Tag Archives: 5 (1)

Pharmacological Screening of Annona Muricata: A Review

Uzma Saleem*1, Muhammad Ejaz-ul-Haq1, Zunera Chudary1 and Bashir Ahmad2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, G.C. University, Faisalabad-Pakistan. 
Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Lahore campus-Pakistan
Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae family) is a tropical plant and most prominently known for its edible fruit which has more medicinal properties but some effects are toxic. This review most commonly represents the phytochemical contents, pharmacological and biological actions and at some extent toxicological effects which depends on dose, solvent for extraction and part of plant used. More than 200 compounds have been isolated and identify from different parts of this plant. Phenols, alkaloids and acetogenins are the most important and effective compounds. Traditionally, Annona muricata is being used to treat diverse ailments such as inflammation, fever, pain, hypertension, diabetes, liver damage, bacterial infection and cancer. Pharmacologically, plant possessed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, anti-pyretic, wound healing, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antiviral phyto-chemicals and extracts of this plant have been characterized as hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and wound healing activities and cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral activities. It could be concluded that the use of Annona muricata fruit would be beneficial for having good health.
KeywordsPharmacological activities, Soursoap, Annona muricata

Review on Toxic Effects of Arsenic with relation to Clinical Signs in Different Animals

Muhammad Zubair

Faculty of veterinary sciences, University of Poonch Rawalakot Azad Kashmir


Arsenic is natural metalloid which is present in the universe everywhere. It is used for different insecticides and pesticides preparation. Poisoning of arsenic is a major issue that affects different species. Its occurrence is related to contamination of feed and water; therefore, it is matter of concern globally. However, its level of toxicity is increasing very rapidly in Asian countries especially Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Its increasing level of arsenic in ground water is the major source of poisoning to human and animals. In addition, the contact of animals to arsenic lead to absorption body and accumulation in vital organs like liver and kidneys that may resulted to carcinogenic development. Elimination of absorbed arsenic in environment through excretions of animals is also one way to increase its level in water/soil. The objective of this review is to gather the information about arsenic toxicity occurrence by natural or experimentally ways and changes occurred in suffered animals related to pathological or biochemical.
Keywords: arsenic, lab animals, livestock and toxic effects

Identification of Resistance Sources to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus among Mungbean Germplasm

Saeed Ahmad1, Muhammad Sajjad1, Rabia Nawaz2, Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Muhammad Naveed Aslam3

1 Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
2 Government Sadiq Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
3 University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan


Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is an important production constraint in mungbean cultivation in Pakistan. The yield further decreases if susceptible varieties are cultivated. By using cultivars resistant to MYMV, the losses can be reduced. As the host status of mungbean genotypes grown in Pakistan is not known, therefore, in the present study 23 varieties/lines of mungbean collected from various sources were tested for their relative resistance or susceptibility to MYMV under field conditions. The results revealed that none of the entries was found highly resistant. Six entries viz. BRM-325, BRM-345, BRM-363, BRM-364, BRM-366 and NM-2011 were found to be resistant and ten genotypes/lines namely BRM-311, BRM-312, BRM-321, BRM-331, BRM-335, BRM-365, BRM-378, BRM-382, BRM-343 and BRM-353 appeared as moderately resistant. On the contrary, five genotypes Chakwal-06, BRM-334, BRM-348, BRM-354 and BRM-356 were rated as moderately susceptible to the disease. Likewise, two entries each (BRM-349 and BRM-350) and (Mash bean and Pigeon pea) showed susceptible and highly susceptible responses to the virus respectively.
Keywords: Vigna radiata, Yellow mosaic virus, Tolerance, Resistance

Uptake, Translocation of Pb and Chlorophyll Contents of Oryza Sativa as Influenced by Soil-Applied Amendments under Normal and Salt-Affected Pb-Spiked Soil Conditions

Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal1,2,3,4,5*, Ghulam Murtaza2, Tayyaba Naz2, Wasim Javed2, Sabir Hussain6, Muhammad Ilyas3,4, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum3,4, Sher Muhammad Shahzad5, Muhammad Ashraf5 and Zafar Iqbal7

*1Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research, Chiniot, Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab.
2Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
3Provincial Pesticide Reference Laboratory, Kala Shah Kaku, Sheikhupura.
4Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad.
5Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha.
6Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad.
7Department of Plant Pathology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha.


Heavy metal contamination of the soil environment has become a major source of concern and has posed serious human health related problems in many developing countries particularly Pakistan. Chemical immobilization of heavy metals can be accomplished by the addition of amendments to reduce contaminant solubility and ultimately uptake by the plants. However, a very scarce information is available on the immobilization of Pb with the application of different Ca, S and P sources (gypsum i.e., gyp, rock phosphate i.e., RP and Di-ammonium phosphate i.e., DAP) on rice grown normal and salt-affected Pb-spiked soils. Therefore, a pot trial was conducted to investigate the uptake, translocation of Pb and chlorophyll contents of rice as influenced by soil applied amendments (gyp, RP and DAP) and their variable amounts in normal and salt-affected Pb-spiked soils. The results showed that the Pb and salinity stress induced decrease in chlorophyll contents of rice were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) counteracted by the applied gyp, RP and DAP. Application of 7.5 g gyp kg-1 soil was found the most effective in improving chlorophyll contents, and reducing Pb uptake and translocation both in normal and salt-affected Pb-spiked soils.
Keywords: Rice, lead accumulation, transport, photosynthetic pigments, amendments, saline Pb stressed soil.

Epidemiological analysis and economic impact assessment of foot-and-mouth disease at Landhi dairy colony Karachi

Umer Farooq1*, Khalid Naeem2, Aamer Bin Zahur3, Muhammad Azeem Khan4, Umer Sidique5 and Subhan Qureshi6
1,2,3 Department of Animal Genomics and Biotechnology, PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture (PIASA)
1,2,3,4 National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. 45500.
5,6 Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
Epidemiology of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was studied at Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), Karachi, Pakistan and its economic impact was assessed. Of 4528 buffaloes surveyed, 3.6% animals were infected with FMD. The causative agent was confirmed from the clinical samples by indirect sandwich ELISA. The estimated milk loss was 307.8 liters per animal in 45 days. The total damage due to FMD in sampled buffaloes was found to be Rs. 6.7 million and extrapolated price for entire animal population at Landhi Dairy Colohy (LDC) and Karachi was Rs. 290.8 and Rs. 1454.4 million, respectively. The present study indicated that FMD is prevalent in dairy animals at Landhi Cattle Colony, Karachi causing huge economic looses to the farmers. An effective control strategy with a focus on education of farmers regarding proper husbandry practices and use of efficient FMD vaccination strategy may be helpful in reducing the burden of diseases.
Keywords: Foot-and-mouth disease, epidemiology, Landhi Dairy Colony, economic impact.

New distributional records of psyllid, Trioza fletcheri minor Crawford, 1912 and record of its first association with two ant’s species in Pothwar

Imran Bodlah1, Muhammad Adnan Bodlah2, Muhammad Tariq Rasheed1
Tasleem Akhter1 Ayesha Aihetasham4 and Mehwish Yousaf3
1Laboratory of Biosystematics, Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
2Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
3Department of Zoology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


Psyllid species, Trioza fletcheri minor Crawford, 1912 is reported for the first time in association with two ant species, Camponotus compressus (Fabricius, 1787) and Lepisiota frauenfeldi (Mayr, 1855) in different areas of Pothwar, Punjab (Pakistan). Main identification characters of both ant speciessupported with micrographs, synonymy, and comments on their associations have been given for future identification. New distributional records of T. fletcheri minor in various areas of Pothwar have also been added.
KeywordsDistribution, Trioza fletcheri minor, association, ants, Pothwar