Tag Archives: 2021-1

Effect of organic fertilization on quality and yield of oriental tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) under Mediterranean conditions

Ioanna Tabaxi1, Charikleia Ζisi1, Stella Karydogianni1, Antigoni-Eleni Folina1, Ioanna Kakabouki1, Apostolos Kalivas2, Dimitrios Bilalis1

1Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

2Plant Breeding and Genetic Resources Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization, DEMETER, Thermi, Greece


Greece is a country that primarily cultivates tobacco. Over the years and the increase of inputs to conventional tobacco cultivation and the groundwater nitrate pollution, producers and industry began to look at organic farming. However, for the field crop of tobacco knowledge is limited to inorganic fertilization only and it is necessary now to find out the effect of organic fertilization on soil, yield and quality of tobacco. Therefore, two-year field experiments were carried out during 2017-2018 in Agricultural University of Athens. Three oriental tobacco varieties were cultivated (Basmas Xanthi 81, Katerini S53 and Myrodata Agriniou 30Α) in split-plot design, with four fertilization treatments (Control, Compost, Manure and NPK). According to the results, the yield was significantly affected only by the variety and the highest yield was 3.488 (kg ha-1) in Myrodata Agriniou variety.  The plant height was significantly affected by variety and ranged from 110,77 cm (Basmas Xanthi)  to 121.42 cm (Myrodata Agriniou). The number of leaves was significantly affected only by the variety; Katerini S53 had the highest number. The nicotine content was significantly affected by variety and year and ranged between 2.52% (Myrodata Agriniou) and 4.22 % (Basmas Xanthi). As nicotine increases, sugars finally decrease with the application of organic fertilizers. Summarizing, most of the soil characteristics significantly affected by the fertilization and showed generally improvement. The plant growth and the final yield was determined by the variety. With organic tobacco cultivation, the quality and yields of oriental varieties have improved significantly.

Keywords: Nicotine content, Organic fertilization, Oriental tobacco, Yield

Exposure to heavy metals causes histopathological changes and alters antioxidant enzymes in fresh water fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

Tuba Rehman1, Saima Naz1, Riaz Hussain2*, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha3, Fayyaz Ahmad4, Asma Yamin1, Rabia Akram5, Huma Naz6, Ansar Shaheen1

1Department of Zoology, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

3Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 4Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

5Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Zoology Division, Bhauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

6Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan


Expansion in technology, development in industries and extensive applications of synthetic chemical have become major regulatory issues toward the public health, wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the monitoring and investigation of environmental contaminants in order to mitigate the adverse impacts is crucial to safe the public health and aquatic wildlife. The present study describes the deleterious effects of heavy metals at low levels in fresh water fish. A total of 120 fish of same age and body mass were arbitrarily distributed and allocated into eight groups (A-H). Group A was run parallel to other groups and maintained as control group. Collected data was analyzed by using Tukey’s Test. Results indicated various clinical ailments including erratic swimming and jerking movement. Microscopic observation of gills, liver and brain tissues showed different histopathological changes in fish exposed to various heavy metals. The antioxidant enzymes activities were increased or decreased in a concentration and enzyme dependent manner. Exposure of treatments showed significant increase in peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase but decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activity at higher exposure to heavy metals. Regarding overall toxicity, nickel was least sensitive towards the fish, but tertiary metal mixture was more toxic to fish (Oreochromis niloticus) followed by binary mixture. In conclusion, results of our study suggested that the exposure to different heavy metals even at low concentrations poses serious concern towards their potential danger to the survival and growth of fish and induces deleterious effects in gills, brain and liver tissues.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Oreochromis niloticus, Liver, Antioxidant Enzymes, Histopathology

A wheat stress induced WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY32 confers drought stress tolerance in Oryza sativa

Essam Darwish1,2, Shoaib Ur Rehman2,3, Xinguo Mao2*, Ruilian Jing2

1Plant Physiology Section, Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 12613 El Gamma Street, Giza, Egypt

2National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China

3Institute of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


WRKY transcription factors group play a significant role in stress signalling pathway. In this study, a WRKY member of bread wheat, TaWRKY, was cloned and its function in response to water stress conditions was studied. Expression analysis revealed that TaWRKY32 mainly expressed when plants were subjected to PEG, NaCl, and cold and probably participate in ABA dependent signalling pathways. This study was done to elucidate the role in transgenic breeding, TaWRK32 was transferred to rice plants under CaMV-35S promoter. Overexpression of TaWRK32 lead to enhanced fresh shoot and root weight at seedling stage when compared to wild type (WT). Moreover, transgenic rice lines under water stress, showed greater recovery rate when compared to WT. Higher values of cell membrane stability and lower Chl a/b ratio of transgenic rice lines under water stress conditions markedly indicated the importance of TaWRKY32 under water stress conditions. These results suggested that TaWRK32 has multifunctional and might be an instrumental tool in breeding for transgenic plants for improved water stress tolerance in wheat.

Keywords: WRKY transcription factor, Drought stress, Cell membrane stability, Chlorophyll contents

Nutritional and physical requirements for mycelial growth and basidiocarp production of Trametes elegans from the Philippines

Rich Milton R. Dulay1,2*, Abegail A. Alcazar1, Sofronio P. Kalaw1, Renato G. Reyes1,

Esperanza C. Cabrera2

1Center for Tropical Mushroom Research and Development, Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Munoz, Nueva Ecija, 3120 Philippines

2Department of Biology, College of Science, De La Salle University, Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines


This paper highlights the rescue and optimal cultural conditions of the naturally-occurring Trametes elegans. This mushroom has white fan-like leathery fruiting body that commonly grows singly on deadwood. The secondary mycelial culture has off-white, velvety texture, and aerial hyphae. Rice bran broth agar with pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.5, incubated in either lighted or dark, at 30°C, and sealed conditions were the optimum nutritional and physical factors for growth. Both cracked corn and sorghum seeds registered as the best substrates for grain spawn production. Four parts of sawdust + six parts of rice straw significantly produced the highest yield (12.03 g) and biological efficiency (2.41%). Enriched cultivation study using supplemented substrates is currently under investigation with the aim to increase the production.

Keywords: Trametes spp., Secondary mycelia, Basidiocarp, Philippine wild mushrooms, Optimized culture conditions

Management of puddled soil through organic amendments for post-rice mungbean

Md Arafat Hossain1, Md Masud Rana2*, S M Hisam Al Rabbi1, Toshiaki Mitsui3

1Biotechnology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

2Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh

3Department of Life and Food Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181, Japan


Soil puddling is considered favorable for rice but unfavorable for post-rice upland crops. The deleterious effects of puddling in post-rice mungbean and management of puddled soil have not been adequately addressed earlier in Bangladesh. This research work was conducted to amend differential puddled soil through organic amendments for improved post-rice mungbean production. The treatments were puddling by four passes, puddling by eight passes, and non-puddling with three organic amendments i.e. control, crop residue, and cow dung. Puddling generally increased bulk density of soil under moisture deficit condition. Puddling had no significant effect on soil pH, total-N, available-P, exchangeableK, and organic-C. Application of cow dung in the puddle soil increased the amount of N (75.0%), P (35.5%), K (13.3%), and organic-C (38.8%) compared to control. Puddling (eight passes) impaired root growth resulting reduced total dry matter production by 15.6% over non-puddling condition. Cow dung management in differential puddling intensity gave higher root (0.13 g plant-1) and total dry matter (1.16 g plant-1) production of mungbean than without amendment at 60 days after seedling. Puddling intensity adversely affected the number of pods plant-1, thousand-seed weight and seed yield. Cow dung application gave significantly higher number of pods, seeds pod-1 and thousand-seed weight. The mungbean seed yield achieved through cow dung incorporation (8.74 g plant-1) was better than crop residue (7.38 g plant-1) and control (7.34 g plant-1). The adverse effects of puddling intensity on soil strength and bulk density and succeeding plant growth and seed yield of mungbean were highly remarkable. Cow dung management indicated a positive response on the improvement of soil properties and mungbean seed yield.

Keywords: Bulk density, Crop residue, Mungbean, Organic-C, Puddling intensity and soil

Foliar applied brassica water extract improves the seedling development of wheat and chickpea

Omer Farooq1*, Muqarrab Ali2, Naeem Sarwar1, Atique ur Rehman1, Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal3, Tayyaba Naz4, Muhammad Asghar1, Fahid Ehsan5, Muhammad Nasir1, Qari Muhammad Hussain1, Sohaib Afzal1

1Department of Agronomy, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

3Soil and Water Testing Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab, Chiniot, Pakistan

4Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

5Regional Agricultural Economic Development Centre, Vehari, Pakistan


An experiment was conducted to check the brassica water extract as natural growth regulator in improving the seedling development of wheat and chickpea. Experimental treatments included five low concentration levels of brassica water extract as 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% as foliar spray. Two other treatments where no spray and water was used as foliar spray, were considered as control treatments. To compare the efficacy of natural growth regulator, a synthetic source was also maintained among foliar sprays in the form of 6-Benzylaminopurine. In conclusion, results of the experiment concluded that 2% brassica water extract was most effect level to maximally boost the seedling characteristics like shoot/root biomass, shoot/root length and number of leaves till 20 days after germination. However, this level varied in case of chickpea where a bit higher concentration, 3% yielded maximum outcomes to the recorded parameters. So, findings of the study suggest that growth promotion potential of crops like brassica should be exploited in sustainable agriculture systems.

Keywords: Crop extract, Growth regulators, Seedling enhancement, Foliar spray