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Volume 7      Special Issue-2019

Diversity and marine sustainability of Setiu wetland: modified calcium phosphate from Tamban bones as alternative sunscreen materials
 

Mohd Zul Helmi Rozaini 1*, Habibah Hamzah2, Mohd Hasmizam Razali3, Uwaisulqarni M. Osman3,

Chia Poh Wai3, Siti Kamilah Che Soh3, Saidatul Radhiah Ghazali4, Nor Hayati Ibrahim2, Low Chen Fei5

1Institute of Marine and Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, MALAYSIA.

2Faculty of Fisheries and Food Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, MALAYSIA.

3Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, MALAYSIA.

4Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Tati University College, 24000, Kemaman, Terengganu, MALAYSIA.

5Institute of Systems Biology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Abstract

Fringescale sardinella or Tamban sisik bones have been discovered can be utilized as sunscreen agent in cosmeceuticals. Its flesh is the main ingredient in keropok lekor or fish crackers in Malaysia and the bones contained very high hydroxyapatite (HAp), (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) compound which exhibit as UV light absorber. The percentage yields obtained from the hydrothermal extraction consist of 41.2 ± 0.66 % (w/w) of HAp which was almost half of the dry weight of 100 g samples. The additional of manganese and ferum, initiated the novel sunscreen materials from hydroxyapatite-Fe and hydroxyapatite-Mn doped (modified bones). The unmodified HAp recorded with SPF 20 and modified HAp-Mn measured with SPF 40. Modified HAp-Fe emulsions were recorded with SPF 50 as the highest SPF value. Therefore, the bones have been characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The results obtained clearly indicated that the HAp existence in waste of Fringescale sardinella bones with addition of FeCl2 which exhibits high potential as sunscreen compared to manganese and unmodified bones. Thus, the utilization of waste from the fish bones not only produce value-added products from low-cost resources, but also help in reducing pollution to the environment and preserved the global sustainability.
Keywords: Hydroxyapatite (HAp), Hybrid sunscreen, Fringescale sardinella, Crystallite, Utilization fish waste

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