Tag Archives: 2022-2

Growth performance of major carps during exposure of zinc and bioaccumulation in fish body organs

Imran Riaz Malik1,5*, Sawera Nayyab2, Munazza Raza Mirza3, Saima Muzammil4, Javaria Saleem Cheema2, Komal Imran2, Kanwal Nisar2, Sumreen Hayat4, Muhammad Javed5

1Department of Biotechnology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan

2Department of Biotechnology University of Sialkot, Sialkot, Pakistan

3Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, ICCBS, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

4Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

5Department of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan



Growth is an index of metals influence on a fish. This investigation aimed to determine growth responses of major carps viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala during exposure to sublethal concentration to zinc. The variations among fish age, species, treatment (zinc) of growth parameters viz. weight increment, fork lengths, and condition factor were statistically significant at P<0.01. The control fish age group 90,120,150 and 180 day showed better feed conversion ratio 0.234, 0.168, 0.132 and 0.29 as compared to that of zinc exposed fish which showed range 0.01 to 0.23. Three fish species showed significantly higher amount of zinc in liver than other organs. Labeo rohita showed significantly higher trend for zinc accumulation in body organs than as compared to Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla. Among body organs; skin, muscle, scales displayed significantly lesser trend for zinc accumulation. It is concluded that metal intoxication significantly reduced the growth of all three fish species and may also show good indicator of metals present in surrounding environment.

Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Chronic sublethal exposure, Heavy metals, Major carps, Zinc


Assessment of lead toxicity in red tilapia Oreochromis sp. through hematological parameters

Van-Thanh Vo, Thai-Minh-Long Le, Thi-Quynh-Anh Duong, Nhat-Anh-Thu Mai, Huyen Nguyen Thi Thuong*

Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Ho Chi Minh City University of Education, Vietnam



Fish is one of the reliable biomonitoring used to assess the levels of heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Analyzing the biological parameters of fish provides a predictable transformation of the underwater ecosystem and the current state of nursery water. Blood directly or indirectly reacts to changes in the environment, objectively reflects the physiological state and allows predicting the direction of adaptive responses in the body. According to the blood indicators and proper generalization of the blood system, we can estimate the physiological and pathological processes inside the body. This study aimed to estimate the effects of lead on hematological parameters in red tilapia. Fish were investigated for the effects of the lead after one week. Fish blood is taken from the tail vein by suction injection. Hematological parameters were determined by standard methods. The number of WBC is counted indirectly through blood smears stained Giemsa. The result of the study shows when the concentration of lead for infection increase from 0mgL-1 (control) to 0.5mgL-1, 1.0mgL-1 and 1.5mgL-1, there is a decrease in the hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC and increases of the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, WBC. RBC and WBC have observed the shape. Blood cells of red tilapia Oriochromis sp. living in a lead polluted environment can be affected and result in many different values of hematological parameters. This is an adaptive reaction of the body in response to harmful factors at the cellular level.

Keywords: Hematological parameters, Red tilapia, Heavy metal pollution, Oreochromis sp., Infection of lead


Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of alkaloids extracted from inermis nopals of Algerian Opuntia ficus-indica (L).

Badreddine Moussaoui1, Abdellah Rahali1, Djahira Hamed 1, Laid Guemou2, Ali Riazi1*

1Laboratory of Beneficial Microorganisms, Functional Food and Health (LMBAFS), Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, Mostaganem, Algeria

2Laboratory of Improvement and Promotion of Local Animal Productions (LAVPAL), Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, University of Ibn Khaldoun, Tiaret, Algeria


The prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is not only prized for its fruit but also for its cladode which contains many bioactive compounds of health interest such as alkaloids. The present study aims to characterize the alkaloids of young inermis cladodes (nopals) of Algerian Opuntia ficus-indica, and to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The alkaloid extraction yield was remarkably low (0.59%). The GC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of seventeen alkaloids such as Neronin and Glucobrassicin. Assessment of alkaloid antioxidant activity showed a significant DPPH scavenging capacity, a medium reducing power and a weak inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. The nopal alkaloids had no cytotoxic effect on the viability of the hepatic cancer cell line HepG2, or even after inhibition of CYP enzymes. However, their presence can significantly induce the overproduction of reactive species and lead to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ∆ψm. The purification of these alkaloids, the rational choice of the doses and the understanding of their pharmacological mechanism are obviously one of the key steps to identify the overall therapeutic potential of these nopals.

Keywords: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nopal, Alkaloids, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic


Impact of thermo-sonication on antioxidant potential in juices of selected citrus varieties

Muhammad Bilal Shahid1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Mian Anjum Murtaza1, Lala Rukh1, Amal Shaukat1,2, Mian Nadeem Riaz3

1Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Pakistan, 40100

1,2Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

3Process Engineering R & D Center, Graduate Faculty, Nutrition and Food Science Dept. Texas A&M University, USA


Citrus is known as a good source of valuable bioactive components and vitamins. In fruit juices, thermal treatments such as pasteurization are usually used for inactivation of enzymes and for destruction of microorganisms. Thermo-sonication is combination of heat (37 to 75 °C) with ultra-sonication treatment has high efficiency for inactivation of microbes and enzymes. The present study aims to develop a new processing technique for citrus juice to improve its functional properties. Variety Succari excelled in terms of average fruit diameter and weight and the maximum number of segments found in Feutrell’s Early. The highest acidity value was observed in T0 (0.251±0.008 %) and the lowest in T1 (0.147±0.002 %) juice of Kinnow. Acidity value was decreased by application of pasteurization. Total phenolic contents of Musambi juice showed significant increase in thermo-sonicated and sonicated juice in comparison to non-sonicated juice. The increase was high in T4 (458.89±6.72 µg/mL of GAE) and T5 (450.37±9.83 µg/mL of GAE). Antioxidant activity showed significant increase in thermo-sonicated and sonicated juice. The increase was high in T5 (1,103.20±9.94 µg/mL of ascorbic acid equivalent) and T5 (1,110.74±23.67 µg/mL of AAE) in juice of Kinnow. Total plate count showed significant reduction in thermo-sonicated (T4) and in combined treatment of chemically preserved and pasteurized (T3) juice in comparison to sonicated (T5) and non-sonicated (T1 and T2) juice. The minimum decrease of total plate count was found in juice of Feutrell’s Early while maximum reduction was checked in the juice of Musambi during storage.

Keywords: Citrus; physical properties; acidity; total phenols; anti-oxidant; AAE (Ascorbic acid equivalent); GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)


Nature and activities of microfungi associated with the decomposition of rice straw in Sri Lanka

Lanka Undugoda1, Sagarika Kannangara2*

1Department of Biosystems Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

2Department of Plant and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka


Agricultural sustainability through crop residue biodegradation is an eco-friendly method to enrich soil fertility essential to agricultural countries. Rice straw, rich in cellulose, is the primary source of organic matter, enhancing the fertility in rice fields and is a better alternative to replace chemical fertilizer usage. Therefore, this attempt is to isolate and identify different genera of straw degrading microfungi efficient in lignocellulose biodegradation. Rice straw degrading fungal species were isolated from the partially degraded rice straw collected from selected areas in Sri Lanka, following the washing and plating techniques. They were identified into the genus level using standard identification keys, and their capacity to degrade cellulose, starch, lignin, and pectin were evaluated using substrate-specific testing protocols. Eighteen fungal species in the genera of Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cunninghamella, Goidanichiella, Penicillium, Rhizomucor, Rhizopus, Stachybotrys, and Trichoderma were isolated from the partially degraded rice straw collected from different areas of Sri Lanka. Three Trichoderma species showed significantly the highest frequency of occurrences (40%, 45%, and 43% respectively) in rice straw and a homogenous distribution among the collected samples. Furthermore, they were significantly efficient in degrading cellulose, starch, pectin, and lignin. Since the management of crop residues has become an essential aspect of sustaining long-term fertility in cropping systems, incorporation of rice straw, which is rich with cellulose, and the application of Trichoderma species into the harvested rice fields will improve the nutrient availability and hence rice yield.

Keywords: Degradation, lignocellulose, rice straw, substrate utilization, Trichoderma spp.


Induction of heat tolerance in tomato cultivar with heat tolerant bacteria under field condition

Tehmeena Mukhtar1, Shafiq-ur-Rehman2*, Tariq Sultan3, Farooq Hussain Munis1, Hassan Javed Chaudhary1**

1Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan

2Department of Botany, University of Okara, Okara 56300, Pakistan

3Land Resource Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan


Two planned studies (Isolation, characterization, and field studies) were piloted to assess the potential of heat-tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) to mitigate heat stress in the tomato plant. . The production of indole acetic acid (IAA), phosphate, solubilization and ammonia, as well as siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), extracellular enzyme activity (protease, amylase, pectinase, and catalase), ACC-deaminase, and exopolysaccharide synthesis, were all positively confirmed in the isolate. The selected strain was screened at high temperature of 60 0C. The promising potential heat-tolerant isolate was further identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique and Acds gene was also successfully amplified. Morphological characterization revealed that strain was Gram positive. B. safensis (T6) strain showed higher quantity of Gibberellic acid (8.73 μg/ml) and Kinetin (34.8 μg/ml) under heat stress condition. The results of morpho-physiological parameters revealed significant effects of heat on un-inoculated and inoculated tomato plants under high temperature stress. Multi-year/multi-location field trials were done to extend studies of heat mitigation effects after encouraging results by bacterial strains. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) improved agronomic and yield metrics of tomato plants under heat stress in all field studies. First year 2018 & 2019 field trials at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan showed that Bacillus safensis (T6) produced the maximum number of flower’s (40.7 %) and fruits (24.8%) in 2018 and number of flowers (43 1%) and fruits (11.03%) in 2019 while the consortia treatments produced maximum flowers (16.9%) and fruits (52.1 %), respectively. The current study comprehensively exhibited the role of PGPB in the mitigation of heat stress.

Keywords: Microorganisms, PGPB, growth regulators, thermo-tolerance


Optimization of in vitro responses of various explants sources in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

Rana Imtiaz Ahmed1,2*, Shoaib Ur Rehman3, Lal Hussain Akhtar1, Abdul Majid Khan1, Khalid Mahmood1,Rana Tauqeer Ahmad1, Wajiha Anum1

1Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Key Laboratory for Tobacco Gene Resources, Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China

3MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


Sorghum usually showed obstinate behavior toward induced genetic modulation. Recently, success has been achieved in media optimization for callus induction and regeneration. A complex in-vitro tissue culture and regeneration system comprises of many interlinked factors such as different explant sources, optimized growth media containing effective anti-phenolic compounds, and explant response to callus induction media. In the present study we have optimized the regeneration media by utilizing the immature inflorescence, immature embryos and mature embryos. We have tested the five local genotypes i.e. JR-105, Ji-2731, Keller, Mn-3025 and Juti’an from field as well as green house sources and compares the callus induction and regeneration frequency. Our results depicted that immature inflorescence produced more callus induction in contrast with immature embryos and mature embryos. Whereas, the production of the phenolic compounds are a serious concern throughout regeneration phase. The above cited factors actually prevails and hinders the regeneration process in real sense. Furthermore, our results lead us to speculate that sorghum is highly reliant on genotype for in-vitro tissue culture.

Keywords: Callus induction, Immature inflorescence, Immature embryos, Phenolic compounds, Sorghum


Diversity and mycorrhizal potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two natural soils in the eastern region of Morocco

Wissame Chafai1*, Soumaya El Gabardi2, Allal Douira2, Ahmed Khalid1

1Laboratory for the Improvement of Agricultural Production Biotechnology and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed I University, Oujda 60000, Moroccco

2Laboratory of Plant Animal and Agro-Industry Productions, Botany, Biotechnology and Plant Protection Group, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco


This study aimed to assess the species composition and diversity of arbiscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in two soil samples from two sites in the eastern region of Morocco; Guercif and Zaïo. The results showed that the spore densities of these sites extracted by wet sieving method were very high (279 and 386 spores/10 g of soil in Zaïo and Guercif sites, respectively). The provisional identification test of isolated AMF revealed the presence of 57 AMF species, belonging to five families (Glomeraceae, Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, Entrophosporaceae and Archaesporaceae). Glomus, Rhizophagus, Funneliformis, Endogone and Acaulospora were the dominant genera. In addition, mycorrhizal potential of both soils was assessed using the “Most Probable Number” (MPN) method. The results revealed that the number of mycorrhizal propagules in Guercif soil were higher than that in Zaïo soil. It was also shown that the frequency and the intensity of root mycorrhization of leeks transplanted in Guercif soil were higher (90% and 74%, respectively) compared to those transplanted in Zaïo soil (56% and 31%, respectively). These results showed that both soils are generally rich in mycorrhizal fungal propagules and have great mycorrhizogenic power, so it would be interesting to isolate and purify fungal strains and to select those that perform well for a given parameter.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Diversity, Most probable number, Frequency and intensity of mycorrhization


Impact of applying organic fertilizers on nutrient content of soil and lettuce plants, yield quality and benefit-cost ratio under water stress conditions

Dalia Ahmed Abd El-Fattah1, Fadl Abd-Elhamid Hashem1, Shaimaa Hassan Abd-Elrahman2*

1Central Laboratory for Agricultural Climate 12411, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt

2Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture 11241, Ain Shams University, Egypt


The possible scarcity of available water for irrigation, climate change implications and environmental issues created the motivation for investigating new ways of increasing water use efficiency for crops. A field experiment was conducted, during two growing seasons, under open field conditions at Agricultural Research Center, Egypt. The study aimed to determine the effect of different irrigation water levels (60, 80 and 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)) and fertilization (mineral fertilizers (control), farmyard manure (FYM), biochar, compost and vermi-compost) on growth, yield, water use efficiency and nutritional status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The experimental design was split plot; the irrigation water levels located at main plots and fertilization types located at sub-plots. Applying different irrigation water levels and fertilizers significantly affected the vegetative growth and yield traits, i.e., no. of leaves, weight, head length and width, and total chlorophyll, as well as nutrient contents (N, P and K) and total soluble solids (TSS). Data revealed that using vermi-compost fertilizer reduced irrigation water requirements of lettuce plants, compared with control treatment. Also, vermi-compost treatment gave the highest values of the studied plant traits, during the two tested seasons. Increasing irrigation level up to 80% of ETc enhanced the yield, with additions of organic fertilizer treatments, and increased water use efficiency. Moreover, the treatment of vermi-compost + 80% of ETc gave the highest benefit-cost ratio (BCR values were 3.08 and 2.77 during the two tested seasons, respectively), while the lowest ones (0.85 and 0.93) were recorded by applying the treatment of mineral fertilizers+ 60% of ETc during the two studied seasons, respectively.

Keywords: Vermi-compost, Biochar, Water use efficiency, Lettuce crop quality, Benefit to cost ratio

Biofortification of maize with zinc and iron not only enhances crop growth but also improves grain quality

Zunaira Anwar1, Zyma Basharat1, Muhammad Bilal Hafeez2, Shahbaz Khan2*, Noreen Zahra1, Zayrah Rafique1, Muhammad Maqsood2

1Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (38040), Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (38040), Pakistan



Hidden hunger is an emerging challenge for scientists, especially connected to the agriculture sector because over two billion people are facing it globally. This issue is more common in developing countries which have less access to a diverse diet due to their low income. Different potential practices are introduced to minimize the pressure of malnutrition but agronomic biofortification is being considered best practice to improve the contents of micronutrient in grains. A field based study was executed to explore the impact of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) and iron sulphate (FeSO4) on productivity and grain quality of maize crop. Sole and combined application of ZnSO4 and FeSO4 either via soil or/and plant foliage not only enhanced the yield attributes of maize crop but grain quality was also improved. Soil supplementation of ZnSO4 (10 kg ha-1) produced maximum plant height and cob weight. Combined treatment of ZnSO4 (10 kg ha-1) and FeSO4 (12 kg ha-1) through soil produced more grains per cob, 1000-grain weight, biological and grain yields. Foliar applied 0.1% ZnSO4 and 0.3% FeSO4 produced highest chlorophyll contents. Foliar treatment of 0.1% ZnSO4 and 0.3% FeSO4 improved the concentration of zinc and iron in grains, respectively. Combined treatment of 10 kg ha-1 of ZnSO4 and 12 kg ha-1 of FeSO4 through soil improves the yield attributes while foliar spray of 0.1% ZnSO4 and 0.3% FeSO4 enhances quality parameters. Overall, foliar spray approach is more applicable regarding nutrients availability for optimum development and growth of crop and improved grain quality.

 Keywords: Chlorophyll, Foliar application, Hidden hunger, Maize yield, Micronutrients.