Tag Archives: 8-3

Factors affecting organic productions and its consumption approaches towards consumers: A case study of Punjab province

Waqas Aslam1, Rana Shahzad Noor2, Saif Ullah1, Hong Chen1*

1College of Economics and Management, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

2Department of Agriculture, Biological, Environment and Energy Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China


The growth of the organic market as a food trend has been the most debated issue, especially about concern for health and preservation of the environment. The evolution of this market has forced producers and companies to seek, through studies and surveys with the population, knowledge of the characteristics of consumers and the motivations that lead them to choose this segment. The attributes classified as intrinsic and extrinsic to the product are comprehensive and diverse, which greatly reinforce the purchase decision. However, the buyer’s desire is strongly linked to economic factors since these products are more expensive than conventional ones. This study aimed to detect influencing factors of organic production and its consumption. A direct and structured descriptive research (survey) was carried out with 230 organic food consumers in Punjab, through the application of semi-structured questionnaires by applying Ordered Probit Model. This study results revealed that the consumption level of organic product depends on working status, consumer’s income, family size, health conscious regarding its nutritional worth as a cognizant customer.

 Keywords: Punjab, Ordered probit model, Organic product, Consumption trend

Chlorpyrifos degrading Pseudomonas stutzeri isolated from pesticide contaminated soil

Parichat Phumkhachorn*, Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon

Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand


Pesticides have been continuously used by farmers worldwide, including Thailand leading to their accumulation in agricultural soils. Bioremediation using microorganisms to degrade pesticides in soils has currently become of interest because it is considered to be cost effective and safe. The main objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize bacteria degrading chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide commonly used in Thailand. The characterization of the isolated bacteria included chlorpyrifos tolerance study. The most chlorpyrifos tolerant isolate was further subjected to the determination of a gene responsible for chlorpyrifos degradation and molecular identification. For the isolation of chlorpyrifos degrading bacteria from soils, M9 minimal medium supplemented with 100 ppm was used. Of all 6 isolated chlorpyrifos degrading bacteria, the most chlorpyrifos tolerant bacterial isolate was a gram negative bacterial isolate CHL3. It was tolerant to chlorpyrifos as high as 2,000 ppm. From plasmid isolation, it was found that the bacterial isolate CHL3 had no plasmid, indicating that a gene responsible for chlorpyrifos degradation was on the chromosome. When it was subjected to the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri. The bacterium obtained from this study might be useful for its application in bioremediation of agricultural soils contaminated with chlorpyrifos and organophosphate pesticides. 

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Organophosphates, Pesticides, Pseudomonas

Utilization of mango peel in development of instant drink

Anwaar Ahmed1*, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan Abid1, Asif Ahmad1, Naeem Khalid2, Sahar Shibli3,

Rai Muhammad Amir1, Arshad Mahmood Malik4, Muhammad Asghar5

1Institute of Food and Nutritional Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, 46300, Pakistan

2Deputy Secretary (Planning), Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

3Food Science Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

4Department of Economics, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, 46300, Pakistan

5Post Harvest Research Center, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Worldwide, fruit and vegetable processing industries are generating massive agro-industrial by-products. The industrial processing of mango generates a lot of by-products. Usually the major is with mango peel having a 7-24% portion of total fruit and not normally utilized. In the present research, mango peel was utilized in the formulation of instant drink as an experiment to harvest its nutrients. The mango peel was dried in the dehydrator and ground to obtain the fine quality powder. The mango peel powder (MPP) obtained was evaluated for its nutritional profile. The powder was added in the instant drink 5 g (T1), 10 g (T2) and 15 g (T3) concentration per 250 mL along with water, sugar, citric acid and permitted color and flavor. The instant drink was evaluated at the 0, 30 and 60th-day storage intervals for various physicochemical characteristics. Results showed that mango peel is an abundant source of moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate, and crude fiber.  The antioxidant activity, vitamin C and total phenolic content were 73%, 14.8 mg/100g, and 81.3 mg/g GAE, respectively. The mean values for total sugars, Total Soluble Solids (Brix), Titratable Acidity etc. differed considerably among all the treatments. During the storage interval from 0 to 60 days a significant decrease in pH, total soluble solids and total sugars, free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were observed, while the acidity of the drinks was gradually increased. The drink with 5 g mango peel powder showed the best sensory attributes in terms of flavor, taste and mouthfeel compared to 10 g and 15 g.  This research can be helpful to utilize mango peel waste into food products to harvest the functional, nutraceutical and bioactive compounds. 

Keywords: Food waste, Functional food, Storage, Physicochemical properties

Morphologic characterization of Sarcocystis spp. histologically detected from the diaphragm and tongue of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi

Cristina G. Cabanacan-Salibay1,2,*, Florencia G.  Claveria3, Hazel Anne Luyon-Tabo1,2, Steven Paulo C. Salibay4, Augusto C. Sumalde5,  Mario S. Torres1,2,   Julieta Zabal-Dungca6

1Biological Sciences Department, College of Science and Computer Studies, De La Salle University, Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines

2Graduate Studies Department, College of Science and Computer Studies, De La Salle University, Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines

3Biology Department, College of Science, De La Salle University, Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines

4Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Cavite State University, Main  Campus,  Indang Cavite, Philippines

5Institute of Weed Science, Entomology and Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of The Philippines, Los Baños, College, Laguna, Philippines

6School of Science and Technology, Centro Escolar University, Mendiola, Manila, Philippines


This study focused on the detection of Sarcocystis spp. in two species of rats, Rattus norvegicus and R. tanezumi collected from agricultural area in Dasmarinas, Cavite.  This aimed to corroborate the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in different species of rats found in the agricultural area. Further the establishment of different Sarcocystis spp in Rattus spp. based on the parasite’s morphologic characterization is also emphasized. Sixty-nine rats (36 R. norvegicus and 33 R. tanezumi) were collected through trapping. Individual rodent autopsy for host identification was performed by determining the morphological differences and external measurements prior to dissection.  Tissue samples were examined for the presence of white rice-grain sized nodules. Morphological characteristics of the cysts, particularly the size, shape, and presence of protrusions were noted.  Statistical analysis using ANOVA for the significant difference on the number of infected rats per species and across muscle type was done at p≤0.05. Infection in R. tanezumi was higher (48.48%) as compared to R. norvegicus (41.67%), the difference however was not significant. Sarcocysts burden was higher in the diaphragm in both rat species. Generally, higher parasite load was observed in R. norvegicus.   In both rat species, tissue cysts ranged from spindle-shaped/fusiform to globular and oval-shaped. The sarcocysts in the diaphragm were more varied. Consistently observed in the tongue were globular–shaped sarcocysts while either fusiform- and globular-shaped sarcocysts in the diaphragm. These differences suggest infection with more than one species of Sarcocystis. Hence, the presence of Sarcocystis spp. confirmed the infectivity of the parasite to Rattus spp. Moreover, the different morphologic characteristics observed on Sarcocystis prove the possibility of different species of the parasite harboring the Rattus spp.

 Keywords: Agriculture, Diaphragm, Rattus sp, Sarcocystis sp, Tongue

Physiology, yield and quality of soybean as affected by drought stress

Oqba Basal*, András Szabó

Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary


Drought stress is one of the most hazardous abiotic stresses increasingly affecting drought-sensitive crops like soybean. An experiment was conducted in Debrecen, Hungary in 2018 to investigate the influence of drought stress on physiology, yield and seed quality of three soybean cultivars different in maturity timing. Drought-stressed treatments of the three cultivars showed less normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) compared to fully-irrigated counterparts, whereas relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) did not measurably differ. Drought reduced the yield of the three cultivars, however, yield of middle maturity group cultivar was better than that of early maturity group cultivars, and the same conclusion was obtained from non-stressed treatments. Protein concentration changes were negligible.

Keywords: Leaf area index, Normalized difference vegetation index, Protein concentration, Seed yield, Soybean

Acacia plantation in different quality sites and fertilization in Northeast Vietnam

Tran Van Do*

Silviculture Research Institute, Vietnamese Academy of Forest Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam


The impacts of site quality and fertilization on the growths of acacia plantation have become important in plantation management. It could provide information on which site and how much fertilizer should be applied, contributing to sustainable plantation management. In this study, two sites of different conditions of soil depths (30-40 cm/shallow soil site and 70-80 cm/deep soil site) and of rock contents (< 10% and > 45%); and fertilizing 200 g NPK (16:16:8)/tree/year and control (non-fertilization) were experimented in an Acacia mangium plantation in northeast Vietnam. The plantation was established in September 2017, fertilizer was applied in Junes 2018 and 2019. Site conditions and fertilization significantly affected the growths of 2-year-old plantation. In shallow soil site, the plantation in fertilization treatment achieved 498% basal area and 595% aboveground biomass of plantation in non-fertilization treatment. The difference among control and fertilizing 200 g NPK/tree in deep soil site, and fertilizing 200 g NPK/tree in shallow soil site was not significant. It is concluded that fertilizing NPK to acacia plantation in the present study site is necessary for shallow soil site even trees become older, while in deep soil site fertilization is required only in the first year to support initial growths.

Keywords: Fertilization, Plantation growth, Shallow soil, Site condition, Soil nutrient pool

Bioaccumulation potential of In vitro regenerated plants of Ceratophyllum demersum against Chromium – A lab study

Muhammad Aasim1*, Senar Aydın2, Mehmet Karataş3, Mehmet Emin Aydın4, Canan Soğukpınar4, Canan Sevinc3

1Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Sivas University of Science and Technology, 58140, Sivas, Turkey

2Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey

3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey

4Department of Civil Engineer­ing, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey


Phytoremediation of contaminated environment using hyperaccumulator plants is considered as ecofriendly and cost-effective technique. Aquatic plants like Ceratophyllum demersum (Coontail) is used for the phytoremediation of aquatic environment contaminated by heavy metals. In this study, in vitro regenerated plants of C. demersum were exposed to different concentrations of Chromium (Cr) (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 mg L-1) for different exposure time (1, 3 and 5 days) in order to investigate the phytoremediation potential. The plants contained in Cr containing liquid medium were cultured in growth room having 16 hr light photoperiod aided by white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and temperature of 24±1 0C. The plant samples were taken out from liquid medium after 1, 3 and 5 days for taking data regarding fresh  weight, dry weight, Cr uptake by plants and bioconcentration factor (BCF). The clear relationship between Cr concentration and exposure time on phytoremediation was revealed. Both fresh and dry weight of plants was recorded higher at variable Cr concentration compared to control plants. The exposure time of 3 days to Cr caused the maximum Cr uptake, followed by further uptake of Cr at relatively slow rate after 5 days. The highest Cr uptake and BCF was achieved from medium provided with 12 mg L-1 and 3 mg L-1 of Cr respectively. Comparison of exposure time exposure time × Cr concentration revealed the highest Cr uptake (9145 mg kg-1) and BCF value (2076.5) from the combination of 12 mg L-1 × 5 d and 3 mg L-1 × 5 d respectively. The results revealed that in vitro regenerated plants of C. demersum can be used for phytoremediation of Cr and possibly use against other heavy metals.

Keywords: Bioconcentration factor, Chromium, C. demersum, Phytoremediation, Water

Effectiveness of vermicompost with additives of various botanical pesticides in controlling Plutella xylostella and their effects on the yield of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.var. Capitata)

Nurhidayati1*, Masyhuri Machfudz2, Abdul Basit1, Rose Novita Sari Handoko1

1Department of Agrotechnology, University of Islam, Malang, East Java, Indonesia

2Department of Agribusiness, University of Islam, Malang, East Java, Indonesia


The larva of Plutella xylostella causes damage to cruciferous plants by feeding the tissue between the leaf surfaces. To increase the production of organic cabbage vegetables, it is necessary to develop botanical pesticides. This study aims to describe the effect of vermicompost with additives of various botanical pesticides on the intensity of the moth diamondback attack and cabbage yield. The pot experiment employed randomized block design, with six treatments including plants: (1) without vermicompost and pesticide (control), (2) with synthetic pesticide application (SP), (3) with the application of the mixture of vermicompost and neem (V+N), (4) with the application of the mixture of vermicompost and papaya (V+P), (5) with the application of the mixture of vermicompost and marigolds leaves (V+M), (6) with the application of a mixture of vermicompost and soursop leaves (V+S). Each treatment has five replications and three pot samples per replication. The results showed that at the end observation of attack intensity of P. xylostella, treating cabbage with marigold leaves (20.26%) and soursop leaves (17.50%) had the same effectiveness with synthetic pesticide (21.86%) and significantly different with the other treatments (P < 0.05) by intensity attack of 29.69% (neem leaves) and 24.31% (papaya leaves). Treating cabbage with either soursop leaves or marigold leaves increases the size of the cabbage head, marketable yield, fresh weight and dry weight of biomass total and significantly different from the other treatments (P< 0.05). The results suggest that application of vermicompost with botanical pesticide additives is effective to control P. xylostella in the production of organic vegetables. 

Keywords: Vermicompost, Botanical pesticides, Plutella xylostella, Cabbage