Tag Archives: 6(4)

Effectiveness of compost and gypsum for amelioration of saline sodic soil in rice wheat cropping system

Muhammad Anwar Zaka1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Hafeezullah Rafa1, Muhammad Sarfraz1, Helge Schmeisk2

1Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian, Punjab, Pakistan

2Faculty of Organic Agriculture Sciences, University of Kassel, Germany


A lot of crop residues, kitchen wastes and tree leaves are wasted annually. These materials can be composted and used for improvement of soil health. The possibility of using compost in reclamation of salt affected soil was studied with the treatments i.e. control (no amendment), gypsum @ 100 % GR, compost 20 t ha-1, gypsum 50 @ % GR+ compost @ 20 t ha-1, gypsum 50 @ % GR+ compost @ 10 t ha-1, gypsum 25 @ % GR+ compost @ 20 t ha-1 and gypsum  @ 25 % GR+ compost @ 10 t ha-1.in rice-wheat rotation at farmer field in Haveli Karimdad, Pindi Bhattian district Hafizabad, Punjab, Pakistan. The selected field was prepared and leveled. The design of the experiment was randomized complete block (RCBD) with four replications having the plot size of 8m x 6m. The prepared compost was applied and incorporated according to the treatments plan thirty days before transplanting of rice. Uniform cultural practices were applied to all the treatments.  Rice-wheat crop rotation was used. The data for paddy yield of rice and wheat grain were recorded at maturity. The results showed that gypsum application @ 50% GR + compost @ 20 t ha-1 remained statistically at par with gypsum application @ 100% GR for producing biomass, paddy and wheat grain yield. However other treatments remained inferior but significantly better than control. The pHs and SAR were decreased significantly after harvesting of 2nd rice crop in two treatments i.e. gypsum application @ 100% GR and gypsum @ 50% GR+ compost @ 20 t ha-1. The ECe was reduced to less than 4 dS m-1 in all the treatments except control after 1st rice crop. The physical properties of soil such as bulk density, porosity and hydraulic conductivity were also improved with passage of time. Results of current study suggested that salt affected soil can rehabilitate to their original potential if gypsum is applied at the full rate (100% GR) alone or decrease its quantity 25 or 50% by combining it with compost at rate of 20 or 10 t ha-1.

Keywords: Saline sodic soil, Gypsum, Compost, Reclamation, Rice-wheat rotation 

Study the morpho-physiological leaves behavior of grafted and ungrafted olive trees (Olea europaea) under saline stress

 Gharabi Dhia1, Hassani Abdelkrim1*, Hellal Benchaben2, Labdaoui Djamel3

1Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Nutrition in dry areas, Ibn Khaldoun University, Tiaret, Algeria

2Laboratory of Geomatics and Sustainable Development, Ibn Khaldoun University, Tiaret, Algeria

3Laboratory of plant protection, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, Mostaganem, Algeria


The objective of this work is to determine the effect of salinity on the morpho-physiological behavior of young olive plants in cuttings and grafted plants, including two local varieties (Chemlal and Sigoise) and two introduced varieties (Manzanilla and Arbiquina). The experiment took place in a greenhouse with a well-controlled condition. The experimental plan is in a complete randomization of two factors (salinity and varieties); plants without NaCl application were used as control. The plant material (young 2-year-old olive seedlings) was selected and brought from a crop nursery. The experimentation started by the irrigation of the control plant with a nutrient solution. About the salinity treatment, the tree seedlings received a nutrient solution fortified by the addition of 100mM of NaCl. Four repetitions are being done according to the field capacity. The study covered the variation of the relative water content in leaves as well as the leaf surface, stomata density, stomatal size and the wax rate on the upper foliar epidermis. RWC leaf area and stomatal density of the treated plants decreased compared to the control. On the other hand, the wax level increases in the case of salt stress compared to the control, both for the grafted plants and for the plants not grafted.

Keywords: Olive-tree, Local varieties, Salt stress, RWC, Wax rate  

Relationship between nutrient concentration in saffron corms and saffron yield in perennial fields of South Khorasan province

Mobina Maktabdaran1*, Mohammad Hassan Sayyari Zohan2, Majid Jami Alahmadi3,

Golam Reza Zamani3

1MSc Student, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran

2Associate Professor, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran

3Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran


Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important exports products in Iran that proper concentration of nutrients is particularly important in the development and production. Since saffron is reproduced by corm, so always been considered production of replacement corms through appropriate nutrition; and concentration of element in corm in specific stage of growth and development has high correlation with plant yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine nutrients concentration in corm of saffron in perennial fields of Qaen and Nehbandan in South Khorasan in 2015. The information of two regions (Qaen and Nehbandan) were collected from 3, 5 and 7 years-old fields. Then, three fields with at least 500 m2 under cultivation selected for each age of 3, 5 and 7 years fields and 3 plots from each field and one corm sample from each plot were selected. The concentration of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), nitrogen (N) and iron in corm of saffron were analyzed based on standard laboratory methods. Results revealed that there were significant differences in N, P, K and iron concentrations of saffron corm (P≤0.01), but the effects were distinct for corm number in different weight groups. The present study showed that in saffron fields, N, P, K and iron concentration in corm were the most effective parameters for saffron yield increment, which regression correlations showed yield increment compeer to the change in these indices. Investigation of nutrients concentration of the corm on saffron yield shows the important role of such elements in yield. Therefore, nutrient concentration in saffron corms affect the plant nutrition, promoting growth and yield of crop. Generally, corm selection with optimum weight for sowing and proper use of nutrients, especially nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron, as well as their correct balance in soil, can be effective in yield increment and stability of soil fertility.

Keywords: Corm, Phosphorous, Potassium, Iron, Yield of saffron

The characteristics of fungi contaminating chicken feed in Tegal, Bogor, West Java

Dalia Sukmawati*, Nur Saidah, Tri Handayani K, Sri Rahayu

Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Campus B, Jl. Pemuda No. 10 Rawamangun, East Java, Indonesia


Fungi can cause contamination in animal feed. Contamination of the feed may result in damage to feed quality and decrease the health of livestock. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify fungi strains in cage- and warehouse-based chicken feed. Fungal isolates was collected using the dilution plating method. A sample was taken from the cage and feed in Tegal village, Bogor, West Java. The numbers of sample taken were 10 g of each plot. The isolation, identification and characterization of mold, was based on its phenotype macroscopic and microscopic. Forty-six molds [7 sourced from cages (15.21%) and 39 from warehouses (84.78%)] were isolated from 10 samples of the cage and warehouse-based chicken feed. The selection of representative mold isolates amounted to 22 isolates, consisting of four mold isolates from cages and 18 isolates from the warehouse. Six genera were identified, based on their morphological characteristics: Aspergillus (3 isolates), Penicillium (8 isolates), Fusarium (3 isolates), Trichoderma (3 isolates), Cladosporium (1 isolate), Paecilomyces (2 isolates) and Mycelia sterilia (2 isolates). The highest occurrence of mold isolates in chicken feed was Penicillium (36.36%), and the lowest of it was Cladosporium (4.54%).  The findings are in line with the information about occurrence fungi in the chicken feed of poultry. These results showed that a potential exists for fungi contamination in chicken feed can be found at cage- and warehouse poultry feeds.  Occurrence of fungi gives information to farmers to prevent a health of their livestock from excessively contaminated fungi genera Penicillium. Controlling as prevented by early detection or visual inspection and good management is a better choice compared to curing.

Keywords: Fungal, Cladosporium, Isolation, Penicillium, Poultry feed contamination, Warehouse

Isolation, identification and characterization of dye degrading bacteria from dyeing industry effluent and degradation process optimization against Novacron Red SB

Farhana Hussain1, Md. Reazul Karim*1, Fahmida Hossain2, Faisal Hasan3

1Department of Microbiology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh

2Department of Chemistry, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3University of Science and Technology, Chittagong, Chittagong-4202, Bangladesh


Water pollution due to the desertion of enormous volume of effluent like synthetic dyes mostly azo dyes from the textile dyeing industries has become an alarming trend in the present world.  Biological degradation of synthetic dye is gaining popularity because of its cost effectiveness and ecofriendly procedure. Hence, the present study was aimed to isolate and identify the indigenous azo dye decolorizing bacteria from dyeing industry effluent and to assay their dye decolorization potential in order to use them as an efficient bio-agent for decolorizing and mineralizing toxic azo dyes. Thirty indigenous bacterial colonies were isolated initially from which eight bacterial isolates were selected by further screening method, exhibiting 10% Novacron Red SB decolorization in semi-solidified screening medium. The decolorizer isolates were identified upto species as Bacillus alvei, Bacillus polymyxa, Corynebacterium rathayi, Staphylococcus aureus, Zymomonas anaerobia, Bacillus megaterium, Aerobacter aerogenes and Micrococcus conglomeratus on the basis of their morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The maximum decolorization by the isolates was achieved with 5% dye concentration at 37°C temperature and pH 9 and peptone as co-substrate. So, this study demonstrates that the selected eight indigenous isolates can be used as efficient biological agent for the removal of toxic industrial novacron dyes by maintaining the above mentioned optimum value of the process parameter.

Keywords: Water pollution, Dyeing industry effluents, Azo dyes, Decolorization, Biodegradation    

Seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in goats in a commercial farm Kuantan, Malaysia

Raja Nur Rahifah Inani1, Afzan Mat Yusof2,3*

1Department of Biomedical Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Hospital Campus, 25100 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

3Integrated Cellular and Molecular Biology Cluster (iMolec), International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia


Gastrointestinal parasitic infection is a major concern to livestock sector as it causes severe diseases and death to the goats. This study was designed to measure the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in goats and its association with the seasonal variations in a commercial farm located in Kuantan, Malaysia. A total of 480 faecal samples were collected randomly from 40 goats in 12 months. All samples were processed under faecal flotation technique for morphology and size of the egg/oocyst of parasites and McMaster modified technique for the OPG/EPG of parasites. Coproculture examination was performed to identify the species of strongyles infected goats in the present study. The obtained data were analysed by using SPSS software under independent t-test and chi-square test. Out of 480 faecal samples, 429 samples were positive and give the overall prevalence 89.4%. The infection rate was significantly higher in a dry climate (92.1%) than wet climate (85.5%). The mean egg counts of strongyles, Strongyloides and Enterobius were significantly higher in a dry climate than wet climate (P<0.005). Meanwhile, the mean egg or oocyst counts of Trichuris, Moniezia and Eimeria were higher in wet climate than dry climate, but the results were not significant. The findings from the present study suggested that appropriate preventive measures such as maintaining cleanliness and provide appropriate anthelminthic to goats need to be applied to the goats, farms and farm workers to prevent the widespread of infections to goats and humans.

Keywords: Gastrointestinal parasitic infection, Goats, Seasonal, Livestock, Malaysia

Prevalence and incidence of Tikka disease (Cercospora spp.) of groundnut in Pothwar region of Punjab

Muhammad Aslam, Khola Rafique*

Pest Warning and Quality Control of Pesticides, Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan


To monitor Tikka or Cercospora leaf spot disease of groundnut, surveys were carried out in the groundnut areas of four major districts of Pothwar region viz. Chakwal, Attock, Jhelum and Rawalpindi during main crop season in 2017. To assess prevalence and incidence of Tikka disease, 997 farmer’s fields were visited. Clear disease symptoms were noted in the fields during the season. The disease prevalence ranged from 7.85 to 45% where highest prevalence was recorded in district Jhelum (45%) and lowest in Attock (7.85%). The disease incidence also varied and ranged from 9.35 to 22.48%. The highest mean disease incidence (22.48%) was observed in district Chakwal, whereas the lowest (10.57%) was observed in district Rawalpindi. The results of the study indicated that Tikka disease is significantly distributed in all the major groundnut producing districts of Pothwar region therefore, timely and possible management strategies are of vital importance to control this potential threat.

Keywords: Cercospora, Tikka disease, Leaf spot, Incidence, Prevalence

Production risks of mamar, a traditional agroforestry system in Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

Johanna Suek1*, Irham2, Slamet Hartono2, Lestari Rahayu Waluyati2

1Graduate Student of Department of Agricultural Economic, Agricultural Faculty, Gajah Mada University, Jl. Flora Kompleks Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, DIY 55281, Indonesia.

2Department of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, Nusa Cendana University, Jl. Adisucipto Penfui, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Province 85001, Indonesia


A traditional agroforestry named mamar has been commonly practiced by small-scale farmers of western part of Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province. Mamar system is considered by many as an environmentally sound agriculture practice. However, as for other agriculture systems, the productivity of mamar system is also prone to risks caused by many internal and external factors. This study was designed to determine factors affecting the production and risk production of mamar. This research was conducted in four mamar-containing regencies of western Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province. Eleven villages which have at least 30% mamar farmer households were selected from the regencies. From each village, 30 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed based on structured questionnaires. Multiple regression models ran with Eviews 6 software were utilized. Results showed that: land area, number of kinds of annual food, perennial cash, forestry, and fodder crops, number of animals reared, organic fertilizer usage, herbicide usage, number of labor days, quality of soil conservation significantly increased the production value, while slash and burn frequency reduced it; and number of annual crops, number of animal raised, amount of organic fertilizer, and number of labor days reduced farm risks. This indicates that mamar system complies with agriculture environmental soundness principles because it incorporates diverse crops; sound soil conservation nature; various number and kinds of animal raised which results in the provision of manure to mamar and other agro ecosystems; and the limitation of slash and burn. However, the use of inorganic herbicides needs to be controlled.

Keywords: Mamar, Agroforestry, Farm production risk, Indonesia, Timor

Morpho-physiological responses of rice genotypes and its clustering under hydroponic iron toxicity conditions

Turhadi Turhadi1*, Hamim Hamim1, Munif Ghulamahdi2, Miftahudin Miftahudin1

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, 16680 Bogor, Indonesia

2Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Darmaga, 16680 Bogor, Indonesia


The acid soil area covers major topics land where Iron (Fe) toxicity is one of a limiting factor for rice production which can be overcome by planting the tolerant variety. The information of morpho-physiological characters and the genetic variation of tolerant genotypes is very important. Here we study the variation of root and shoot growth as well as physiological responses to iron toxicity between ten rice genotypes under hydroponic conditions with agar addition. Growth parameters, leaf bronzing score, Fe content in the shoot and root plaques, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in this study. Based on morpho-physiological data related to iron toxicity, ten rice genotypes were clustered into three groups which the best performance genotypes were Pokkali and Hawara Bunar. Leaf bronzing score showed correlated with Fe content in the shoot, but tolerant and sensitive genotypes could be differentiate based on this character because it showed non significant Fe content between those two groups. Our study found that the pattern in morpho-physiological characters variation could be useful for selection of desirable genotypes for Fe tolerant rice.

Keywords: Iron toxicity, Leaf bronzing score, MDA, Morpho-physiological characters, Tolerance