Tag Archives: 2021-3

Biochemical profile of albino rats with experimentally induced metabolic syndrome fed diet formulations of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Gongronema latifolium and Moringa oleifera leaves

Nene Orizu Uchendu1, Chiemekam Samuel Ezechukwu2*, Lawrence Uchenna Sunday Ezeanyika1

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

2Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a globally prevalent disease state, leading to mortality. Plants are a reservoir of compounds that have therapeutic potential and have been proven to be effective in management of a wide range of human and animal diseases. This study therefore, evaluated the effect of diet formulations of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf (CAL), Gongronema latifolium leaf (GLL), and Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) on some biochemical parameters of experimentally-induced MS in male albino rats. Forty-eight (48) adult male rats of 180-210 g body weight, were separated randomly into eight groups (1 – 8) comprising six rats each. Group 1 was maintained on normal diet. MS was induced in Groups 2 – 8 rats for eight weeks by high fat high carbohydrate (HFHC) diet. Afterwards, group 2 was fed normal rat diet (untreated), while groups 3 to 8 received diets formulated with GLL, CAL, MOL (100g per kg of diet) for eight weeks. Obesity indices, serum lipid profile, liver marker enzymes and antioxidant status were evaluated using standard methods. Significant (p < 0.05) decrease in body weight gain, total cholesterol and triacylglycerols of the treated rats were observed, while high density lipoprotein significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to the untreated group. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities significantly (p < 0.05) increased in the treatment groups. Treatment with the herbs showed mild Kupffer cell activation reversing periportal hepatitis induced by the HFHC diet. Results from the study indicate that CAL, GLL and MOL have therapeutic potentials that could be useful in managing components of MS.

 Keywords: Antioxidant status, Lipid profile, Metabolic syndrome, High fat high Carbohydrate diet, Kupffer cells

The impact of the harvesting period and drying conditions on the essential oil yield of Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus satureioides and Origanum compactum from the Taza-Taounate region

Sanae Rezouki1.2*, Aimad Allali1.2, Bouchra Louasté3, Noureddine Eloutassi2, Mohamed Fadli1

1Laboratory of Plant, Animal and Agro-industry Productions, Faculty of Sciences, University of Ibn Tofaail (ITU), Kenitra, Morocco

2Laboratory of Engineering, Molecular Organometallic Materials and Environment, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz (FSDM), Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University (USMBA), Fez, Morocco and Regional Center for the Trades of Education and Training (CRMEF), Fez, Morocco

3Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-food and Health, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mahraz (FSDM), Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University (USMBA), Fez, Morocco


This study focuses on the influence of the harvesting period and drying conditions on the  essential oil (EO) yield of three Moroccan aromatic plants; Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus satureioides and Origanum compactum from the Taza-Taounate region. The plants studied were harvested, determinated and dried according to a detailed protocol carried out in the laboratory. The extraction of essential oils is carried out by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type system in order to determine and statistically compare the yield of each sample. The results showed that drying conditions significantly affect the EO yield of the three species. For Rosmarinus officinalis, the highest yield is obtained from aerial parts dried in the shade with 1.25 % for 1 to 3 days of drying and a temperature interval of 20 to 30 °C. In the same conditions, an optimal yield of 1.52% is obtained for Origanum compactum. For Thymus satureioides the maximum EO content is obtained after 3 to 5 days of drying in a temperature range of 15 to 25 °C. Out of these conditions, yields gradually decrease significantly to minimum yields at a 15-day drying period and a maximum temperature of 45 °C for all plants. The harvest period is also a crucial parameter in the improvement of the EO yield, the best EO levels were recorded during the period of March-August this period corresponds to the flowering stage of the three plants, which shows that the variation of the phenological stages is a key factor in the optimization of EO yields.

 Keywords: Aromatic plants, Extraction, Essential oils

Assessment of land use change and crop water requirements in Dong Hung district in the Red River Delta of Vietnam using GIS and satellite imageries

 Pham Quy Giang1*, Sikandar Ali2

1Faculty of Environment, Ha Long University, Quang Ninh, Vietnam

2Department of Irrigation and Drainage, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan


Monitoring land use changes plays crucial role for the management and use of land in a reasonable and effective manner. As land use change is associated with increasingly dynamic socio-economic activities, tracking land use change becomes more difficult with larger amounts of data to be processed. In this study, the modern technology of GIS and Remote Sensing was applied for the assessment of land use change and crop water requirements in Dong Hung district in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. Databases of land use for 2013 and 2018 comprising 2492 and 3473 land parcels with 32 and 36 land use types, respectively, were built from land use map and land use status report. The databases were then used to construct a database of land use change for the period of 2013-2018, which was finally used for land use change assessment. In addition, Landsat-8 OLI data was used to detect land use change for Summer-Autumn and Winter-Spring seasons of 2013 and 2018. Moreover, MODIS satellite data was also used to estimate the crop water requirements for the rice fields for the mentioned seasons in the district. The study revealed that there was a complicated conversion among land use types, but in general agricultural land decreased by 485.9 ha, while non-agricultural land increased by 493.23 ha mainly with the expansion of residential land and land for infrastructure development. Among agricultural land use types, however, only annual cropland, which mostly includes paddy land was narrowed down by nearly 770ha, meanwhile other agricultural land increased. Crop water requirement was found to change slightly during the study period. Although the changes in land use in the study area imply the progress of urbanization, infrastructure improvement and economic restructuring, since Thai Binh province is the heart of the Red River Delta and critically contributes to the rice production in the region, the decline in paddy land is of great concern that should be taken into account for land management and planning of the province and the district.

 Keywords: GIS, Land use change, Land use status map, Landsat, MODIS

Allelopathic effect of prickly chaff flower (Achyranthes Aspera L.) used as a tool for managing noxious weeds

Muhammad Ehsan Safdar1, Adeela Aslam1, Rafi Qamar1*, Amjed Ali1, Muhammad Mansoor Javaid1, Muhammad Sikander Hayyat1, Ali Raza1

1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan


Prickly chaff flower (Achyranthes aspera L.) is a broadleaf annual herbaceous weed which contains allelopathic potential and is used for the suppression of crop plants. The experiments were laid out to check the allelopathic potential of plant residues mixed with soil and aqueous extract of prickly chaff flower against six broad leaf weeds viz. Digera arvensis, Chenopodium album, Trianthema portulacastrum, Parthenium hysterophorus, Convolvulus arvensis and Rhynchosia capitata as target weeds. In first experiment, aqueous extracts of prickly chaff flower having 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% concentrations (w/v) were used against target weeds whereas in second experiment, decomposed prickly chaff flower plant material with concentrations of 2, 4 and 6% (w/w) were mixed into the soils that were used as germination media for weeds. Results showed that treatments of both experiments considerably reduced the seedling establishment of target weeds. Substantial inhibition of target weeds was noted in germination percentage (76.7%), energy (56%) and index (71.4%), respectively. Among weed species, D. arvensis showed more susceptibility while P. hysterophorus the more resistance towards phytotoxic effect of aqueous extracts of prickly chaff flower. In second experiment, decline in weeds’ emergence percentage (61.9%), emergence index (75.9%), emergence energy (38.6%) and mean emergence time (41.6 days) were recorded. Among weeds, C. arvensis showed the higher susceptibility while P. hysterophorus the least susceptibility to phytotoxic effect of prickly chaff flower soil. The results of this study are helpful to the farmers in controlling the weeds through organic means and save the environment.

Keywords:  Allelopathy, broad leave weeds, plant extracts, inhibition, weed management

Impact of environmental variables on abundance, growth and condition factor of Gymnarchus niloticus (Curvier, 1829) from Umueze-Ossissa lake system, Southern Nigeria

Agatha Arimiche Nwabueze*1 and Emmanuel Obiajulu Nwabueze2

1. Department of Fisheries, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Asaba, Nigeria

2. Department of Food Science and Technology, Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro, Nigeria


The impact of environmental variables on abundance, growth and condition factor of Gymnarchus niloticus from two lakes in Umueze-Ossissa, Southern Nigeria was investigated to provide baseline information for effective management of the lakes. G. niloticus were collected fortnightly for a period of 12 months from fishermen who used set nets and percentage abundance determined. Length-weight relationship was used to determine growth pattern, condition factor and relative condition factor. Environmental variables such as water quality parameters affecting fish abundance were predicted with multiple regression analysis. G. niloticus was more abundant in Otu Lake than in Abiandu Lake. Male G. niloticus were significantly (P<0.05) more than female with male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and 1:1.7 in Otu and Abiandu lakes respectively. Gymnarchus niloticus showed negative allometric growth in the two lakes studied meaning that fish get slimmer as it increases in size. Condition factor of G. niloticus ranged from 0.24 to 4.09 and 0.59 to 3.73 and relative condition factor from 0.82 to 1.08 and from 0.92 to 1.12 in Otu and Abiandu Lakes respectively. High air temperature observed corresponded with high number of fish, while high amount of rainfall corresponded with low number of G. niloticus. Water quality parameters showed that depth, transparency, DO and BOD were significantly higher (P<0.05). The model used successfully predicted G. niloticus abundance. These findings are useful during planning for effective management of the lakes for sustainable economic and livelihood development of the area.

Key words: Environment, Gymnarchus, growth, lake, Ossissa, Nigeria

Comparative incidence of maize stem borers on GM and non-GM maize under two smallholder cropping systems in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

Daniel Ashie Kotey1,2*, Yoseph Assefa2,3, Johnnie Van den Berg 4


1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research-Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, P.O. Box 7, Bunso, Ghana.

2Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Fort Hare, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

3Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo, M205, Swaziland.

4Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa.


 The assessment of the comparative performance of existing technologies especially those identified as alternatives under smallholder farmers’ conditions can enhance the sustainable dissemination and adoption of improved agricultural technologies. To this end, the performance of a genetically modified (GM) stacked-trait herbicide and insect resistant Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize hybrid was compared to a GM herbicide tolerant hybrid, a non-GM hybrid and an open pollinated variety (OPV). The trials were conducted in three localities under natural stem borer infestation in irrigated and non-irrigated (dryland)No stem borer infestation was observed on Bt maize plants from the seedling to the flowering stages in all fields at all trial sites. Stem borer infestation was higher under irrigation compared to dryland conditions. The stem borer complex on non-Bt maize plants under irrigation was dominated by Chilo partellus whilst only Busseola fusca larvae were recorded under dryland conditions. The yield of the Bt maize variety under irrigation was significantly higher than that of the OPV but not different (P>0.05) from that of the non-Bt hybrids. No significant (P>0.05) difference in yield was between Bt and non-Bt maize varieties under dryland conditions. The results highlight the need to base dissemination and adoption decisions of relatively expensive agricultural technologies such as GM maize on the results of context specific field trials.

Keywords:  GM maize open pollinated maize, smallholder, stem borer

Evaluation of maize genotypes for resistance to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation

Jonathan Siamey1,2, Duodu Kwame Ansah2, Daniel Ashie Kotey1*

1 CSIR-Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute, Bunso, Eastern Region of Ghana

2Sunyani Technical University, Sunyani


The use of Sitophilus zeamais resistant maize germplasm for breeding new varieties can contribute to reduce hazardous insecticide use on stored maize. This study evaluated six maize genotypes, five genebank accessions (GH2354, GH3239, GH3324, GH3609, GH6182) and one commercial variety (OBAATANPA) for resistance to S. zeamais infestation. Maize grains were infested with adult weevils and data on number of grains with weevil damage, percentage weight loss, median developmental time and index of susceptibility was collected. Differences in the number of days to first adult emergence between genotypes were not significant (P > 0.05). Differences between genotypes for all other parameters evaluated were however significant (P < 0.05). Accession GH3609 recorded the most damaged grains (23.32%) and the highest (15.41%) grain weight loss, whereas OBAATANPA recorded the lowest (9.81%) damaged grains whilst the lowest weight loss (8.26%) was observed in GH6182. The proportion of damaged grains correlated with weight loss (r = 0.96) and index of susceptibility (r = 0.82).  All evaluated genotypes were susceptible to S. zeamais attack. Little research has been conducted to identify S. zeamais resistant maize germplasm in Ghana. The results of this study should serve as baseline information in the screening for resistance to S. zeamais.

Keywords: Accession, genotypes, index of susceptibility, median developmental time, resistance

In vitro anticancer potential of Sacrocephalus latifolius leaves extract and its fractions on human MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cancer cell lines

Ikpefan O. Emmanuel1, Ayinde B. Adesina2, Ikpefan J. Ohonmoimen3, Mudassar Azah4 and Farooq A. Dar5

1 Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria

2Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

3 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Science, Delta State University,  Abraka, Nigeria

 4 Dr. Panjwani Centre for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research International Centre of Chemical and Biological    Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270


 Sacrocephalus latifolius is one of the recipes used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer ailment in South-western Nigeria. This work was aimed at evaluating the extract and fractions of this plant against human breast (MCF-7) and lung (NCI-H460) cancer cell lines as well as their antioxidant activity. While the ant-proliferative assay was done using the SRB-assay for the extract (1-250 µg/mL) and fractions (1-100 µg/mL), the DPPH antioxidant assay was recorded at concentrations between 25-400 µg/mL. Against the MCF-7 cell lines, the extract and ethyl acetate fractions recorded growth-inhibitory activities at all concentrations with GI50 of 73.02 and 63.38 µg/mL. While the chloroform fraction recorded cytotoxicities of -1.14 and -6.19 % at 50 and 100 µg/mL with GI50 and TGI of 43.18 and 89.70 µg/mL, the hexane and aqueous fractions were inactive. Similar pattern of activity was recorded against NCI-H460 cell lines with the chloroform fraction exhibiting a higher sensitivity with GI50 and TGI of 24.12 and 54.50 µg/mL respectively. The antiproliferative activity was further corroborated by the higher antioxidant activity (IC50 of 17.91 µg/mL), total phenolic (86.30 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (72.74 mg QUE/g) of the chloroform fraction. The folkloric use of S. latifolius in the treatment of tumor ailments has been justified by this work.

Keywords: Sacrocephalus latifolius, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, MCF-7, NCI-H460, DPPH, antioxidant, cancer, cell-lines, fractions, SRB-assay, DPPH

5Hamdard A1- Majeed College of Eastern Medicine, Faculty of Eastern Medicine, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan

Application of partial gelatinization autoclaving-cooling process to increase the resistant starch content of fermented cassava pulp flour-based composite flour

Beni Hidayat1, 3,*, Udin Hasanudin2, Siti Nurdjanah2, Neti Yuliana2, Syamsu Akmal3, M. Muslihudin3

1Doctorate Program, Agriculture Science, University of Lampung, Lampung, Indonesia

2Agricultural Product Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung, Lampung, Indonesia

3Agricultural Technology Department, Politeknik Negeri Lampung, Lampung, Indonesia


Fermented cassava pulp flour-based composite flour (FCPF-based composite flour) is a composite flour consisting of fermented cassava pulp flour, cassava starch, and xanthan gum which has the potential to be developed as a gluten-free flour.  This study was aimed to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of FCBF-based composite flour through the application of the partial gelatinization (PG) autoclaving-cooling process.  Other aims were to characterize its chemicals properties, granular morphology, polarized optical microscopy, amylographic profile, X-ray diffraction pattern and relative crystallinity, degree of starch hydrolysis. and estimated glycemic index (EGI).  The results of the study revealed that PG autoclaving for 15 min and cooling time 72 h was the optimal treatments that increased the RS content of  FCPF-based composite flour from 1.75% to 7.31%.   This study indicated that the increasing of resistant starch content of FCPF-based composite flour changed its chemicals properties, granular morphology, polarized optical microscopy, amylographic profile, X-ray diffraction pattern and relative crystallinity; and lowering the degree of starch hydrolysis and value of estimated glycemic index (EGI). Increased the RS content would improve the functional properties of FCPF-based composite flour.

Keywords: resistant starch, fermented cassava pulp, composite flour, gluten-free flour

Changes on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in water buffalo spermatozoa revealed the capacitation-like event in cryopreservation

Maylem Excel Rio S.1,3, Rivera Shanemae M.1*, Ramos Gerald E. 1, Atabay Edwin C. 1,2, Venturina Emma V.2, Atabay Eufrocina P.1

1Reproduction and Physiology Section, Philippine Carabao Center,  National Headquarters and Genepool, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija Philippines 3120

2Philippine Carabao Center at Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines 3123

3Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA 74074


Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) induction helps alleviate the adverse effects of several types of stress in the cells. It can also play a significant role in sperm protection and survival during the extreme conditions of the semen cryopreservation process. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of this protein in spermatozoa of water buffalo by analyzing the changes in its gene expression, protein induction, and distribution after cryopreservation. Differences in HSP70 mRNA and protein levels between fresh and frozen semen samples were determined through real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Cellular localization patterns of HSP70 in the different sample groups were then detected in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Lastly, the average sperm motilities of the semen sample groups were evaluated and compared. Results showed that the HSP70 mRNA expression decreased by fifty percent (P<0.05) while the protein level significantly rose by sixty percent (P<0.05) in the frozen sample group. The localization of HSP70 protein in the sperm head also shifted from the equatorial segment in the fresh sample group to the post-acrosomal region in frozen semen samples. Moreover, the average sperm motility appeared to fluctuate with the mRNA level and comparably decreased by fifty percent (P<0.05) in the frozen sample group. These changes on the HSP70 in spermatozoa exhibited the adverse effects of the underlying capacitation-like event in the cryopreservation process. Overall, these findings presented a valuable insight into the current buffalo semen cryopreservation technique and a potential approach to its improvement.

Keywords: Cryopreservation; HSP70; Spermatozoa; Water Buffalo