Yusnita Hamzah*, Revathi Subramaniam, Nor Hayati Ibrahim, Suhana Muhamad Hanidun
School of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
The characteristics of breadfruit starch after cross-linked using 2%, 5%, and 10% of a mixture of sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP)/ sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (99/1% w/w) and their feasibility in batter formulation were investigated. The concentrations of 2%, 5%, and 10% of STMP/STPP led to high (85.99%) medium (64.43%) and low (49.59%) cross-linking degree of breadfruit starches, respectively. Swelling power of native and high cross-linked breadfruit starches (CLBS) were significantly higher than that of medium and low CLBS. In addition, enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) of high cross-linked CLBS was the lowest (1.81 J/g) among the others. Different degrees of cross-linking did not significantly affect the appearances (size and shape) and crystallinity of breadfruit starches. Batters were prepared by combining wheat flour and native or CLBS (1:1). All batters behaved as shear-thinning fluids and batter with the highest cross-linking degree (CLBS with 2% STMP/ STPP) had the highest consistency (K, 0.46 Pasn) compared to other CLBS formulations. Water retention capacity of batters containing native and high CLBS were significantly higher than batters containing medium and low CLBS. The pick-up of batter incorporated with low degree of CLBS (10% STMP/ STPP) was significantly lower than other batters. However, the cooking yield of batters containing native and different degrees of CLBS as well as their moisture and fat content were insignificantly affected. In summary, addition of 2% STMP/STPP as cross-linking agents obviously exhibited high degree of cross-linking in breadfruit starch without change most of the starch and batter properties. It uses in other food application are worth studied.
Keywords: Starch, Cross-link, Breadfruit, Batter, Frying