Tag Archives: 2021-3

Chitinases of wheat seedling and their biochemical properties

Aidar Khakimzhanov, Vladimir Kuzovlev, Aset Abaildayev*

M.A. Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Almaty, Kazakhstan


Chitinases are important protective enzymes in plants and belong to a special group of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. The main target of these enzymes is various pathogenic fungi that contain chitin in their cell walls. Under the influence of fungi, chitinases produced by plants, hydrolyze chitin, which leads to suppression of the growth and death of the pathogen. Considering their important protective role, much attention is paid to the studies of these enzymes. Individual isozymes of chitinase are often used in testing and breeding agricultural plants for resistance to fungal diseases. In this work, we studied the isoenzyme composition and a number of physicochemical properties of wheat chitinases, which are important for a better understanding of their functioning in this grain crop. It was found that in seedlings of 7 days old, chitinases are localized both inside and outside the cells. Intracellular chitinase is represented only by basic components, whereas extracellular – by acidic ones. Using an affinity sorbent, the forms of the enzyme with a chitin-binding domain (CBD) were determined, which had isoelectric points (pI) of 9.3, 9.0, 8.6, 8.2, 8.0, 7.6, 5.7 and 4.6. According to SDS-PAG electrophoresis, the molecular weight (M.w.) of these enzymes corresponded to the values of 33, 35 and 56 kDa and they were not the glycoproteins. In the spectrum of isoelectric focusing (IEF) of chitinases, exochitinases were identified, which had pI values exclusively in the acidic range of 4.3-5.2. Significant differences were revealed in the thermal stability of chitinases. The acidic components were most resistant to elevated temperatures.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., Seedling, Chitinase, Isoenzymes, Chitin-binding domain

Assessment of aluminum tolerant of double haploid lines for developing new type of upland rice

Reny Herawati1*, Dwi Wahyuni Ganefianti1, Hesti Pujiwati1, Bambang Sapto Purwoko2, Iswari Saraswati Dewi3

1Crop Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bengkulu, Indonesia; 2Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University,Indonesia;

3Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development, Indonesia.


Aluminum can possibly have direct or indirect adverse effects on plant growth; however, this effect is not the same for all plants, even in the same species.  The roots of plants are most sensitive to Al toxicity accompanied to initial symptoms such as the inhibition of cell extension and retarded development of root systems. This study was aimed to evaluate doubled-haploid (DH1) upland rice derived from anther culture to Al stress and to study the genetic diversity and population distribution of DH lines due to Al stress. Al tolerant test was carried out in a greenhouse using factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Yoshida nutrient solution containing Al of 0 and 45 ppm was the first factor, while the second was the lines obtained from previous experiments (DH1), the four parents (SGJT36, SGJT28, Fatmawati, and Way Rarem), while Dupa, and ITA131, respectively as an Al tolerant and susceptible checks.. The results showed that root length, shoot length, and shoot dry weight had high heritability values and correlated well with the observed characters. Al tolerant doubled haploid upland rice lines derived from anther culture varied widely. Based on the Relative Root Length (RRL), out of 58 lines tested, 19 genotypes were highly tolerant, 29 lines were moderate, while 10 were low. The DH1 rice derived from P3 showed high, moderate, and low tolerance, while those from P6 showed high and moderate tolerance only.

Keywords: Aluminum (Al) tolerance, Doubled Haploid (DH), Upland rice lines.

Molecular assessment of calcium-sensing receptor gene polymorphism rs1801725 in Iraqi women with osteoporosis

Adnan F. Al-Azzawie

 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq


Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene polymorphism A986S (rs1801725) is a genetic factor of the calcium homeostasis and susceptibility of osteoporosis. Although, its role in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is yet to be investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the CaSR gene polymorphism A986S and evaluate its correlation with biochemical parameters in premenopausal and postmenopausal Iraqi women with osteoporosis. Blood samples were obtained from 100 women (53 premenopausal and 47 postmenopausal) diagnosed with osteoporosis by specialist physicians and 70 healthy women of the same age as the control group. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were estimated. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood and used for polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis to detect CaSR A986S polymorphism. The results obtained showed that calcium and phosphorus levels were significantly lower (p value < 0.01) in the osteoporosis women compared with healthy groups. Frequencies of T allele and TT genotype were significantly higher (p value < 0.01) in the osteoporosis patients compared with controls, while there were no significant differences in the frequencies of the patient group. Conversely, there were no differences in the calcium and phosphorus levels and there was the presence of T allele of the CaSR A986S genotypes. Thus, our finding revealed that the CaSR polymorphism A986S was one of the genetic susceptibility factors for the premenopausal and postmenopausal in Iraqi women with osteoporosis and had little effects on mineral levels.

Keywords: CaSR gene polymorphism A986S, Osteoporosis, Iraqi Women.

Phytochemical, pharmacological and GC-MS characterization of the lipophilic fraction of Monotheca buxifolia

Shabnam Javed1*, Amna Shoaib2,Zaid Mahmood3, Shaista Nawaz4,Khalid Mohammed Khan5

1Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan.

2Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Pakistan.

3Food and Biotechnology Research Centre (FBRC), Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Lahore-54600, Pakistan.

4H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

Corresponding author: shabnam.chem@pu.edu.pk, 092-323-4830505


Monotheca buxifolia [(Falc.) A. DC.] indigenous to northern Pakistan is a broad-leaved evergreen traditional plant of pharmacological versatility. The present investigation focused on evaluating the phytochemistry, nutritional profile, analgesic activity, cytotoxicity and GC-MS profile of M. buxifolia. The result showed aerial parts of M. buxifolia had high content of carbohydrate and protein, along with sufficient amounts of macro and micronutrients. The lipophilic n-hexane fraction of M. buxifolia exhibited the presence of saponins (29.30%), flavonoids (18%) and phenols (0.46 mg GAE/100 g). Analgesic activity of lipophilic fraction was equivalent to standard drug (Aspirin) as determined by the tail flick method. The F1 (oily liquid) of lipophilic fraction showed significant cytotoxicity against lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver (HepG2) cell lines). GC-MS profiling identified cis-vaccenic acid followed by n-hexadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester as major bioactive compounds in the lipophilic oily sub-fraction of M. buxifolia. These results support the use of oily sub-fraction of M. buxifolia as an effective and safe candidate for treatment of cancer cell lines.

Keywords: Gurgura, Macro micronutrient, Phytoconstitutents, Tail-flicking method, MTT assay