Tag Archives: 2022-1

Exposure to arsenic induces histomorphological alterations in testis of rabbits

Riaz Hussain Pasha1*, Anas Sarwar Qureshi2, Adnan Ali3, Saif-Ur-Rehman4, Muhammad Akram Khan5

1Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences (Histology), Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Project, Technical Unit-Building Disaster Resilience in Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan

4Department of Parasitology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

5Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


With the expansion and development of industrial technology, frequent application of various synthetic chemicals like pesticides, insecticides and arsenic has led to contamination of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem across the globe. Among different synthetic chemicals arsenic poisoning has become a huge threat to ground water in many parts of the world. Therefore, this study was planned to examine the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the morphology (gross and microscopic structure) of testis in rabbits. A total of 20 adult male rabbits were procured and randomly divided into two groups. Group (A) served as control and rabbits in group (B) were exposed to sodium arsenite orally (@ dose of 10mg/kg/day for a period 60 days. Results indicated significant (p<0.05) lower values of testicular weight, scrotal length and width, testicular volume, volume occupied by 10 seminiferous tubules and volume of the individual Leydig cells in treated rabbits. The exposure induced degenerative changes in testis including wavy contour of seminiferous tubules, vacuolization in the germinal epithelium and germ cell loss was recorded in the treated group. In conclusion, it was observed that arsenic may induce male reproductive effects by negatively affecting the testicular volume, Leydig cell population and volume of the Leydig cells.

 Keywords: Arsenic toxicity, Rabbit testis, Histomorphology, Pakistan

Identification of non-coding RNAs in the hyper thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8 through comparative genomics and in-silico analyses

Rahma Alshamrani1, Muhammad Huzaifa Arshad2, Munazza Gull3, Muhammad Zohaib Nawaz4, Sana Malik2*

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Bioenergy Research Centre, Department of Bioinformatics & Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China


Thermotoga maritima is a hyperthermophile with the potential to produce thermostable commercial enzymes which can be used for saccharification of plant biomass for subsequent fermentation to bioproducts. The molecular mechanism involved in the hyper thermostability in this bacterium is still not well-understood. It is known that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulate and modulate the gene expression of various biological processes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, hence coordinate the adaptation processes in response to environmental stimuli in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To understand the role of small ncRNAs in the hyper thermostability of T. maritima, an in silico-based approach was employed involving the identification of the ncRNAs in this bacterium on a genome-wide scale. A novel pipeline was constructed which involved a combination of various bioinformatics algorithms. In total, 20804 orthologous groups were predicted on the genome of T. maritima and 20 other bacteria (reference genomes) by the OrthoMCL tool. By using the “Perl” and “Bash” languages 258 orthologous IGR datasets were created. Among these datasets, small ncRNAs were identified by employing RNAz and RNA Infernal tools. Total 28 ncRNA candidates were predicted by the RNAz tool and 9 candidates were confirmed as novel cis-regulatory small ncRNAs in T. maritima MSB8 by Infernal tool and were named as Tmn (T. maritima ncRNAs). This work provides novel insights into the role of ncRNAs in the stress adaptability of MSB8 and can give a much better understanding of the lifestyle of this bacterium after validation of the data through wet-lab approaches. Having a clear understanding of the thermo-tolerance mechanism, the MSB8 can be exploited in the future for the commercial production of thermostable compounds and biohydrogen.

Keywords: Thermotoga maritima, Small non-coding RNAs, Genome-wide detection, Thermostability, Plant biomass, Saccharification

Impact of soil applied humic acid, zinc and boron supplementation on the growth, yield and zinc translocation in wheat

Maqsood ul Hussan1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Muhammad Bilal Hafeez1, Shahbaz Khan1*Sadam Hussain2, Naeem Ahmad2, Yasir Ramzan3, Majid Nadeem3

1Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China

3Wheat Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan


The experiment was conducted to optimize the level of humic acid, zinc and boron for better growth, enhanced yield and grain quality of wheat crop cultivated under field condition. Growth characteristics, yield and its components, and zinc concentrations in straw and grain were analyzed under two application rate of humic acid (0 and 10 kg ha-1), three level of boron (B0 = 0, B1 = 2 and B2 = 4 kg ha-1) and zinc (Zn0 = 0, Zn1 = 5 and Zn2 =10 kg ha-1). Results revealed that application of Zn at 10 kg ha-1 and B at 4 kg ha-1 combine with humic acid (10 kg ha-1) significantly increased yield and its components (except flag leaf area under humic acid application), and Zn contents in straw. The maximum plant height, spike length and grain filling rate were recorded at Zn2and B2 with humic acid application. Maximum grain yield was produced for Zn2 and B2 under humic acid application, which was associated with higher 1000-grain weight and biological yield. Maximum biological and straw yields were produced by application of Zn2 and B2 under humic acid fertilization. Maximum Zn contents in straw have been recorded for Zn2 and B2 under humic acid application, while maximum values of crude protein and Zn contents in Zn2 and B2 were statically same with Zn1 and B1 under humic acid application. Furthermore, the highest boron contents in grain were recorded for Zn2 and B2, and these values were statistically same with Zn2 and B1 under humic acid application. It is concluded that application of Zn2 and B2 in combination with humic acid could be a good agronomic practice to enhance the zinc content in straw and grain yield of wheat crop.

Keywords: Micronutrients, Productivity, Crude protein, Grain quality, Wheat straw

Potential application of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EB13 inoculant for improving soil fertility and Citrus sinensis growth

Idris Idris*, Yuliar Yuliar

Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Cibinong 16911, West Java, Indonesia


The application of bacterial inoculants to suppress crop diseases and boost crop yields supports sustainable agriculture by reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EB13 inoculant was applied to citrus plants (Citrus sinensis) in the field to investigate the effect of strain EB13 treatment on soil fertility and citrus growth in non-sterile conditions. Two years old citrus tree transplanted into the polybag containing 10 kg soil was inoculated with EB13 culture and placed in the open field for six months. Soil enzyme activities were increased significantly (P<0.05) by EB13 inoculation, they are acid phosphatase activity (1848.82 to 2450.50 μg p-NP/g dry soil h), alkaline phosphatase activity (475.15 to 640.98 μg p-NP/g dry soil h), urease activity (147.89 to 306.55 μgNH4-N/g dry soil h), and total soil microbial activity (1.85 to 2.77 μg fluorescein/g h). Furthermore, the population of bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere significantly (P<0.05) was increased by the EB13 inoculation. These improvements supported citrus growth by increasing fruit yield approximately threefold (5.33 to 18.33 fruits/plant). Our finding indicated that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EB13 was able to associate well with citrus in the non-sterile condition and has a long-term positive effect on soil fertility and citrus growth.

Keywords: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Biofertilizer, Citrus sinensis, Soil enzymes, Soil fertility

Effect of sowing techniques and tillage practices on paddy yield of direct seeded rice in salt affected soils

Muhammad Rizwan, Khalil Ahmed*, Muhammad Khalid Bhatti, Muhammad Sarfraz, Muhammad Irfan,

Syed Saqlain Hussain, Abdul Rasul Naseem

Soil Salinity Research Institute (SSRI), Pindi Bhattian, Pakistan


In the scenario of labor and water shortage, direct sowing of rice is a promising and alternative strategy for rice establishment. Therefore, a field study was undertaken to evaluate the comparative efficiency of different sowing methods and tillage practices for direct seeded rice in salt affected soil. The following treatments tested were; T1: cultivator, T2: disk harrow + cultivator, T3: rotavator + cultivator, with three sowing techniques; S1: broadcast + seed covering with planking 40 kg, S 2: broadcast + seed covering with planking 60 kg and, S3: drill sowing. The experiment was designed in randomize complete block design having split plot arrangement and three replications. Results of the study showed that maximum paddy yield was recorded by drill sowing with rotavator + cultivator used as tillage implements for land preparation. At the end of the study, soil properties were also improved with reduction of 0.57%, 16.21% and 8.56% in pHs, ECe and SAR respectively with use of rotavator + cultivator and drill sowing. In conclusion, use of rotavator + cultivator as tillage implement and drill sowing is effective and feasible technology for direct sowing of rice in salt affected soils.

Keywords: Broadcast, Direct seeding, Drill sowing, Rice, Rotavator

Phenotypic evaluation of rice germplasm against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and its in-vitro management through antibiotics

Aysha Khan1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Sajid2, Muhammad Ahmad Zeshan4*, Rana Binyamin5,

Nadeem Ahmed3, Muhammad Usman Ghani6

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

3Department of Plant Pathology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

4Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

5Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Sub-Campus Burewala, Pakistan

6Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) which causes bacterial leaf blight (BLB) disease is one of the most destructive pathogen of rice. BLB incites more than 70% yield losses in epidemic conditions thus deteriorating the rice industry and export revenue. The use of conventional synthetic bactericides causes remarkable environmental hazards such as water and air pollution. This study was focused at the management of bacterial leaf blight disease through the application of antibiotics because injudicious use of bactericides results in the development of resistance in bacteria. The objectives were to evaluation of rice germplasm against BLB, biochemical characterization of the pathogen and its in-vitro management. There were very limited studies on the phenotypic evaluation of BLB disease and biochemical analyses of its causal organism. Twelve rice cultivars were screened against the disease in randomized complete block design. The isolated pathogen was subjected to Gram staining and microscopic examination. Biochemical characterization of the pathogen was done by methyl red, indole production, citrate utilization and Voges-Proskaure tests. Three antibiotics (Kanamycin, Streptomycin and Ampicillin) were used at three concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm) against the pathogen. Among all the screened cultivars, none was highly resistant and resistant. Maximum disease severity (89.01%) was depicted by the variety Super Basmati. All isolate were Gram negative and these showed positive response in case citrate utilization test indicating that citrate permeases enzyme is abundant. In-vitro results showed that Kanamycin is the most effective against pathogen at all concentrations than Ampicillin and Streptomycin. It is concluded that none of the screened cultivars showed resistance against Xoo, so the Basmati varieties may be sown with appropriate antibiotic like Kanamycin. It is recommended to devise effective breeding programs for the development of resistance rice cultivars against this economically important disease.

Keywords: Antibiotics, Xoo, In-vitro, Management, BLB

Insecticidal effects of Parthenium hysterophorus and Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on digestibility indices and survival of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Muhammad Irfan Ullah1*, Sana Majeed1, Muhammad Arshad1, Sajjad Ali2, Naunain Mehmood3, Nimra Altaf1, Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Luqman4, Umar Farooq5, Muhammad Afzal1

1Department of Entomology, University of Sargodha, 40100, Sargodha, Pakistan

2Department of Entomology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 Bahawalpur Pakistan

3Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, 40100, Sargodha, Pakistan

4Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Sargodha, 40100, Sargodha, Pakistan

5Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


Insecticidal properties of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (family: Asteraceae), an annual herb, and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) (family: Moringaceae), a perennial tree, were assessed against different digestibility parameters and survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Effect of different extracts (based on three extraction solvents: ethanol, methanol, and acetone) of P. hysterophorus and M. oleifera on the digestibility indices and larval mortality of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied. The extracts were tested at two different concentrations; 25 mg and 50 mg. The effect of methanol extract on S. litura larvae was greater than that of ethanol and acetone. The methanol extract of P. hysterophorus at 50 mg concentration significantly reduced the digestibility indices; 49.6% consumption rate, 80.4% growth rate, 63.9% efficiency of conversion of ingested food, 68.4% efficiency of conversion of digested food, 39.3% assimilation rate, and 12.3% approximate digestibility of S. litura larvae compared with the control (positive untreated) treatment. By using methanol extracts of P. hysterophorus at 50 mg concentration, larvae’s survival rate was also found to be lower than those of other treatments. The performance of M. oleifera extracts was lower in terms of affecting the digestibility and survival of S. litura compared to P. hysterophorus. Among the two plant extracts, a higher concentration (50mg) of P. hysterophorus using methanol as a solvent represented a promising natural product for S. litura control.

Keywords: Botanicals, Biological control, Feeding indices, Spodoptera litura, Sustainable management

Toxicological effects of arsenic trioxide on blood, serum biochemical constituents and hormonal profile of rabbits and their amelioration with olive oil

Muhammad Zubair1, Shamsa Shafique2, Muhammad Shahbaz2, Atia Mir Hussain2,  Mubashar Ali Khalique1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi4, Muhammad Imran Khan3, Nasir Hameed1

1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJK, Pakistan

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences, The Women University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Bagh, AJK, Pakistan

3Department of Livestock and Poultry Production University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJK, Pakistan

4Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Arsenic is considered one of the major environmental toxic metals causing male infertility. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the toxic effects of arsenic trioxide on the body weight, serum biochemical constituents, hematological parameters, and hormonal profile of male rabbits. To ameliorate the toxicity of this metal, olive oil was used. For this purpose, sixteen adult male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups for this experiment. Group A was kept as control, group B (arsenic trioxide 5 mg/kg body weight), C (arsenic trioxide as in group B + olive oil 5 ml/kg body weight), and Group D (olive oil 5 ml/kg BW) were used in this experiment. The blood samples from these animals were collected every two weeks to determine the hematological values. Serum was also separated to analyze the hormonal profile and serum biochemical constituents. Obtained data of this experiment were subjected to two-way analysis factorial. Following the oral administration of arsenic trioxide, body weight significantly reduces in group B as compared to groups A, C and D. Similarly, level white blood cells, red blood cells, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin was reduced in group B as compared to other three groups. The endocrine profile indicated that the level of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone reduced in the arsenic trioxide group as compared to the control group. Arsenic trioxide in group B negatively influences the serum biochemical parameters as compared to the other three groups. Supplementation of olive oil alleviated the toxic effects on of parameters.  It is concluded that arsenic trioxide causes major male reproductive toxicity, whereas olive oil has an ameliorating effect to reduce toxicity.

Keywords: Arsenic trioxide, Olive oil, Toxicological effects, Hormonal level

Investigation of antioxidant and anti-hemolytic properties of Algerian Bunium incrassatum tubers and their effects as diet on histological and biochemical parameters of normal Wistar rats

Farid Berroukeche1,2*, Nawel Attoui3, Fethi Toul4, Mohammed Ziane5,6, Nassima Mokhtari Soulimane1, Hafida Merzouk1

1Laboratory of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Department of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, Earth and Universe, University of Tlemcen 13000, Algeria

2Faculty of Medicine, University of TAHRI Mohammed, Bechar, Algeria

3Laboratory of Vegetal Resources Valorization and Food Security in Semi-Arid Areas South West of AlgeriaDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, , University of TAHRI Mohammed Bechar, Algeria

4Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of TAHRI Mohammed, Bechar, Algeria

5University Center of Ain Temouchent, Sidi bel Abbes Road, N101, Ain Temouchent, Algeria

6Laboratory of Microbiology Applied to Agri-food, Biomedical and Environment (LAMAABE), Faculty of SNV / STU, University of Tlemcen, Algeria


The present study aimed at determining the effectiveness of Bunium incrassatum acetonic and ethanolic tuber extracts as antioxidant (DPPH assay) and anti-hemolytic agents (hypotonic solution, H2O2 and triton X100 assays) and tubers’ powder as dietary supplement on body weight, on histological (liver, thyroid, testes, and kidney) and biochemical parameters (glycaemia, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, HDL, LDL, AST and ALT). In DPPH assay, acetonic extract (IC50=0.02 mg/ml) exhibited by far, higher scavenging potential, even compared to ethanolic extract (IC50=0.19 mg/ml) and ascorbic acid (IC50=0.25 mg/ml) as reference compound. The same extract showed a very good protective effect against hemolysis induced by H2O2 and hypotonic solutions with 76.43%±3.71 and 77.67%±2.07 mg/mL, respectively and closely followed by quercetin as reference compound. The in vivo results revealed that rats receiving orally 15% of B. incrassatum with diet (BID group) during 15 days of experimentation increased significantly their final body weight (98.88%). Then, a significant rise of glycaemia (+17.92%), HDLc (+25%), AST (+36.78%) and ALT (+56.76%) levels associated to a notable decrease of triglycerides (-29.1 %) and creatinine (-12.74%) were observed compared with control animals. These promising findings support the traditional use of B. incrassatum tubers as functional food for human and farm animals, and suggest that their radical scavenging and anti-hemolytic potentials are may be due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds.

Keywords: Bunium incrassatum, Histology, Diet, Antihemolytic, Antioxidant, Wistar rats

Isolation and characterization of novel Rhodobacter spp. with the sodium removal ability from mangrove forest sediment in Southeast Vietnam

Ngo Duc Duy1,2*, Duong Thi Hong Dao1,2, Nguyen Hoang Dung1,2, Vu Thi Tuyet Nhung1, Pham Anh Vu1, Le Quynh Loan1, Huynh Thi Diep1, Pham Thanh Luu1,2, Hoang Quoc Khanh1,2

1Institute of Tropical Biology, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam

2Graduate University of Sciences and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Sciences and Technology, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam


Salt contamination is one of the major problems of agricultural land. It is important to find new bacteria with sodium removal ability, which can be used to reduce salts from soils. This study aims to isolate and characterize the novel Rhodobacter spp. with the sodium removal ability from mangrove forest sediment in Southeast Vietnam. After screening of morphological characteristics of the cell size, shape, and presence of protrusions, seven strains were identified. The results also showed that these strains were able to reduce NaCl from Glutamate-malate medium (GM). The concentration of NaCl decreased from 28.57% to 36.42% for the treatment with 25 ppm NaCl after 14 days of incubation. However, in the 35ppm NaCl concentration was absorb proficiency of decrease by approximately 5% compare with the 25 ppm NaCl concentration. The gene sequences of the 16S rDNA and puMf gene regions of the isolated strains shared high similarities with genus Rhodobacter, which were identified as Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodobacter johrii. Our results showed a high diversity in the isolated strains belonging to the Rhodobacter species with sodium absorption ability. This study suggests the possibility of using isolated Rhodobacter strains to remove salinity from soils.

Keywords: Collection, Mangrove forest, Salinity, Reduce, Rhodobacter spp.