiological properties of ctb transgenic tomatoes under in vivo condition through physiological and biochemical characteristics relate to fruit yield and quality. Agrobiological parameters are determined by weighing, measuring and counting. Photosynthetic rate was determined via uptake carbon dioxide, the spectrophotometric method used to measure chlorophyll and total carotenoid content, vitamin C was determined using the iodine titration method, reducing sugar was determined by dinitrosalicylic acid, degree Brix was measured using an ATAGO N1 refractometer and total acidity in fruit juice was determined by neutralization method. Study results showed that final harvesting time for all tomatoes were 150 days including transgenic plants and control. Plant height (cm) ranged from 80.3 to 83.6, number of compound leaves from 17.6 to 22, and number of inflorescences from 7.3 to 9.3. The chlorophyll content (mg/g) and the photosynthetic rate (µM CO2/m2/s) peaked at young fruit stage in both transgenic plants and control with values from 0.48 to 0.62 and from 9.08 to 16.77, respectively. The yield, yield components and fruit shape of transgenic plants and control were also similar. Number of fruits ranged from 14.6 to 23, fruit weight (g) ranged from 61.5 to 69.3, and individual yield (kg) varied from 0.99 to 1.53. The main biochemical characteristics of transgenic plants and control were not different, dry matter (%) accounts for 5.45-5.91, reducing sugar (%) of 1.87-2.22, vitamin C (mg/100 g) of 44.01-46.13, acidity (%) of 0.62-0.89, Brix (%) of 5.23-6.01 and carotene (mg/100 g) of 3.01-3.84. In conclusion, six ctb transgenic tomato individuals were able to grow normally under in vivo conditions similar to non-transgenic control plants. Agrobiological properties between transgenic plants and control were insignificantly different with p>0.05.

Keywords: Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), In vivo ctb transgenic tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, Vibrio cholerae

Characterization and comparative nutritional study of three strains of Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

Muhammad Nawaz Khan1, Muhammad Asim1*, Abid Mahmood2, Ehsan-ul-Haq1, Tehseen Ashraf3Naveeda Anjum4, Faisal Hayat5, Raza Salik1, Abdullah Jamil1, Rafi Qamar6*

1Citrus Research Institute, Sargodha, Pakistan

2Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

4Barani Agriculture Research Institute, Chakwal, Pakistan

5Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural (Nutrition and Physiology) in the Ministry of Agriculture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China

6Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan


The high number of seeds per fruit is a major hindrance in export, fresh fruit consumption as well as in the processing industry. A seedless trait in Kinnow is the utmost desirable characteristic to accelerate the local and export markets. In this comparative study, three strains of Kinnow (normal seeded Kinnow, low seeded and seedless Kinnow) grafted on Rough Lemon rootstock were evaluated for various physico-chemical attributes and nutritional parameters at gene pool center of Citrus Research Institute, Sargodha, Pakistan. Even though conventionally used normal seeded Kinnow performed better in various aspects like fruit size, firmness, acidity, and vitamin C contents. Two new strains of Kinnow mandarin delineate promising nutritional value regarding various physicochemical and proximate analysis parameters like TSS, total sugars, Beta carotene, fat, and ash percentage (11.95%, 7.84%, 63.92 g/100ml, and 2.03% respectively). Seedless Kinnow and low seeded Kinnow strains portray similar results in various citrus quality and nutritional value aspects, anticipating a healthier and progressive domestic and export market.

Keywords: Citrus, Seedless, Vitamin-C, Physio-chemical attributes, Proximate analysis, Fruit quality

Impact of used motor oil on soil properties and yield indices of corn in Izzi, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Nwite James Nte1*,Enyioko Chimezie Onyeoziri2, Nwogbaga Andrew Chukwuma3

1Department of Soil Science and Environmental Management, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Nigeria

2Federal College of Land Resources Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

3Department of Crop and Landscape Management, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Nigeria


A lot of used motor oil is drained into the soil annually. The possibility of establishing impacts of used motor oil on soil properties and corn yield was studied with treatments i.e. 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% for screen house and 0 (control), 8.0, 16.0, 24.0, 32.0% for field in demonstration farm of Ebonyi State University, Nigeria. The experiments were laid out using completely randomized design (CRD) and randomized completely block design (RCBD), with four replications having pot and plot dimensions of 30 x 30cm and 1.2 x 1.2, respectively. Uniform cultural practices were applied to all treatments. Statistical analysis was used to analyze soil and crop data. Results showed that application of treatments at 2.0 and 32.0% reduced gravimetric moisture content at significant (P <0.05) levels of 47 and 82% for the two studies. Available P was significantly reduced by 57 and 87%, K by 125 and 140%, N and K by 57 and 233% at 2.0 and 32.0% treatments compared to control. Crop yield indices were depressed at 400 and 150% at 2.0 and 32.0% treatments for dry matter and grain. Current study suggested that soil properties except pH and yield indices can be maximally degraded if used motor oil is applied at rates of 2.0 or 32.0% or minimally at 0.5 and 8.0%.

Keywords: Motor oil, Soil properties, Yield indices, Corn

Separation and identification of some fatty acids and phenolic compounds from Portulaca oleracea L. and study their biological effect on two types of pathogenic bacteria

Fatimah Sultan1, Abd Al-Bar Al-Farha2*, Ibtisam Shaaban2

1Department of Plant Production, Technical Agricultural College, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq2

2Department of Animal Production, Technical Agricultural College, Northern Technical University, Mosul, Iraq


This study aims to identify the chemical composition of purslane and examine its antimicrobial activities against two types of pathogenic bacteria: Pseudomonas savastanoi, and Staphylococcus aureus. Ether petroleum extract and ethanol extract were extracted using a Soxhlet extractor. Saponification was undertaken to separate the fatty acids from the crude ether petroleum extract. Then, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect these fatty acids. Acid analysis was carried out to extract the free phenols from the ethanol using gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The results showed that purslane leaves are rich in fatty acids including palmitic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and stearic acids. Additionally, using HPLC, five phenols were detected in the ethanol extract of the purslane leaves including quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, catechin and apigenin. Using the disc diffusion technique, both active extracted compounds were found to exhibit various inhibitory effects against the studied bacteria. However, the fatty acids showed a greater inhibitory effect than the phenols on both pathogens.

Keywords: Bioactive compounds, HPLC, Fatty acids, Phenolic compounds, Purslane