Tag Archives: 7-4

A study on selected anthelmintics on strongylosis along with haematology in horses in Quetta region

Muhammad Imran Hyder Baloch*, Muhammad Tarique Tunio

Faculty of sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University, H-8, 44310, Islamabad, Pakistan


The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate, worm load, effects of strongyles infestation on blood parameters and comparative efficacy of Oxfendazole, Ivermectin and Pyrantel anthelmintics against strongyles in the horses at Quetta and suburbs. For this purpose, 100 horses were randomly selected and kept untreated for anthelmintics for 3 months before commencement of study. Overall, prevalence was found to be at 48%. Among them, 40 positive horses were randomly divided into 4 groups namely A, B, C and D comprising 10 horses in each group. Group A was treated with Oxfendazole, group B with Ivermectin, group C with Pyrantel while group D was kept an untreated (No Anthelmintic). The efficacy of anthelmintics was evaluated on reduction of eggs per gram (EPG) of the faecal sample on day 7 and 14 post-medication. The efficacy of Oxfendazole in Group A was 91.43% and 97.14%, efficacy of Ivermectin was 95.24% and 97.62% whereas efficacy of Pyrantel was 87.18% and 94.87% on day 7th and 14th day post-medication respectively. All the anthelmintics administered were effective against strongylosis with ivermectin having comparatively better efficacy followed by oxfendazole and pyrantel. Worm load had direct relation on blood parameters and its reduction showed significant improvement in total erythrocyte count (TEC), Haemoglobin (Hgb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) on day 7 and 14. Efficacy of routinely used anthelmintics should be regularly determined through faecal examination for EPG count to cater for development of resistance.

Keywords: Horse, Anthelmintic, Strongylosis, Haemoglobin, Total erythrocyte count, Packed cell volume

The growth dynamics, chemical, amylographic profile and granular morphology changes on cassava pulp fermentation

Ir. Beni Hidayat1*, Udin Hasanudin2, Syamsu Akmal1, Muhamad Muslihudin1

1Agricultural Technology Department, Politeknik Negeri Lampung, Lampung, Indonesia

2Agricultural Product Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung, Lampung, Indonesia


Solid-state fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most optimal method to increase protein content and reduce cyanide content of cassava pulp to use it as a food ingredient.  This research aimed to evaluate the effect of fermentation time on the growth dynamics of S. cerevisiae, chemical, amylographic profile and granular morphology changes on cassava pulp fermentation.  The results of the study revealed that S. cerevisiae was able to grow logarithmic up to 72 hours of fermentation with starch and dietary fiber as a nutrition source and causes changes in viscosity profile and granular morphology. The increase in the total number of cells (viable cell and dead cell) will increase single cell protein biomass, which will increase the protein content to 7.07% and reduce cyanide content to 8.78 ppm.

Keywords: Amylographic profile, Cassava pulp, Fermentation, Food, Granular morphology

Performance of pheromone traps at different heights for mass trapping of Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) in chickpea field

Rashid Latif Ujjan1, Agha Mushtaque Ahmed1*, Ali Zachi Abdulqader Alhilfi2, Fahad Nazir Khoso1, Ali Murad Rahoo3, Imran Ali Rajput4, Din Muhammad Soomro1

1Department of Entomology, FCPT, Sindh Agriculture University Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq

3Wheat Research Centre, Sakrand, Sindh, Pakistan

4PARC- Arid Zone Research Institute, Umerkot, Sindh, Pakistan


Gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) is one of the essential insect pests which inflict heavy crop losses. The performance of pheromone traps against pest in chickpea field for mass trapping at different heights (2’, 4’ & 6’) was tested at Pulse section ARI Tando Jam. Each height of trap was replicated three times with experimental units of nine traps in area of 1080 square feet. The result regarding moth catches at different height of sex pheromone traps and dates in chickpea field was observed significantly different. Overall, the highest moth population was in the month of February (2.67±1.76). A maximum mean number of moths (36.33±5.17) were observed at 6’ height. The results also showed +ve correlation (r=0.601) between larvae and moth and with temperature and relative humidity (r=0.420; r=0.480). The pod damage and larvae were also correlated positively with each other (r=0.820). In addition, H. armigera was also captured after harvesting time in fellow land that indicated population of moth also appeared in the absence of host plant but flying ability of moths reduced and most of moths captured at 4 feet (10 moths). Flight ethology of moth was recorded during three different periods of the day. Only few moths (0.3-1.3) captured in day time and most at sunset time (15.3±2.3). Thus, the present results assumed that the pheromone traps are ideal way to monitor the pest population and such traps should be installed at 6’ height during cropping season and 4’ after harvesting in order to control larvae those pupate inside the soil.

Keywords: Helicovera armigera, Sex pheromone, Trap height, Chickpea

First record of in vitro growth evaluation of wild mushroom, Schizophyllum commune from Pulau Kapas in Malaysia

Nur Diyana Rosnan1,2, Ng Lee Chuen1,2, Andrew A. Ngadin1,2*

1Laboratory for Pest, Disease and Microbial Biotechnology (LAPDiM), School of Food Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

 2Central Laboratory, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia


Schizophyllum commune Fr. is an edible mushroom which is easily recognised based on its morphology and has the potential to be commercialized in Malaysia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between abiotic factors to the growth of mycelia and fruiting bodies formation of S. commune. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 28°C. The observed variations in colony size, mycelia density and number of fruiting body formation, shows that pH 5 was the most favourable for mycelia growth of S. commune. Interestingly, all seven culture media tested were suitable for the vegetative growth of S. commune. However, in the consideration on the mycelia spread rapidly and growth phenotype of mycelia, the most favourable culture media for S. commune was malt extract agar supplemented with yeast extract and glucose (MYGPA). Aeration was significantly affecting the mycelia growth, mycelia density and fruiting body formation of S. commune (p<0.05). It shows that unsealed culture condition produced lower mycelia growth and moderately compact of mycelia density but could produce more fruiting body formation compared to sealed culture condition. It was concluded that the mycelium growth of S. commune was affected by different temperature, culture media, pH and aeration conditions which can be used as a guideline to mushroom growers.

Keywords: Schizophyllum commune, Culture conditions, Mycelia growth, Mycelia density, Fruiting body

Sustainable use of brackish water for cotton wheat rotation

Ghulam Qadir, Khalil Ahmed*, Amar Iqbal Saqib, Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz,

Muhammad Sarfraz, Zaheen Manzoor

Soil Salinity Research Institute Pindi Bhattian, Pakistan


The challenge of 21st century is to meet the food, fuel and fiber requirement of an increasing world population on a sustainable basis. Moreover, drought conditions, increasing demands of freshwater for agriculture and industrial sector has forced the farming community to pump more and more groundwater which is of marginal quality. This marginal quality water can be successfully used to increase agricultural productivity by preventing soil degradation if suitable management approaches are coupled with proper amendments. Therefore, a field study was conducted to manage the deleterious effects of brackish water for the sustainable production of cotton and wheat crops. The treatments tested were; T1: Control [Brackish Water (BW)], T2: BW + Gypsum application @ 100% on the basis of RSC of water, T3: BW +  H2SO4 @ 50% application on the basis of RSC of water, T4: BW +  Poultry manure @ 10 t. ha-1, T5: BW+ Press mud @ 10 t. ha-1. A non-saline field (ECe = 2.34 dS m-1, pHs = 8.15 and SAR = 8.58) was selected, leveled, and prepared. The experimental design was RCBD with four repeats. Cotton-wheat cropping system was followed.  Brackish water was used {EC = 1.17 dS m-1, SAR = 6.75 and RSC = 5.30 me L-1} for irrigation. Data regarding different physiological and yield parameters were recorded at maturity. Pooled data analysis of three years showed that continuous use of brackish water significantly reduces the yield of cotton and wheat crops. However, the negative effects of brackish water were counteracted by all applied amendments while chemical amendments were more efficient in ameliorating the detrimental effects of brackish water. Maximum seed cotton yield (2.50 t. ha-1) for cotton and grain yield (4.32 t. ha-1) for wheat was recorded in T2: BW + Gypsum application @ 100% on the basis of RSC of water followed by T3: BW + H2SO4 @ 50% application on the basis of RSC of water. Soil analysis data showed that ECe, pHs and SAR were considerably improved with all the applied amendments as compared to control.

Keywords: Cotton, Wheat, Gypsum, Brackish water, Poultry manure

Evaluation of yield and yield components of some Turkish maize landraces grown in south eastern Anatolia, Turkey by biplot analysis

Ferhat Kizilgeci1, Onder Albayrak2, Mehmet Yildirim2, Cuma Akinci2, Behiye Tuba Bicer2

1Kiziltepe Vocational School, Mardin Artuklu University, Mardin, Turkey

2Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey


Maize has comparatively high genetic diversity. Thus, we evaluated yield and yield traits on 92 maize landraces collected from Black Sea and Marmara Regions of Turkey and investigated three maize hybrids for yield and some morphological traits under Diyarbakir conditions in 2016 growing season. Mean value of plant height varied between 131-270 cm among maize landraces, 62.33-177cm for first ear height, 13.07-24.70 mm for stalk thickness, 9.04-22 cm for ear length, 10.70-44.16 mm for ear diameter, 7.33-16.80 for row number of ear-1, 10-44.60 for the number of kernels in row-1, 16.43-27.46 mm for rachis diameter and 1387-18226.7 kg ha-1 for grain yield. According to our finding of the hybrid and the local maize genotypes, the grain yield, the number of grains in the cob and the weight of the cob, plant height, and number of rows were collected in the single group in the biplot chart. DZM-194-2 and DZM-11 local maize genotypes were found more stable for all investigated traits. DZM-7, DZM-194-2, DZM-11 and DZM-222-4 genotypes shown superiority to other genotypes in terms of grain yield.

Keywords: Biplot, Yield components, Grain yield, Maize landrace

Salicylic acid improves yield and grain quality of hybrid maize under deficit irrigation in subtropical region

Atique-ur-Rehman1,2, Muhammad Mohsin Altaf1,2, Rafi Qamar1,2

1Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan              

2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan


The regulatory effect of salicylic acid under biotic and abiotic stresses can be constructive for maize cultivation in water deficit conditions of subtropical environments. Therefore, we investigated the effect of applying salicylic acid (SA) on growth, yield attributes and quality related traits of two maize hybrids (ICI-9091 and Pioneer-1543) under limited irrigation. The plants were grown at the Agronomic Research Area of Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan during spring 2016. We conducted one independent experiment with completely randomized design (CRD) with factorial arrangement and repeated thrice, under green-house, using four treatments viz. control, irrigation deficit with 0% SA, irrigation deficit with 1% SA and full irrigation with 1% SA. Salicylic acid was sprayed at 10-12 leaf stage. The obtained data revealed that, irrigation deficit (p≤0.05) affected different growth and yield variables like plant height, stem diameter, cob length, number of rows per cob, number of grains per row, 1000-grain weight, biological and economic yield (t ha-1). Additionally, relative water content, chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and grain protein content were also affected (p≤0.05) by irrigation deficit. Moreover, spraying maize hybrids with 1% SA significantly (p≤0.05) increased the growth, yield and quality parameters of both maize hybrids under full and deficit irrigation conditions except the proline content. Between maize hybrids, Pioneer-1543 proved significantly (p≤0.05) better tolerance under irrigation deficit condition as compared to ICI-9091. On the basis of results, it is suggested that under limited irrigation maize yield may be linked with the effect of SA application on the yield attributes.

Keywords: Chlorophyll content, Irrigation deficit, Oil quality, Proline, Salicylic acid

Molecular characterization of lactoferrin gene as genetic marker to subclinical mastitis in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

Yancy Ogdamin Waminal1,2, Gabriel Alexis San Perdo Tubalinal3,4, Claro Niegos Mingala2,3,4*  

1Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Tarlac Agricultural University, Camiling 2306, Tarlac, Philippines

2Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz 3120, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

3College of Veterinary Science and Medicine, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz 3120, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

4Biosafety and Environment Section, Philippine Carabao Center, Science City of Munoz 3120, Nueva Ecija, Philippines


The study characterized the lactoferrin (Lf) gene in different water buffalo breeds and determined its association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of seventy five (75) and five (5) milk and blood samples, respectively were collected for the conduct of this study. Amplified Lf gene demonstrated a 2224 base pairs (bp) molecular weight. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of Lf gene of riverine- and swamp-type water buffaloes revealed 98.83% and 98.29% identity, respectively with that of Bubalus bubalis Lf gene in the GenBank. Phylogenetic studies showed that Lf genes of both types of water buffaloes grouped with Lf gene of water buffalo sequences registered in the GenBank. Three water buffalo genotypes were documented using the restriction enzymes AluI and HaeIII. The AluI can produce three genotypes (AA, AB, BB) resulting in three cuts of 561, 217 and 123 bp. Using HaeIII, three restriction patterns were observed producing three genotypes as well with four fragment sizes of 561, 318, 112, and 70 bp. Based on the statistical analysis, no direct association has been established between the Lf genes of water buffalo with SCM using AluI and HaeIII restriction enzymes although a higher number of animals with genotype BB belongs to those with SCM group. The results of the study merit for further studies regarding the BB genotype of Lf gene as a possible resistance gene marker for SCM in water buffaloes.

Keywords: Bubalus bubalis, Lactoferrin, Subclinical mastitis

Evaluation of genotypic behavior of maize under normal and salt affected soils

Hafiz Muhammad Ali Raza1, Muhammad Saqib1, Saeed Ahmad2, Sohail Irshad2*, Shahbaz Khan3, Ali Bukhsh4, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid5, Muhammad Iftikhar Bashir2

1Institute of Soil and Environmental Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2In-service Agricultural Training Institute, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan

3Department of Agronomy, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

4Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Ghazi University, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

5Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Soil salinity is one of the serious problems which posing severe threat to ecosystems under different environmental conditions throughout the world. Salinity is drastically affecting the productivity of agronomic crops particularly maize. Maize grain, being a rich source of protein, is a quality food for humans and healthy green fodder for animals. Experiment under randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four repetitions was conducted at Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences (non-saline soil) and Proka Research Farm (saline soil), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Two maize genotypes (EV-78 and KS-64) were selected for their comparative performance under salt-affected and normal soil conditions. Physiological, growth and yield parameters of maize genotypes were significantly influenced under salt affected and normal soils. Under saline conditions, genotype EV-78 showed tolerant behavior as compared to genotype KS-64 because genotype EV-78 produced higher shoot fresh and dry weights, 100-grain weight and grain yield per hectare. Physiological parameters including photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration and stomatal conductance were also less affected in genotype EV-78 under saline soil conditions. Under non-saline soil condition, genotype EV-78 accumulated more potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen whereas concentrations of sodium and chloride were reduced. While genotype EV-78 accumulated higher concentrations of sodium and chloride under saline soil conditions. Genotype KS-64 showed more sensitive behavior to saline environment regarding economical yield.

Keywords: Salinity, Maize, Mineral nutrients, Stomatal conductance, Yield

Early yield responses of three promising chili pepper hybrids to different mulch types

Fahrurrozi Fahrurrozi*, Dwi Wahyuni Ganefianti

Department of Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Bengkulu,

Jln. WR. Supratman, Bengkulu, 38121, Indonesia


High early yields of chili pepper is very important traits to gain economic return for farmers. Developing superior genotypes and using mulches are among promising methods to have high early yields of chili peppers.  This experiment aimed to determine (1) early yields of three promising chili-pepper genotypes, (2) effects of mulch types on early yields of chili peppers and (3) the best combination of mulch type and chili pepper genotype for early yields.  An experiment was conducted at Ultisol site and designed in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replicates.  The first factor was three promising chili pepper genotypes; H23, H53, and H73. The second factor was the types of mulches; black-silver plastic, rice straw, empty palm-oil fruit bunch and no mulch.  Early yields were expressed in terms of fruit number per plant, fruit weight per plant1 (g) and average fruit weight (g).  Results indicated that after five harvests, hybrid of H23 was the best genotypes to produce early yields of chili peppers.  Fruit number and fruit weight plant-1 of chili pepper grown using both rice straw and empty palm-oil fruit bunch mulches were significantly higher than those of grown using black-silver plastic mulch and control plot. Overall, best average fruit weight early yields of chili peppers was found in hybrid of H23 grown in bare soil.

Keywords: Chili pepper, Promising genotypes, Early yields, Mulch