2024(1)      January - March, 2024

Duodenal intestinal flora diversity of Tibetan pigs is lower than that of York pigs based on 16S rRNA analysis

Wenli Sun1,2, Yu Wang1,2, Jian Zhang1,2, Yikai Yin1,2, Mengqi Duan1,2, Chamba Yangzom1,2, Peng Shang1,2*

1College of Animal Science, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry University, Linzhi, Tibet, China

2The Provincial and Ministerial Co-founded Collaborative Innovation Center for R & D in Tibet Characteristic Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Resources, Tibet, China


Tibetan pigs exhibit remarkable characteristics, particularly their heightened tendency for fat deposition and increased resistance to diseases in comparison to Yorkshire pigs. Surprisingly, there has been a noticeable scarcity of research delving into the underlying mechanisms responsible for these advantageous traits, especially from the perspective of intestinal microorganisms, particularly those inhabiting the duodenum. To bridge this research gap, the study harnessed 16S rRNA sequencing to conduct a comprehensive examination of the duodenal microbiota in Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. The results stemming from amplicon sequencing of duodenal contents unveiled that at the phylum level, Firmicutes dominated the duodenal microbiota in both Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. Intriguingly, Tibetan pigs showcased a significantly reduced proportion of Bacteroidetes in comparison to Yorkshire pigs (P < 0.05), leading to a substantially higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in Tibetan pigs (55.95) as opposed to Yorkshire pigs (3.86) (P < 0.05). Of remarkable note, at the genus level, Tibetan pigs displayed a significantly elevated relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. when compared to Yorkshire pigs (P < 0.01). Functional predictions pertaining to the duodenal microbiota in both pig breeds primarily revolved around amino acid metabolism, cofactor and vitamin metabolism, terpene and polyketide metabolism, amino acid derivative metabolism, and lipid metabolism. This study underscores the intricate and interdependent relationship between the composition and abundance of the duodenal microbiota and the unique characteristics of fat deposition and disease resistance in Tibetan pigs. It suggests Lactobacillus spp. as significant contributors to fat deposition, the development of the duodenal intestinal barrier, and immune function. Additionally, the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio appears to be associated with fat deposition. These findings provide valuable insights that can serve as a valuable reference for future endeavors related to the development and utilization of Tibetan pigs.

Keywords: Tibetan pigs, Duodenum, Intestinal microorganisms, Fat deposition, Disease resistance

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