Tag Archives: 1(2)

Stimulation of germination and growth in Soybean seeds by stationary magnetic field treatment

Alfredo Socorro García1*, Francisco García Reina2, Yulexis Pino Franco3and Danilo Díaz Páez3

1Department of Plant Physiology and Post-harvest, Institute of Fundamental Researches on Tropical Agriculture “Alexander Von Humboldt” INIFAT, Santiago de las Vegas, Havana, Cuba

2D epartment of Physics, University of Ciego de Ávila, Carretera de Morón, Ciego de Ávila, Cuba

3Production and Development Center AGROF.  Finca Las Glorias, carretera a Amaro, Santo Domingo Villa Clara, Cuba

  *Corresponding author: e-mail: dpfisiologia@inifat.co.cu


The effects of stationary magnetic field on seeds are studied using two soybean varieties and three magnetic induction values: 100, 150 and 200 mT during 30 seconds of exposure. The germination percent, root and stem length as well as fresh and dry mass were measured under laboratory conditions, at the second week after sowing. The plant grown from treated samples (100 and 150  mT) and non-treated (B=0) were also evaluated under field conditions. The values of plant height (65 days after sowing) and the values of pod number, pod length and yield at 110 days (at the end of the plant cycle), were obtained. The results showed the enhanced of the germination percentage and root length of the Conquista and Incasoy-24 varieties treated with stationary magnetic field of 150 mT and 100 mT respectively. The rest of the parameters evaluated did not show differences with respect to the non-treated sample. These respective exposure regimes also provoked a significant stimulation on the yield and an inhibition on the plant height at 110 days, while the magnetic treatment of 100 mT enhanced significantly the plant height of Incasoy-24 variety at 65 days after sowing (P<0.05).

Keywords: Bioelectromagnetics, Legume, Plant, Yield

Phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soil by auxin assisted bacterial inoculation

Tariq Ali, Sajid Mahmood, Muhammad Yahya Khan*, Ana Aslam, Muhammad Baqir Hussain, Hafiz Naeem Asghar and Muhammad Javed Akhtar

Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: yahya.1311@hotmail.com


Toxic level of cadmium (Cd) has been built up in soil profile due to over fertilization, industrial activities and irrigation with city wastewater. One of the remediation strategies of such contaminated soil is phytoextraction by using hyper-accumulator plants. Metal stress hinders plant growth in contaminated soils even hyper-accumulator plant cannot attain sufficient biomass for effective phytoremediation. Plant growth promoting bacteria and auxin help plants to cope with metal stress. A pot experiment was conducted where the efficacy of four different Cd tolerant bacterial isolates alone and in combination with auxin (10-3 M) was evaluated to promote spinach growth in Cd contaminated soil. Results revealed that Cd contamination severely decreased the spinach growth. However, bacterial inoculation and auxin application improved the spinach growth and Cd uptake compared to control. But combined application of bacterial isolates and auxin was more pronounced for enhancing fresh and dry mass, and phytoextraction of Cd.  Bacterial inoculation along with auxin increased the fresh and dry weight up to 261 and 45%, respectively, over control. Moreover, combined use of bacteria and auxin also enhanced the uptake of Cd by spinach up to 5.36 folds compared to control. Thus, synergistic use of bacteria and auxin could be a novel approach for improving plant growth under metals stress as well as for meaningful phytoremediation of metals contaminated soils.

Keywords: Spinach, Phytoextraction, IAA

Blood complete picture examination; a surrogate test for screening Hepatitis C viral infection

Kiran Tauseef Bukhari* and Humaira Zafar

Department of Pathology, Al-Nafees Medical College, Isra University Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: kiran.tauseef@yahoo.com


Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection is amongst the serious health issues in Pakistan. The early case recognition and hence its management via interferon and anti-virals can be helpful to reduce the high morbidity and mortality rates from the said infection in Pakistan. Objective of this study was to assess the variation in different hematological parameters amongst the newly diagnosed Hepatitis C viral (HCV) patients by blood complete picture examination. A Descriptive study was carried out on randomly selected 182 patients at the Pathology Department of Al-Nafees Medical College and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. A simple random sampling technique was adopted for this study. It was an open study and patients of age range between 18 to 40 years were included. An informed consent followed by a questionnaire filling was the important prerequisites of study in order to include or exclude the specific patient. The samples were finally analyzed by immune chromatographic test (ICT) for the detection of anti-HCV antibodies. The blood complete picture examination was carried out to assess the variation in hematological parameters. Out of the total 182 patients, 122 were found to be positive for anti-HCV antibodies presence. The results of current study had shown that 11.98 + 0.003 gm/dl and 123 +0.001 mm3 were the mean values of hemoglobin (Hb) and platelets respectively. While 8.11 + 0.001 mm3 was the mean value for TLC. It was concluded that thrombocytopenia is the most common feature observed in newly diagnosed HCV positive cases.

Keywords: Hepatitis C, Hemoglobin, Platelets, Total Leukocyte Count

Qualitative and chemical analysis of rice kernel to time of application of Phosphorus in combination with Zinc under anaerobic conditions

Faisal Nadeem1, Riaz Ahmad1, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani2, Anser Ali2, Muhammad Ahmad 3* and Javaid Iqbal4

1 Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

3Agriculture Adaptive Research Complex, Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan

4 Adaptive Research Farm, Gujranwala, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: mahmada2003@yahoo.co.uk


A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different application timings of P in combination with Zn and P alone on rice at Adaptive Research Farm, Gujranwala, Pakistan during the year 2010. The experimental treatments include:  P application at the time of last puddling,  P application just before transplanting, P application 10 days after transplanting, P application 20 days after transplanting, P + Zn application at the time of last puddling, P + Zn application just before transplanting, P + Zn application 10 days after transplanting and P + Zn application 20 days after transplanting. Different application timings of P in combination with Zn significantly reduced the sterile percentage, when application delayed which resulted in more normal kernels as compared to application of P alone and late one. Maximum abortive and opaque kernels were observed when P application was done just before transplanting. Maximum chalky kernels were perceived when P+Zn were applied 10 days after transplanting.Regarding concentration of P and Zn in rice straw and grain significant difference was observed in all treatments. The highest Zn concentration in grain and straw was observed in P + Zn application at 20 days after transplanting, while minimum Zn concentration was observed in all treatments where P alone was applied in different timings. P concentration in grain and straw was observed near seedling transplanting time more as compared to late applications of P alone and in combination with Zn. It is concluded that Zn is essential nutrient for anaerobic rice. More ever best timing for P application in rice crop is at time of last puddling. Combine application of Zn and P in rice crop at the time of last puddling, resulted in higher yield.


Keywords: Rice, Time of application, Zn, P, Yield and Qualitative Characteristics

Development of the best hypo-osmotic swelling solution for evaluation of functional membrane integrity of spermatozoa of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull

Muhammad Zubair1*, Ijaz Ahmad1, Maqbool Ahmad1 and Zahid Iqbal2

1Department of Theriogenology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Department of Pharmacology, Al-Nafees Medical College, Isra University Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: drzubairabbasi@gmail.com   


The functional integrity of spermatozoa in various domestic animals like horse, cattle and swine is evaluated by hypo osmotic swelling test. The hypo osmotic swelling test has not been tested in the fresh semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull.  The aim of the present study was evaluation of membrane integrity by establishing the best hypo osmotic swelling solution. Ten solutions with different osmolarities were used: 70(HS1), 90(HS2), 100(HS3), 120(HS4), 140(HS5), 150(HS6), 190(HS7), 230(HS8), 280(HS9) and 300 (HS10). Twenty samples were collected (ten from each bull) with forty eight hours interval. The collected semen was placed in water bath at 37°C and was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically for color, volume, mass activity and motility. After evaluation 0.1 ml of semen was mixed with 1ml of hypo osmotic swelling solutions and incubated for one hour at 37°C. A total of two hundred sperms were counted in five fields and sperms were classified as swollen and strongly swollen. The percentages of coiled spermatozoa in ten hypo osmotic swelling solutions mentioned above were 18.3%, 23.5%, 37.3%, 41.4%, 50.2%, 57.5%, 38.6%, 26.0%, 13.9% and 6.2% respectively. The percentages of strongly swelling solutions were 9.2%, 12.0%, 21.6%, 32.8%, 31.0%, 39.1%, 29.3%, 21.7%, 10.0% and 5.7% for ten solutions respectively. HS6 was greater to HS1, HS2, HS7, HS8, HS9 and HS10 in increasing the ability of swelling (P<0.05). Similarly HS6 showed greater ability of swelling as compared to HS1, HS2, HS8, HS9 and HS10 (P<0.05).These results indicated that the solution having 150 mOsm/L was the best for functional membrane integrity of spermatozoa in fresh semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bull semen.

Keywords: Hypo osmotic swelling test, Functional membrane integrity, Spermatozoa, Nili-Ravi bull

Identification of different varieties of Trifolium repens L. in Nepal


Anjali M. Shrestha*

Botany Department, Trichandra College, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

*Corresponding author: e-mail: rajeshanjali_hanoi@yahoo.com


Trifolium repens is an important fodder crop in subtropical and temperate pastures of Nepal where it plays an important role in pasture management.  It was introduced in 1860 in Nepal from England and has since establishment in and o  utside of such pastures. The species has been known for exhibiting phenotypical differences but no attempt has so far been made for identification of its different variations. This is the first attempt where identification of varieties of Trifolium repens collected from different parts of Nepal was carried out.  “Flower color and leaf markings” singly or in combination was found to be the chief indicators for varietal differentiation. Morphological study of each variety of Trifolium repens, collected from Kirtipur, Dhunche and Chandanbari was carried out. Highest and lowest number value and average highest total value of different morphological parameters, were measured. SPSS/PC+, one way analysis of variance at 0.05 levels showed significant variations in nodule size, stipule length, petiole length, petiolule length, leaflet size, head length, floret number, peduncle length, floret length, calyx length, anther size and ovule number among eight varieties growing at Kirtipur, six at Dhunche and six at Chandanbari. The morphological evidence on the basis of above identifying phenotypic characters of Trifolium repens, growing at Krtipur, Dhunche and Chandanbari helps to conclude that eight varieties of Trifolium repens were identified using these criteria (i.e. Intra-specific diversity) in Nepal.

Keywords: Identification, Varieties, Flower color, Leaf markings

Pyrethroids and new chemistry insecticides mixtures against Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) under laboratory conditions

Sufian Saif Bhatti, Munir Ahmad*, Kamran Yousaf and Muhammad Naeem

Department of Entomology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

  *Corresponding author: e-mail: munirahmad@uaar.edu.pk


Most crops face pest situations where more than one insect pest become economic pest and require mixture of insecticide application for management. Presently two pyrethroids and three new chemistry insecticides in mixtures at their lethal concentrations were tested against second instar larvae of Spodoptera litura, under laboratory conditions using leaf dip method. LC50 of deltamethrin, bifenthrin, emamectin benzoate, chlorfluazuron and flubendamide were 619 and 100, 74.2 and 65.8, 0.08 and 0.06, 73.4 and 52.5, and 0.37 and 0.31 ul/ml, respectively after 48 and 72 hour exposure. Pyrethroids were least effective due to their high LC50 values as compared to new chemistry insecticides. Emamectin and flubendamide were more toxic with less LC50 values than chlorfluazuron at observed time periods. Mixtures of deltamethrin with chlorfluazuron, emamectin-benzoate and flubendamide were antagonistic. However, bifenthrin showed potentiation with emamectin and flubendamide which revealed that some pyrethroids can result in potentiating mixtures with new chemistry insecticides for S. litura control under multiple pest problem scenarios.

Keywords: Spodoptera litura, Pyrethroids, New chemistries, Potentiation

Synthetic wheat; a new hope for the hungry world

Rashid Mehmood Rana*, Muhammad Bilal, Shoaib Ur Rehman, Farrukh Iqbal and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: rashid_cabb@hotmail.com


Wheat is an important staple food and most widely grown cereal of the world. The dependence of large population on this food crop and increasing population of the world requires much more wheat to be produced. Efforts were made to increase wheat productivity and a remarkable success named “Green Revolution” boosted the wheat productivity in 1960s. However, by the course of time, no further significant improvement was noted. Through successive struggles, scientists developed synthetic wheat, derived from cross between Triticum turgidum L. and Aegilops tauschii (ancestors of bread wheat; Triticum aestivum). These synthetic wheat cultivars proved a great source of unexplored genetic variability and possessed improved traits like high yield, tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses etc. Currently, new synthetic wheat has been developed, named as “super wheat” having at least 30 % higher yield than the existing wheat cultivars. This article summarizes the efforts made and goals achieved in the field of wheat breeding with special reference to synthetic wheat.


Keywords: Green revolution; Super wheat; World population

Edible insects can help to meet the human food needs of the 21st century; open invitation for research and review articles

Munir Ahmad*

Department of Entomology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

*Corresponding author: e-mail: munirahmad@uaar.edu.pk

World human population is increasing at great pace due to availability of better food, health and living environments. Every day more than six million humans are added in the world population. Present and new comers demand us to generate and develop such food reserves that could meet their needs for survival. We are focusing on food production for plants and animals by breeding new cultivars, high yielding varieties or breeds to generate food and feed for ever increasing hungry mouths of human population. These animals and plants production systems force us to manage different problems during their production, processing and storage conditions from different pests. Major pests include the pathogens, diseases and insect pests. Insects are not only harmful but also beneficial to mankind and different insects and their products have been used since centuries.

Major contributions come from beneficial predatory insects as bio-control agents of insect pests, honeybees, silkworms, lac worms, butterflies and insect zoos. Different value added products like honey, royal jelly, beewax, bee venom, propolis, lac, silk, worms as animal feed, butterfly for food and aesthetic sense etc. are some aspects commonly known by us. Other benefits include insects as food for humans, feed for animals and bait for fishing, insect fighting, insect tea and insects for different medical importance. Insects have also been used to introduce them as diverse organisms as insect zoos and butterfly parks for recreation.

Different societies do not prefer or avoid directly consuming insects in their diet where such places can be well utilized with insects as replacement of other protein sources in animal feed with higher quantities of micronutrients. Chicken diet can be improved with insects like grasshoppers, termites, flies, moths as great replacement of protein source. In comparison to rear other animals as protein source, these insects require less space, less food to meet their needs and less labor. Commercial rearing and multiplication can improve it in a much better way than currently produced meat in the form of chicken etc. and can get higher price as compared to that fed on commercial poultry feed. Flies larvae and adult reared on chick manure when fed to chicks, yielded higher protein profile than on soybean or fish meal. This conversion of chicken manure to flies can not only reduce wastes management problems but also increase the biomass and provides cheaper replacement for protein diet.

Different organizations at global scale are very much interested to utilize this food reserve to meet the needs of food, feed and medicine for humans. FAO has launched the program for its full utilization and different consortiums have been established to make these food reserves get better utilized especially in developing and under developed world countries. Such aspects need our attention not only to meet our needs but also for provision of these resources to provide economic benefits as new industries with less environmental hazards. It is, now, the duty of all those related to these fields of knowledge and expertise to develop rearing procedures for their commercialization.

Keeping in view the importance of entomophagy, it is an open invitation for all the respective researchers, university teachers and professionals to submit articles relevant to this field and enhance the food production to meet the ever increasing need of human hungry mouths.