Tag Archives: 8-4

Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) pulp extract using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity assay

Irish C. Lobitaña1, Rizza Mae E. Virtudazo1, Ann Marie P. Delfin1, Jhon Niño B. Apura1, Jay P. Picardal2Jake Joshua C. Garces1,2*

1Research Institute of Tropical Biology and Pharmacological Biotechnology, Cebu Normal University, Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City, Philippines

2Biology Department, School of Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Cebu Normal University, Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu City, Philippines


Tamarind is an economically important fruit, widely used in traditional medicine due to its therapeutic properties. However, its bioactive compounds raise an increased precaution on its toxicity. This study investigated the potential embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of Tamarindus indica pulp extracts (2 500 mg/L, 1 250 mg/L, 625 mg/L and 312.5 mg/L) on the eggs and larvae of zebrafish following a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) in equal replications.  Morphological assessment of fish larvae was based on total body length (TBL) and trunk tail angle (TTA) at 72h post fertilization and were subjected to ANOVA (p<0.05) and Linear Regression Analysis. Results on the growth parameters (TBL and TTA) showed significant difference among the four treatments in a concentration-dependent manner. At 72hpf, 2,500mg/L suggests the potential of T. indica pulp extract to induce malformations to exposed larvae. This study presents the inverse relationship of T. indica pulp extract’s embryotoxicity and teratogenicity where larvae mortality occurs in high levels of concentration while malformations form at lower concentrations of T. indica pulp extract.

Keywords: Embryotoxic, Teratogenic, Tamarindus indica, Zebrafish embryo

Mungbean (Vigna radiata) intercropping enhances productivity of late season irrigated cotton in Punjab

Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Muhammad Shoaib2*, Muhammad Saeed Ashraf1, Rafi Qamar3, Asrar Mahboob2, Sobia Ijaz1

1Agronomic Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan

2Maize and Millets Research Institute, Yusafwala, Sahiwal, Pakistan

3Department of Agronomy, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan


The aim of this study was to assess the option of intercropping mungbean (MB) in late season cotton to enhance productivity of the system. Mungbean was intercropped with cotton under two planting techniques practiced in Punjab for cotton sowing. Treatments consist of mungbean broadcast in 75 cm spaced drilled cotton rows (IS1), alternative rows of cotton and mungbean (IS2), two rows of mungbean between cotton rows (IS3) while in fourth treatment (IS4) two mungbean rows were sown on top of 105 cm wide double ridge-furrow (beds hereafter). Results showed that mungbean presence adversely affected the number of opened, total bolls plant-1, opened boll percentage and seed cotton yield in all intercropping systems. However in bed intercropping, cotton produced 21.84 % higher seed cotton yield than sole cotton. Alike, number of pods plant-1 and number of grains pod-1 of mungbean decreased in intercropping treatments compared to sole mungbean. On average, mungbean yield was 21.1 % less in intercropping treatments than sole mungbean. Yield advantage indicated by LER and ATER values was observed in all intercropping treatments except in IT3 where ATER suggested disadvantage. Highest LER (1.92) and ATER (1.58) were recorded in IS4. Aggressivity value indicates that bed structure favoured the cotton growth compared to mungbean. All intercropping systems showed positive values of system productivity index and monitory advantage index. This study concludes that productivity of late season cotton could be better enhanced by sowing two rows of mungbean on top of the 105 cm wide cotton beds.

Keywords: Intercropping systems, LER, Seed cotton yield, System productivity index

The effect of genotypic variability on the yield and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Thailand

Sorapong Benchasri1* Sakunkan Simla2, Bhornchai Harakotr3

1Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Technology and Community Development, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93210, Thailand

2Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, 44150 Thailand

3Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, 12120 Thailand


This study was conducted on twenty of okra lines (treatments) at the Thaksin University in two farming systems (conventional and organic cultivations). The experiments of conventional and organic cultivations were carried out in a Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications to evaluate the yield, yield components and genetic variations. The results showed significant variability (p≤0.05) in the okra lines for fresh important traits of yield; marketable fruits.plant-1, fruit yields.plant-1, seeds.fruit-1, 100 seed weight, 1000 seed weight and harvest index. The number of marketable fruits.plant-1 of KN-OYV-02 line showed the number of marketable fruits yield approximately 60.85 and 51.91 fruits.plant-1 under the conventional and organic farming systems, respectively. The lowest of marketable fruits.plant-1 were investigated in the OP (Open Pollination) line (30.58 and 26.74 fruits.plant-1 under the conventional and organic farming systems, respectively). KN-OYV-02 line produced the highest yield of two farming system (1,168.37 g.plant-1). The OP line produced the lowest yield under the organic farming system (505.16 g.plant-1). There were significant interactions between the cropping system and lines for the two system plantations. So, the results indicated that the KN-OYV-02 line showed the highest potential for okra breeding and production in both systems.

Keywords: Gene interactions, Line, Okra, Yield components

Genetic analysis of biochemical traits in F3 populations of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

Nazir Ahmad1*, Raziuddin2, Fazli Ahad2, Touheed Iqbal3, Nabeel Khan2, Muhammad Nauman2, Fazli Hameed4

1Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops-Ministry of Agriculture, Oil Crops Research Institute (Wuhan), The Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, P.R. China

2Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

3Directorate General Agriculture Research-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Pakistan

4College of Agricultural Engineering, Hohai University-210098, Nanjing-P.R. China



The appropriate information on the biochemical characteristics of the plant is important for its usefulness in human health. The genetic basis for different brassica genotypes in terms of biochemical characteristics is important for the planning of effective breeding strategies. The present research was conducted to determine heritability, genetic advance and coefficient of correlation for biochemical traits in rapeseed. Breeding material comprising 10 parental lines and their 21 F3 populations was evaluated in the 2013-2014 at The University of Agriculture of Peshawar-Pakistan in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. For all studied traits, substantial differences were found among genotypes, parents, and F3 populations. Similarly, significant differences for all the studied traits with the exception of protein and glucosinolates have been recorded for parent vs. F3 populations. In most F3 populations, the heritability estimates associated with the maximum genetic advance for oil content, protein content, linolenic acid, erucic acid, and oleic acid were low or moderate. In comparison, moderate to high heritability coupled with maximum genetic advance, have been observed for glucosinolates for most F3 cross combinations. These findings show that selection in the early generation may be helpful in improving these characters. Oil content showed a negative and highly significant correlation with glucosinolate (rp=-0.50) and linolenic acid (rp=-0.57), so priority should be given to these traits to improve oil content. CA2 x DH5, DH7, and CA2 x DH7 performed better for oil content, protein content, and oleic acid, respectively, while DH2, DH5, and CA2 x DH8 showed better results for glucosinolates, linolenic acid, and erucic acid, respectively. These genotypes could be further utilized in rapeseed breeding programs.

Keywords: Brassica, Genetic variability, Genetic advance, Heritability, Oil content

Detection of Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Epsilon and Clostridium chauvoei A toxin genes in Blackleg

Azam Ali Nasir1*, Muhammad Usman Ashraf1, Asma Kausar1, Nofil Mustafa1, Zain-ul Fatima1,

Mobeen Sarwar2, Rabia Riaz1, Waseem Shahzad1, Abdul Khaliq2, Riaz Hussain3

1Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore Cantt, Pakistan

2Provincial Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Cooper Road, Lahore, Pakistan

3College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan


Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detected concurrent infection of Clostridium (C.) perfringens type D and C. chauvoei in samples of three cattle out of five which were submitted to Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) for confirmation of C. chauvoei. The animals had a history of fever, lameness and crepitating sound with death occurring within 48 hours after the onset of clinical signs and seemed to be typical cases of black leg. Furthermore, the traditional methods including clinical examination, necropsy findings, cultural and biological methods are not solely enough for the confirmation of disease and are not sufficient to determine the number of pathogens involved in such cases.


Keywords: C. chauvoei, C. perfringens type D, Cattle, PCR, Concurrent infection

Anti-oxidative metabolite comparison between two phenotypes of Celastrus hindsii Benth

Van Huy Nguyen1*, Thanh Loan Pham1, Quang Trung Nguyen2

1Institute of Applied Research and Development, Hung Vuong University, Phu Tho, Vietnam

2Faculty of Agriculture, Hung Vuong University, Phu Tho, Vietnam


Celastrus hindsii Benth. is an evergreen twining shrub that has been used for generations in Northern Vietnam for diseased treatment relating to ulcers, tumors, and inflammation due to its bioactive compounds. The narrow leaf and broad leaf phenotypes have raised concerns about their comparatively biochemical quality, which is the determinant of their uses for medicinal purposes. The study aimed to investigate the concentration of important anti-oxidative metabolites between narrow leaf and broad leaf phenotypes using spectrophotometric method. The results showed that BL had a significantly higher level of a-tocopherol, flavonoid, phospholipid, and possibly glutathione (based on an air-dry weight and protein basis). Stress biomarkers such as proline and malondialdehyde were elevated in NL, indicating their roles in response to stress. In contrast, the enzyme and metabolite increase in NL may be associated with tissue degradation. BL of C. hindsii, which contains more diverse and superior concentrations of essential phytochemicals and pharmaceutically related proteins, should be positioned as an important commercial source for natural drug development.

Keywords: Secondary metabolite, Antioxidant, a-tocopherol, Flavonoid, Morphological variation

Yield and morphological characteristics of Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) in response to mineral fertilizer application

Mbappe Tanga1, Francis Bayo Lewu2*, Adebola Omowunmi Oyedeji3,

Opeoluwa Oyehan Oyedeji4

1Department of Environment and Occupational studies, Faculty of Applied Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa

2Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Wellington, South Africa

3Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Walter Sisulu University of Science and Technology, South Africa

4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa


Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a medicinal plant, highly rich in phytochemicals which contribute towards its antioxidant properties and treatment of chronic diseases. It is also consumed as a vegetable in some regions of the world because of its high nutritive value. Currently, the plant material is imported for its medicinal purposes by herbal practitioners and pharmaceutical industries in the different countries of the world, including South Africa. However, the cultivation of this plant is lacking in South Africa and Africa as a whole. In order to achieve consistent supply of quality products and eliminate batch-to-batch variability of plant materials, a factorial experiment was conducted on Takinogawa long cultivar with eight treatments (T1=N423P210K315, T2=N423P280k315, T3=N635P210K315, T4=N635P280K315, T5=N846P210K315, T6=N846P280K315, T7=N1058P210K315 andT8=N1058P280K315 Kg/ha) and five collection time of data laid out in a completely randomized design replicated five times under 40% shade net. Fertilizer treatments were split into two equal doses at seedling transplant and four weeks after transplant. Data on morphological characteristics and yield were collected and analyzed using SAS software. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference across fertilizer treatments on morphological characteristics as well as the interactions between treatments and time of data collection. Significant differences (P<0.05) were also recorded on the yield parameters. Two treatments (N635P210 K315 and N635P280K315Kg/ha) significantly outperformed the other treatments.However, more research needs to be done on the enhancement of secondary metabolites of interest for the sustainable supply of quality plant materials for herbal practitioners and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Arctium lappa L., Medicinal plant, Phytochemicals, Morphological characteristics, Fertilizer treatments