Tag Archives: 6(4)

Morphological and molecular characteristics of Liriomyza sp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on onion plants (Allium cepa L.) in Bali

Hamid1, I Wayan Supartha2*, I Wayan Susila2, dan I Putu Sudiarta2

1Doctoral Program (S3) of Agricultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Denpasar-Bali, Indonesia

2Integrated Pest Management Laboratory (IPMLab), Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Denpasar-Bali, Indonesia


Liriomyza sp. leafminer fly is an important pest of shallot crops that spread widely in Southeast Asia and Pacific regions such as Indonesia, China, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Vietnam. This study aims to identify the type of Liriomyza species attacking onion plants in Bali, Indonesia through morphological and molecular characterization. Onion leaf samples showing symptoms of Liriomyza attack, taken from the study site, were subsequently cultured in the laboratory. Adult flies obtained from breeding were then identified based on their morphological characteristics. While the molecular characteristics were identified through several steps: DNA isolation, DNA electrophoresis, PCR chain reaction, then put back into the re-electrophoresis box, and finally sequencing method was applied. The results showed that the Liriomyza species was found to have a morphological characteristic such that it has a simple color pattern on a simple abdomen with no connecting line between the segments and the next segment, dark grey or near black scutellum. These characteristics refer to the species L. chinensis. GenBank data tracking results through identification of squamous alignment results indicate that the Liriomyza COI nucleic acid found showed the highest homology with L. chinensis (EF104701.1), L. chinensis (AB721340.1) and L. chinensis (AB721343.1) with identical rate of 99%. Based on the results then Liriomyza species found attacking onion planting on the island of Bali is L. chinensis.

Keywords: Morphological and molecular characteristics, L. chinensis, Onion

Determination of the critical period for weed control of sweet corn under tropical organic farming system

Marulak Simarmata*, Uswatun Nurjanah, Nanik Setyowati

Department of Agronomy, University of Bengkulu, Jalan W.R. Supratman Kandang Limun, Bengkulu 38371, Indonesia


An understanding of the critical period of the crop for weed control (CPWC) is needed before making a decision on weed management.  A field experiment to study a CPWC of sweet corn was carried out at the highland of Bengkulu Province, Indonesia from October 2015 to January 2016.  The objective was to determine the CPWC of sweet corn under the tropical organic farming system. Weed infestations in the research plots including 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 days after planting (DAP) of weedy and weed-free periods were arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications.   Results showed that the plant height, leaf area, and yield of sweet corn descended and ascended due to the increase of weedy and weed-free periods, respectively. The biomass and yield losses due to weed competition during the growing season reached 49.5 and 54.7 %, respectively.  The relative yield descended or ascended in logistic equation curves due to the increase of weedy or weed-free periods, respectively.  Based on the acceptable yield loss (AYL) of 5 %, the CPWC of sweet corn under organic farming system was determined from 2 to 77 DAP, and with the AYL of 10 %, the CPWC was determined from 3 to 53 DAP.

Keywords: Sweet corn, CPWC, Tropical organic farming, Weed control

Combination of agriculture fertilizer for intermediate cultivation of isolate Nannochloropsis sp. of the waters of Lampung Mangrove Center as live feed

Tugiyono1, Agus Setiawan2, Emy Rusyani3, Erlin Gustina4, Suharso5

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung, Indonesia

3Center for Marine Aquaculture, Lampung, Indonesia

4Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia

5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Lampung, Indonesia


The availability of microalgae (phytoplankton) has an important role in aquaculture. Nannochloropsis sp. is a microalgae that can be used as the live feed for larvae cultivation of shrimp, fish and shellfish. In this study, a Nannochloropsis sp. isolate obtained from Lampung Mangrove Center waters was cultured by using combination of agricultural fertilizer as a substitute for pro analyze fertilizer (Conway).  The aims of this research were to investigate the cell density (cell/L), the growth rate of cell, and doubling time of isolates Nannochloropsis sp. from the waters of Lampung Mangrove Center, which were cultured intermediately with the volume of 100 L.  This research was designed using completely randomized design (CRD), with 5 treatments of agricultural fertilizer consisted of A: Urea 40, ZA 20, TSP 5 ppm, B: Urea 40, ZA 20, TSP 10 ppm, C: Urea 40, ZA 20, TSP 15 ppm, D: Urea 40, ZA 20, TSP 20 ppm, and E: Conway and vitamin B12 1 ppm (control), with 4 replications.  The results showed that the treatment of A produced the highest cell density and the fastest growth rate (p <0.050) compared with the others.   In addition, the treatment of A showed the fastest doubling time significantly (p <0.050) to B, D, and E treatments, but it is not in significant difference with the treatment of C (p=0.065). It was concluded that the combination of the agricultural fertilizer treatment A was the best for growth rate of Nannochloropsis sp. in intermediate culture.

Keywords: Nannochloropsis sp., Intermediate scale culture, Agricultural fertilizer, Lampung mangrove center 

The role of hot water treatment and chitosan coating in controlling a latent infection of Colletotrichum musae on banana var. Mas kirana

Hendra Adi Prasetia*1, Leny Panjaitan1, Salbiah1, Widodo2, Dondy Anggono Setiabudi3

1Applied Research Institute of Agricultural Quarantine, Jalan Raya Kampung Utan-Setu Cikarang Barat, Bekasi 17520, Indonesia

2Department of Plant Protection, Bogor Agricultural University, Jalan Kamper Babakan Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

3Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development, Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 12 Cimanggu, Bogor 16122, Indonesia


Anthracnose disease due to a latent infection of Colletotrichum musae has seriously impacted on bananas decay. This case caused a serious number of economic losses facing in both local and international trades. To overcome this problem, hot water treatment and also chitosan coating have been developed in minimizing this fungal infection during postharvest period. In this research, a number of green mature local premium banana called bananas var. Mas kirana were inserted into hot water at 44, 46 and 48oC subsequently for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Another treatment also carried on through a wide range of chitosan solutions from 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L soaked for 2 and 4 minutes. As a single treatment, hot water soaking at 48oC for 20 minutes gave the best effect on handling the fruit maturity until 18 days of storage. This level treatment could also suppress the lesion only 2.4 cm and also minimized the severe fruit-damaging level until 22 days of observation. Whereas, chitosan coating through dipping in 5 g/L chitosan solution for 2 minutes gave the best result on controlling latent fungal infection in-vitro.  However, this treatment only minimized fruit-damage in medium level until 16 days of storage. Furthermore, the combination treatment of hot water treatment at 48oC for 20 minutes followed by chitosan coating at 5 g/L through dipping in 2 minutes gave the most proper result in terms of handling of fruit ripening until 23 days of storage. Another result proved this combination treatment significantly eliminated the length of lesion up to 0.16 cm and suppressed the fruit-damage in mild level. However, there were no significant differences among the yellow mature of untreated and combination-treated bananas observed from tests results of color characteristics, pulp strength and total dissolved solid content.

Keywords: Hot water soaking, Chitosan, C. musae, Banana var. Mas kirana 

Weeds growth in valley of Leeyh, south of Taif area, Saudi Arabia

Ali Majrashi1, Tahir Dalorima2, Khairil Mahmud2, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker*2

1Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

2School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia


Wild plants developing in areas without the desire or wills of human and known as weeds, that could be beneficial or not. The aim of the present study was to identify and record the weed species grown in the agricultural land in the regions of Valley of Leeyh, South of Taif area, which is located on the Eastern slopes of the Al-Sarawat Mountains with an altitude of 1700 m from sea level. Different weed species has been collected, processed by cleaning and identified from the surveyed area. The study was conducted between 2016 and 2017. The results showed that Cherepodiaceae had the highest number of weeds species followed by Uriticaceae and Malvaceae. The lowest weeds species count recorded in Cappaeaceae followed by Chenopodiaceae and Aizoaceae. The highest weeds count of agricultural crops recorded in Cucurbita pepo, Coriandrum sativum and Petroselinum annum. The lowest weed in Taif agricultural fields recorded in the Medicago sativa plantations followed by Capparis decidua and Zea mays. Dominant weeds species include Urtica dloica, Malva perviflore, Chenopodium valvaeia, Amaranthus vindi, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea. This study has the potential in developing the valley south of Taif area for agricultural purposes. The findings of this study will be beneficial in suggesting suitable weed control recommendation in agricultural crop land of Taif area.

Keywords: Agriculture, Crop, Species, Survey, Unwanted plant

Response of forest tree species inoculated with MycoSilvi and soil ameliorant addition grown in silica sand

Faradila Mei Jayani, Sri Wilarso Budi*, Prijanto Pamoengkas,

Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia, Lingkar Akademik Kampus IPB Dramaga Street, Bogor 16680, West Java, Indonesia


Open mining of silica sand causes some environmental impacts such as declining levels of soil fertility, lowering soil pH, and increasing toxic acid mine waste such as Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Soil quality may be improved by the addition of soil ameliorant and MycoSilvi, an inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizae enriched by mycorrhizal helper bacteria. This study aimed to analyze the growth responses of Falcataria moluccana, Samanea saman, and Cassia siamea seedlings by the addition of soil ameliorant and MycoSilvi grown in soil media from silica sand post mining. The experimental design used in this study was completely randomized design with split pot design that consists of two treatment factors (MycoSilvi and soil ameliorant) with five replications. The main plot was MycoSilvi that consists of two levels (without MycoSilvi and with MycoSilvi). The subplot was soil ameliorant that consists of six levels [(1) compost 0 g and lime 0 g, (2) compost 0 g and lime 3.6 g, (3) compost 0 g and lime 7.2 g, (4) compost 32.5 g and lime 0 g, (5) compost 32.5 g and lime 3.6 g, and (6) compost 32.5 g and lime 7.2 g]. The interaction of MycoSilvi and soil ameliorant significantly increased height, diameter, biomass, chlorophyll content, and mycorrhizal colonization of F. moluccana, S. saman, and C. siamea. The MycoSilvi and soil ameliorant (32.5 g of compost and 7.2 g of lime) was the best treatment for the growth and chlorophyll content of F. moluccana, S. saman, and C. siamea study species.

Keywords: Forestry plants, MycoSilvi, Silica sand post mining land, Soil ameliorant

Evaluation of different wheat varieties for resistance against aphid, Schizaphis graminum R. (Homoptera: Aphididae) under laboratory conditions

Muhammad Awais Iqbal1, Muhammad Waqar Hassan*1, Hafiz Mahmood ur Rehman1,

Muhammad Aslam2, Moazzam Jamil1

1University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan


Aphid is a serious threat to wheat production in Pakistan. It causes direct and indirect damage by sucking the cell sap and transmitting fungal and viral diseases, respectively. Modalities of resistance (antixenosis, antibiosis, tolerance) along with seedling bulk test were deployed to elucidate resistance in nine varieties of wheat (Pak-81, Millat-08, Lassani-08, Fareed-06, Faisalabad- 08, Miraj-08, Aas-11, Sahar-06 and Blue Silver) against aphid, Schizaphis graminum R. under laboratory conditions. All experiments were laid out in completely randomized design and resistance/susceptibility of the varieties was categorized in the terms of differential damage rating of aphid to host plants. Seedling bulk test revealed seven varieties (Pak-81, Millat-08, Fareed-06, Miraj-08, Aas-11, Sahar-06 and Blue Silver) to be susceptible and two varieties (Faislabad-08 and Lasani-08) moderately resistant to aphid. In antixenosis test, Miraj-08 and Fareed-06 were the least and Millat-08 was highly preferred. On Aas-11, Miraj-08, Lassani-08, Pak-81, Fareed-06 and Sahar-06, aphids were the least fecund and on Faislabad-08 were highly fecund in antibiosis mechanism of resistance. In tolerant test, Sahar-06 and Millat-08 proved to be highly tolerant while Fareed-06, Faislabad-08 and Aas-11 were least tolerant. Pak-81, Lassani-08, Miraj-08 and Blue Silver were moderately tolerant. Based on the current investigation, Lasani-08 is recommended as resistant varieties against wheat aphid.

Keywords: Wheat varieties, Antixenosis, Antibiosis, Resistance, Schizaphis graminum

First record of the crown rot fungus Fusarium equiseti affecting Triticum aestivum L. and Aptenia cordifolia in Iraq

Adnan A. Lahuf1, Ola H. Jaafar1, Muhassen Al-mosoy1, Zainab L. Hameed2, Junman Li3

1Department of Plant protection, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq

2Department of Field crops, College of Agriculture, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq

3 Institute of Virology and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China


During growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, severe rot symptoms were noticed epidemiologically on root and crown of Triticum aestivum and Aptenia cordifolia seedlings in Kerbala Province, Iraq. Thus, the aims of this research were to isolate, identify and assess pathogenicity of the causal agent of the disease. Several fungal isolates of Fusarium genus were consistently isolated from the diseased root and crown of the seedlings. The pathogen was identified as Fusarium equiseti based on its cultural and morphological characteristics, pathogenicity and sequence of the ITS-rDNA region. This is first record of crown rot disease caused by F. equiseti on T. aestivum and A. cordifolia plants in Iraq.

Keywords: Crown rot disease, Fusarium equiseti, Morphological and molecular identification, Iraq

Species diversity and vertical distribution of arboreal organisms on the Paradiso Mangrove environment of Kupang Bay, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Moses Kopong Tokan1, Mbing Maria Imakulata1, Yantus A. B Neolaka*2, Heri Septya Kusuma3

1Biology Education Department, Faculty of Education and Teachers Training, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, 85001, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia

2Chemical Education Department, Faculty of Education and Teachers Training, University of Nusa Cendana, Kupang, 85001, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya, 60111, Indonesia


This research was directed to analyze the level of species diversity and distribution patterns of arboreal organisms on the mangrove forest environment of Paradiso coastal of Kupang Bay. The observation unit is a circle of mangrove stems that is divided into three levels of height, i.e., 0.0 – 1.0 m, 1.1 – 2.0 m and 2.1 – 3.0 m. The assessment of mangrove trees as the observation unit is zigzagged by following the Z pattern starting from the lowest tide to the highest tide. Mangrove trees encountered in Z pattern were defined as observation units. The data collected in this study consisted of species and the number of individuals from each species attached to mangrove stem. Data of arboreal organisms were analyzed for relative abundance, diversity Index and species evenness, and distribution pattern. The results showed that in the mangrove forest area found 8 species of arboreal organisms consists of 7 species of molluscs and 1 species of crustacean. Mangrove mollusc group consisted of Littorina scabra, Littorina undulata, Terebralia sulcata, Nerita plasnospira, Nassarius distortus, Morula margariticula and Saccostrea cucullata. Species included in the Crustaceae group is Semibalanus sp. The index of species diversity is 1.119 (in low category), and species evenness of 0.704 (in high category).  A total of 7 species from 8 arboreal organisms distributed in clustered patterns and 1 species in a uniform pattern. All environmental parameters support the life of arboreal organisms.

Keywords: Vertical distribution, Mangrove molluscs, Species diversity, Species evenness, Abundance

Detection of a plasmid containing Cadmium resistance gene for lactic acid bacteria isolated from foods

Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon, Parichat Phumkhachorn*

Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand


This study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) carrying cadmium resistant genes on plasmids from foods. A total of 30 fermented food samples were collected from local markets and supermarkets. Isolation of cadmium resistant LAB colonies was performed by spread plate technique using MRS agar medium supplemented with cadmium (MRS-Cd). One hundred and fifty cadmium resistant isolates were randomly selected and subjected to plasmid extraction. Only one isolate (LAB-V12) from a fermented vegetable harbored a single plasmid of about 9 Kb. 16S rDNA sequencing data showed that LAB-V12 was likely to be Lactobacillus plantarum. The results from plasmid curing demonstrated that a cured strain of the LAB-V12 was sensitive to cadmium. Hence, probably cadmium resistant marker is plasmid mediated. The plasmid containing cadmium resistance gene was tested for stability in its host. It was observed that the LAB-V12 could maintain the plasmid after approximately 100 generations of growth without cadmium selection. The plasmid might be further developed to be a food-grade cloning vector that is useful for genetic modification of LAB.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, Fermented food, Cadmium resistance gene, Plasmid