Tag Archives: 4 (1)


Muhammad Asif Aziz1, Muhammad Irfan1, Imran Bodlah1 and Muhammad Hanif2

1Department of Entomology, 2Department of  Mathematics and Statistics

Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 


Biological and demographic parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) were studied on four different Brassica hosts; Cabbage, Broccoli, China cabbage, and Knol khol under laboratory conditions. Age-stage, two-sex life table studies showed significantly higher intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and finite rate of increase (λ)  on China cabbage followed by Broccoli and Cabbage. Performance of cabbage aphids remained comparatively low on Knol khol in terms of intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ) and net reproductive rate. Total duration of immature stages was significantly longer on Knol khol than Cabbage and China cabbage, however, adult pre-reproductive period showed non-significant variation. Reproductive period, adult longevity and female fecundity upon all the studied plant species were significantly different. The minimum fecundity and adult longevity were observed on Knol khol. The probability of surviving nymph to adult female was 0.25, 0.35, 0.50 and 0.60 on Cabbage, Knol khol, Broccoli and China cabbage, respectively. The gross reproductive rate, life expectancy and age stage reproductive values were also minimal on Knol khol. On the basis of present life table studies, China cabbage remained the most susceptible host followed by both Broccoli and Cabbage while Knol khol proved to be the most unsuitable host. Present studies confirm Knol khol as comparatively more resistant against cabbage aphid and suitable to be cultivated as important vegetable crop in Pothwar region of Punjab.

Keywords: Brevicoryne brassicae, Brassica, life table, development, fecundity, age-stage two-sex


Zahid Iqbal1*, Taseer Ashraf1, Aamir Ali Khan2, Riaz Hussain3, Mohiuddin Mudassar4

1Department of Pharmacology, Al-Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2Department of Pathology, Bakhtawar Amin Medical and Dental College, Multan, Pakistan, 3Department of Pathobiology, University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, 4Department of Pathology, Al-Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, Pakistan


The objective of this study was to assess the antihyperlipidemic efficacy of cinnamon powder in albino rats. For this purpose 180 adult albino rats (average weight 210 ± 11 grams) were purchased and divided into six groups. In rats blood lipid profile was raised using cholesterol @ 400mg/Kg body weight of rat which was mixed into rat feed for first 15 days of the study. Cinnamon bark powder equivalent to 1gm/kg, 2gm/kg, 4gm/kg and 6gm/kg was administered to the rats of treatment groups 15-60 days. Treatment control group was given Simvastatin at the dose rate of 0.6mg/Kg body weight. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days in sterilized gel tubes by direct heart puncturing. Serum was separated and analyzed for lipid profile parameters using reagent kits. Findings of present study revealed that various doses of Cinnamomum cassiae powder improved the serum lipid profile in albino rats by reducing Total Lipids, Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol levels in cinnamon treated groups. Furthermore, the most significant effect was shown by 6 mg/kg dose level. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that Cinnamon powder has curative effect against hyperlipidemia.


Keywords: Cinnamon, Antihyperlipidemic efficacy, Albino rats, Lipid profile, Cholesterol


Muhammad Younas1*, Momna Abdul Rehman2,

Abdi Hussain3, Liaqat Ali4 and Masood Qadir Waqar5

1Senior Subject Matter Specialist (FM&FE), Adaptive Research Farm, Sheikhupura,

2Assisant Research Officer (FM&FE), Adaptive Research Farm, Sheikhupura,

3Senior Scientific Officer, Social Sciences Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad,

4Assistant Research Officer, Adaptive Research Farm, Sheikhupura,

5Director of Agriculture, Adaptive Research Punjab, Lahore


The study was conducted in three of the four districts of Adaptive Research Zone, Sheikhupura; which contains Sheikhupura, Lahore and Kasur districts for economic comparison of direct seeded (DSR) and transplanted super basmati rice during Kharif-2014. Average yield, cost of production, net economic benefits and benefit cost ratio for DSR and transplanted rice was calculated. Extent of area under DSR technology was also determined. Farmers growing both DSR and transplanted rice were selected using purposive sampling technique and sample size was 36. Data was collected by face to face interview by using a well-structured questionnaire having personal, farm related and cost variables. The results revealed that DSR technology was adopted on 22.8% of rice area on surveyed farms. Average paddy yield, total cost of production, net economic benefits per hectare and BCR for direct seeded rice were 3.09, Rs.112047, Rs.15014, 1.11 and for transplanted the figures were 3.19, Rs. 134882, Rs.-8433, 0.95 respectively. Thus, in the year 2014, farmers gained profit from practicing DSR technology and born loss from transplanted rice crop. It was found that farmers were growing DSR through seven different sowing methods and using different seed rates. Moreover, weeds infestation is a major problem in DSR technology that can be overcome through a combination of cultural as well chemical control methods. It was concluded that DSR is a promising technology subject to weeds management. Better coordination between research, extension and farming community can bring fruitful results with respect to adoption of DSR technology.

Keywords: DSR, Transplanted rice, Net Benefits, BCR