Raza Ali Rind1, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Wajid Ali Jatoi1, Muhammad Azeem Asad2, Aamir Ali khokhar3, Feroz Gul Nizamani1, Muhammad Rafique Rind4, Abdul Latif Nizamani5, Mir Muhammad Nizamani3*
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan
2Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Key Laboratory of Tropical Biological Resources of Ministry of Education, School of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China
4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Crop Production, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan
5Agricultural Education Extension, Agricultural Social Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan
In this analysis, the genetic diversity in 50 (25 commercial and 25 landraces) bread wheat genotypes were examined for phenotype, with a goal of revealing correlations between yield and 12 other common agro-morphological characters. An experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The mean squares values from analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for all 13 character among the tested genotypes, indicating that these materials can be evaluated in further experiments. Based on mean performance, the commercial wheat variety NIA-Sundar and landrace T-23 produced the maximum grain yield per plot when compared to the other genotypes, demonstrating the importance of these two genotypes in wheat breeding programs. High heritability estimates (h2) were detected for all character, signifying that the variation observed was mainly under genetic control and was less influenced by the environment. Hence, the improvement of this character can be made through direct phenotypic selection. The results also showed that spike length, grains spike-1, grain weight spike-1, tillers/m2, seed index, and biological yield plot-1 had positive and significant associations with grain yield plot-1, demonstrating that genotypes having more of this character may be preferred in selection for generating high yielding bread wheat genotypes. Comparing the genetic variability between commercial and landraces of bread wheat through PCA, traditional wheat genotypes tended to possess more genetic variance in the first three components of PCA than its counterpart. That indicates that old wheat genotypes possess precious genetic resources; thus, these genetic resources should be cultivated in future breeding programs. Via cluster analysis, diverse parents have also been identified, signifying their importance for upcoming hybridization programs.
Keywords: Bread wheat, Genetic diversity, Commercial and Landraces Genotypes