Category Archives: d_short_communication

Short Communication

Detection of Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Epsilon and Clostridium chauvoei A toxin genes in Blackleg

Azam Ali Nasir1*, Muhammad Usman Ashraf1, Asma Kausar1, Nofil Mustafa1, Zain-ul Fatima1,

Mobeen Sarwar2, Rabia Riaz1, Waseem Shahzad1, Abdul Khaliq2, Riaz Hussain3

1Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore Cantt, Pakistan

2Provincial Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Cooper Road, Lahore, Pakistan

3College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Abstract

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detected concurrent infection of Clostridium (C.) perfringens type D and C. chauvoei in samples of three cattle out of five which were submitted to Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) for confirmation of C. chauvoei. The animals had a history of fever, lameness and crepitating sound with death occurring within 48 hours after the onset of clinical signs and seemed to be typical cases of black leg. Furthermore, the traditional methods including clinical examination, necropsy findings, cultural and biological methods are not solely enough for the confirmation of disease and are not sufficient to determine the number of pathogens involved in such cases.

 

Keywords: C. chauvoei, C. perfringens type D, Cattle, PCR, Concurrent infection

Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from Beni-Guil lamb carcasses in eastern Morocco

Belhaj Kamal1*, Farid Mansouri2, Darouiche Oumaima3, Khamri Mohamed3, Chaouki Belbachir3,4, Elamrani Ahmed1

1Laboratory for Agricultural Productions Improvement, Biotechnology and Environment, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed First, BP-717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco

1,2Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Agency of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BP-159, 34000 Taounate, Morocco

3Regional Laboratory of Analysis and Research, National Office for Food Safety, BP 73, 60000 Oujda, Morocco

4Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Environment, Faculty of Science, University Mohammed First, BP-717, 60000 Oujda, Morocco

Abstract

This study aims to assess the microbial quality and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from Beni-Guil lamb carcasses. 103 samples were used for the study. The mean values obtained for microbial quality were 4.65, 3.07, 1.26, 0.99 and 0.69 (log10 CFU/cm2), respectively for total aerobic Flora counts, Enterobacteriaceae, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.70% of tested Escherichia coli strains were resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, as for Staphylococcus aureus, 100% of strains tested were resistant to ciprofloxacin and sensitive to erythromycin. Regarding gentamicin and benzylpenicillin, 70 % and 60% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant, respectively.                                               

Keywords: Beni-Guil sheep, Carcass, Microbial quality, Antimicrobial resistance

Effects of cassava starch supplementation on behavioural characteristics and oxidative status in Drosophila melanogaster

Olarewaju M. Oluba1*, Motunrayo M. Ayodele1, Abigail G. Adeyonu2, Ayoola J. Shoyombo2, Olayinka O. Alabi2, Oghenerobor B. Akpor3

1Department of Biochemistry, Food Safety and Toxicology Research Unit, College of Pure & Applied Sciences, Landmark University, P.M.B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, P. M. B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Landmark University, P. M. B. 1001, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

Abstract

Studies have revealed that adaptive life-history behaviour and reproductive capacity of an organism are influenced by the amount and quality of nutrients. Furthermore, it has been established that the balance between energy production and utilization is crucial to the animal’s survival and reproduction vis-a-vis the organism’s ability to adjust their developmental, physiological or behavioural response to environmental conditions. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the effect of cassava starch supplementation on chill-coma recovery, reproductive capacity and some metabolic-induced changes in oxidative status of Drosophila melanogaster, which was raised on a normal fly diet supplemented with 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500 and 2000 mg/mL starch extracted from three cassava cultivars (TMS 92/0326, TMS 30572 and Omu-Aran local sweet cassava). Data generated from this study showed that flies consuming starch-supplemented diet have a higher level of cold resistance, an increased survival rate as well as enhanced egg to adult viability. However, flies raised on starch-supplemented diet showed a significantly higher concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with a compensatory significant increase in activities of antioxidant defense enzymes, and nitric oxide scavenging capacity compared to flies raised on the normal fly diet. In conclusion, data obtained from this study revealed that supplementation to the D. melanogaster diet with cassava starch enhances the organism’s survival rate, and adaptive response to cold stress, with concomitant improvement in antioxidant status.

Keywords: Drosophila melanogaster diet, Starch supplementation, Adaptive behaviour, Oxidative stress

Antimicrobial activity of Indonesian plant extracts against food borne microorganisms

Khoirun Nisa*, Wuri Apriyana, Vita Taufika Rosyida

Research Unit for Natural Products Technology, Indonesian Institute of Science, Jl. Jogja-Wonosari Km. 31.5, Playen, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta 55861, Indonesia

Abstract

Many pathogens such as fungi, yeast or bacteria commonly infect food supplies throughout post-harvest process including transportation and storage. Consequently, in order to prevent food borne diseases, some preservation way is required to stop or significantly slow down spoilage. This study evaluated the antifungal and antibacterial activities of some Indonesian plants against the food spoilage fungi and pathogen bacteria. The plants were extracted by distilled water and ethanol to investigate the antifungal and antibacterial activities by the broth micro-dilution methods. At 0.5 mg/ml concentration, A. altilis aqueous extract had the most significant antifungal activity against Penicillium sp with the antifungal activity (AFA) value of 140.36 ± 3.76%. In contrast, C. burmanii inhibited the growth of Aspergillus nidulans with the AFA value of 90.52 ± 15.97% in the same concentration. In the inhibition of Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypii growth, A. altilis ethanol extract gave the remarkable antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 0.025 mg/ml of each.

Keywords: Plant extracts, Antifungal activity, Antibacterial activity, Food preservatives

Parasites bared in Rattus norvegicus and Rattus tanezumi

Florencia G. Claveria

Biology Department, College of Science, De La Salle University 2401 Taft Avenue, 1004 Manila, Philippines

 

Abstract

This paper documents the richness of parasites inhabiting Rattus tanezumi and Rattus norvegicus. Rattus spp. revealed six ectoparasites, namely: mites genus Chirodiscoides, and Radfordia ensifera, Laelaps nutalli and Ornithonyssus bacoti, fleas Xenopsylla cheopis, and lice Polyplax spinulosa. While infestation with L.  nutalli was heavy in 15 (100%) and 13 (86.7%) R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi, respectively, only R. tanezumi harbored Chirodiscoides and P. spinulosa at 80.0%. Endoparasites identified were two kinds of nematodes belonging to genus Nippostrongylus (Class Secernencea) and Capillaria hepatica (Class Adenophorea), and tapeworms identified as genus Raillietina, and Hymenolepis, and Taenia taeniaformis. While all 30 rats showed 100% parasitism with ecto- and endoparasites, Babesia infection was detected only in eight rats (26.6%), with seven cases recorded in male rats.  Most dominant endoparasites were Nippostrongylus in R. norvegicus at 73.3%, and R. tanezumi at 100.0%; while R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi revealed 86.6% and 66.6% prevalence with C. hepatica, respectively. Interestingly, Taenia taeniaformis and Raillietina were detected only in R. norvegicus at 80.0% and 20.0% infection, respectively. While both species of rats examined revealed susceptibility to different kinds of parasites, the heavier R. norvegicus seemed to nurture and support greater parasite species richness and density. In view of the argument of a clear accumulation of  helminth  diversity and species burden with increasing age of  rat species and in the absence of information of the ages of rats used in the present survey, studies to cover an expanded rat population in the Philippines  is recommended.

 Keywords: Rattus norvegicus, Rattus tanezumi, Philippines, Parasites