Category Archives: b_original_articles

Original Articles

Evaluation of the nutritional value, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities of Hericium erinaceus cultivated using jasmine rice

Sari Darmasiwi1,3, Yaovapa Aramsirirujiwet1, Ingorn Kimkong1,2*

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

2Center for Advanced Studies in Tropical Natural Resources, National Research University – Kasetsart University, 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

3Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia


Hericium erinaceus is a medicinal mushroom that has various health benefits. The cultivation of mushrooms with solid substrates was previously reported to improve their chemical compositions and bioactivities. The effect of the solid-state cultivation of H. erinaceus using jasmine rice media was evaluated with regard to the nutritional value, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities of the cultivated products. White jasmine rice (R1) and a mixture of white and red jasmine rice (R2) were used as growth substrates for H. erinaceus. The products of their cultivation, such as rice-fermented mycelia (MR1 and MR2) and basidiomata (BR1 and BR2), were assessed to determine their nutritive contents, mycochemicals, and antioxidant activities compared to unfermented rice (R1 and R2) and commercial basidiome (BS). The nutritional values were measured quantitatively, while the mycochemicals were evaluated qualitatively. The antioxidant activity was measured using the level of DPPH scavenging activity. The results showed that H. erinaceus was successfully cultivated on jasmine rice media. The pH of the media was positively correlated with mycelia growth. The R2-fermented mycelium (MR2) product had higher protein levels (11.40 g/100g) compared to unfermented R2 (6.74 g/100g). Basidiome cultivated on R2 media (BR2) exhibited higher protein levels (15.06 g/100g) compared to commercial basidiome (BS) (10.45 g/100 g). The rice-fermented mycelia contained alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. The MR2 sample showed the highest level of antioxidant activity (IC50=1.26 mg/ml). These findings suggested that cultivation on jasmine rice enhanced the nutritional value and mycochemical compositions of H. erinaceus, with beneficial antioxidant activity.


Keywords: Hericium erinaceus, Solid-state cultivation, Nutrition, Mycochemicals, Antioxidants

Effect of using garlic and lemon peels extracts with selenium on Vicia faba productivity

Mona Ibrahim Nossier1, Shaimaa Hassan Abd-Elrahman1*, Salwa Mahmoud El-Sayed2

1Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture 11241, Ain Shams University, Egypt

2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture 11241, Ain Shams University, Egypt


Several agricultural practices produce wastes rich in some useful compounds. In this research, two types of wastes (i.e., garlic and lemon peelings) were chosen and used to prepare mixtures of these peels alcoholic extract with a certain concentration of selenium, either alone or in combinations treatments. Faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L. cv. Sakha 3) were cultivated in winter season of the year 2019 on a silty clay soil after soaking in these mixtures for 24 h. Some vegetative growth parameters such as fresh and dry weights, plant length, as well as N, K, phenols and flavonoids contents were determined during different physiological growth stages of Vicia faba, in addition to determine the leaf area and number of pods per plant at the flowering growth stage. Besides of pods and seeds weight, and seeds content of N, K, Se, protein, phenols and flavonoids were also determined after harvesting. Obtained results showed that soaking seeds in the studied extracts significantly increased the weight of pods and seeds as compared to the control treatment. Moreover, the soaking process increased the percentage of antioxidants in the produced seeds of Vicia faba as compared to the control treatment. This finding highlights the benefit of such soaking process to foods rich in antioxidants that increases immunity and resistance of human against widespread diseases.


Keywords: Garlic peel, Lemon peel, Reuse of agricultural wastes, Selenium, Antioxidants, Vicia faba

Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants collected from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Tran Thanh Men1, Nguyen Dinh Hai Yen2, La Thi Kim Tu1, Tran Ngoc Quy3,  Nguyen Thi Kim Hue1, Do Tan Khang3*

1College of Natural Sciences, Can Tho University, Can Tho city, 94000, Vietnam

2Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan

3Biotechnology Research and Development Institute, Can Tho University, Can Tho city, 94000, Vietnam


Kaempferia galanga L., Morinda citrifolia L., Morus acidosa Griff, and Momordica charantia L. are medicinal plants that are widely distributed in the Mekong Delta area of Vietnam. This study was meant to examine phytochemical constituents and evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from these four plants. DPPH, ABTS, RP and TAC were applied to assess their potential in vitro antioxidant activity. Drosophila melanogaster flies were experimental objects used to evaluate in vivo antioxidant activity. Based on the data analyzed, extract of the plant Momordica charantia L. was resulting in the greatest phenolic content at 64.63 ± 1.51 mg GAE/g extract and flavonoid content at 196.52 ± 5.76 mg QE/g extract. The analyzed result of antioxidant activity through ABTS, RP, and TAC methods also displayed the highest IC50 values of this plant extract, which was 60.02 ± 2.51 µg/mL, 69.64 ± 2.74 µg/mL, and 110.95 ± 1.65 µg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, a maximum IC50 value of 168.30 ± 6.97 μg/mL, which was collected through the scavenging activity by DPPH, was introduced in the extract of Morus acidosa Griff. However, this value was insignificantly different as compared with the IC50 values of Morinda citrifolia L. extract at 172.30 ± 5.23 μg/mL and Momordica charantia L. extract at 188.20 ± 7.52 μg/mL. Under paraquat and H2­O2-induced oxidative stress conditions, the adult fly, which was fed on extracts, had increased parameters of mean lifespan, 50% survival time, and maximum lifespan. These findings showed that Momordica charantia L. extract had the highest in vivo antioxidant activity among the investigated plant extracts. It could be concluded that Kaempferia galanga L., Morinda citrifolia L., Morus acidosa Griff, and Momordica charantia L., especially Momordica charantia L., are potential medicinal plants containing many antioxidant compounds.

 Keywords: ABTS, Antioxidant, DPPH, Drosophila melanogaster, Momordica charantia L., RP, TAC

Influence of spatial variation on the physicochemical properties and mineral content of stingless bee honey (Heterotrigona itama) in Terengganu, Malaysia

Izzati Shahira Rosidi Sujanto, Nur Syahidah Ramly, John Yew Huat Tang, Asmaliza Abd Ghani, Nadiawati Alias, Salmah Mohamed, Norhayati Ngah*

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200, Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia


The growing interest in the usage of stingless bee honey as a functional food proceeds from its composition, which has been associated with bio-medicinal properties. However, the composition of honey is dependent on the types and origin of bees’ foods, which are flower nectar and plant honeydew. Thus, this study was done to investigate the influence of spatial variation on the physicochemical and mineral content of stingless bee honey in Terengganu, Malaysia. Honeys produced by Heterotrigona itama were collected from five different locations around Terengganu, Malaysia that are surrounded by different plant diversity. The physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds, and minerals of stingless bee honey were evaluated. Results obtained show that the pH of honey at all locations differed significantly, ranging from 3.30 to 3.54. The sweetness of honey varied between locations, from 69.30 to 75.76 °Brix. The moisture content of honey ranged from 27.28 to 33.13% and the electrical conductivity from 0.65 to 1.46 mScm-1, which differed significantly among the five selected locations. The parameters for colour, L* (lightness of the sample), a* (the colour scale from red to green) and b* (the colour scale from yellow to blue) values ranged from 25.02 to 52.55, -0.12 to 7.42, and 10.36 to 14.88, respectively. The total flavonoid content of honey ranged from 1.41 to 6.64 mg CE/g, while total phenolic content gave a value of 3.94 to 10.54 mg GAE/g. The antioxidant activity of honey gave a value ranging from 71.14 to 85.27%. The location of hives had a significant influence on the amount of minerals in stingless bee honey. It can be concluded that the physicochemical properties and mineral content of honey produced by H. itama were different between locations due to the variation of plant diversity at respective locations. The data obtained provides information on the effect of spatial biodiversity variation on the quality of stingless bee honey in selected locations in Terengganu, Malaysia.


Keywords: Stingless bee honey, Physicochemical properties, Mineral content, Spatial variation

Multivariate principal component analysis of morphological traits in Ross 308 broiler chicken breed

Lubabalo Bila1*, Thobela Louis Tyasi2

1Potchefstroom College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production, Private Bag X1292, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa

2School of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, Private Bag X1106, Sovenga 0727, Limpopo, South Africa


A principal component exploration is a valuable instrument in multivariate methodology and it is very useful when characteristics are related. The objective of the study was to explore the relationship amongst morphological traits and body weight (BW) of Ross 308 chicken breed. Morphological traits were recorded on one hundred Ross 308 chicken (male = 50, female = 50) at Broiler Production division of Potchefstroom College of Agriculture, South Africa.  The data was analysed using stepwise regression, Pearson’s correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Correlation findings in females ranged from -0.16 to 0.51 while ranged from -0.07 to 0.56 in males. PCA results extracted only three and two components in males and females chicken, respectively, which contributed remarkable 67.78% and 57.15% of variation. The specified principal components extracted contributed excellently to describe overall structuring. Regression results revealed that use of components was more appropriate than the use of correlated morphological traits in predicting BW. The SC might be used as a key morphological trait in the selection criteria to advance BW of male chickens while SL might be used as a key trait in the case of female Ross 308 chickens.

Keywords: Body weight, Morphological characterization, Principal component analysis

Nutritional and physical requirements for mycelial growth and fruiting body production of six strains of Pleurotus djamor from Luzon Island, Philippines

Sofronio P. Kalaw1,2, Rich Milton R. Dulay1,2*, Eduardo J. Damaso Jr.1, Joshua C. Ramos1Mark Adrian G. del Rosario1, Marcelino D. Abon1, Angeles M. De Leon1,2, Renato G. Reyes1,2

1Tuklas Lunas Development Center, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines 3120, , 2Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Central Luzon State University, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines 3120


Pleurotus djamor, a wood-rotting basidiomycetous mushroom, is becoming popular in the Philippines due to its attractive and fascinating color. With our intention to properly harness the maximum values of wild strains of P. djamor for various applications, our team investigated the mycelial growth and fruiting body performance of six strains of P. djamor collected from the different regions of Luzon Island, Philippines. Pure cultures of mushroom mycelia were successfully established and the nutritional and physical requirements for mycelial growth were determined. Fructification ability, yield and biological efficiency of the six strains were comparatively evaluated. Mycelia of TLPD 1, 2 and 3 favorably grew on potato sucrose gulaman (PSG), whereas TLPD 4, 5 and 6 luxuriantly grew on mycological agar (MA). Corn grit decoction gulaman (CGDG) and malt extract agar (MEA) were also favorable for TLPD 1, 3 and 5, respectively. The optimal pH for mycelial growth of TLPD 1, 4 and 6 was found at pH 7.0 – 8.0 whereas TLPD 2, 3 and 5 grew at a wide range of pH. All strains positively respond to both aeration conditions and both illumination conditions, except TLPD 5, which significantly recorded higher growth rates in sealed and dark conditions.  Moreover, mycelia of all strains grew better when incubated at room temperature (30oC) and air-conditioned (23oC), while no growth was noted at refrigerated condition. In fruiting body cultivation, TLPD 1 strain displayed the shortest incubation period (12 days) and primordial initiation (14.2 days), while TLPD 4 registered the longest period of cultivation phases. TLPD 3 significantly produced the highest yield of 125.34 g bag-1 and biological efficiency of 25.07%, followed by TLPD 4 and 2. No significant difference was found among strains in terms of cap diameter and stipe length. Therefore, individual strain of P. djamor has unique character and specific nutritional and physical preference, which is necessary to understand for strain selection.


Comparative Efficacy of Some New Chemistry Foliar Insecticides against Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

Wali Muhammad1*, Muhammad Ammar2, Tariq Mukhtar3, Abdul Manan Hamza1

1Department of Entomology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Insitute of Plant & Environmental Protection, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan

3Department of Plant Pathology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan


Cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is known as the most destructive pest of vegetables, ornamentals and cotton including a wide range of weeds, forest trees and semi field crops in the world. Cotton production and area under cotton is continuously declining in Pakistan for the last five years due to a rapid proliferation of the pests. The current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of some new chemistry insecticides against cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) during the kharif season of 2019 in a major cotton producing area of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of ten insecticides (single or mixtures) i.e. Dinotefuran + Spirotetramat (T1), Dinotefuran + Spirotetramat (T2), Pyriproxyfen+ Spirotetramat (T3), Pyriproxyfen+ Spirotetramat (T4), Spirotetramat (T5), Spirotetramat (T6), Pyrifluquinazon (T7), Pyrifluquinazon (T8), Flonicamid (T9), Flonicamid + Abamectin (T10) were applied twice in a field experiment on two varieties of cotton (MNH-90 and BS-18) using randomized complete block design. Water (T0) served as control. There were three replications of each treatment. Data for population of whitefly (nymphs and adults), natural enemies and boll weight were recorded 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after treatment of insecticides. Pyrifluquinazon @ 48.7 g/acre (T8) caused the maximum mortality (83%) of adults of whitefly while the maximum nymphal mortality (78.4 %) was observed in T8 (Pyrifluquinazon @ 48.7 g/acre). The maximum increase in boll weight (133%) was observed in T8 (Pyrifluquinazon @ 48.7 g/acre) followed by T10 (Flonicamid+Abamectin) which gave 110% increase over control. The application of Pyrifluquinazon @ 40 g/acre was found to be safer as compared with other tested insecticides with the minimum reduction of 31% in the population of natural enemies. It is therefore concluded that Spirotetramat and Pyrifluquinazon can be successfully included in IPM programs against Bemisia tabaci.

 Keywords: Pyrifluquinazon, Bemisiatabaci, Cotton whitefly, Chemical control, New Chemistriy insecticides

Synergistic role of pipronyl butoxide in improving the Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrosis virus effectiveness against Spodoptera littoralis and studying its histopathological biosafety

Yasmein A. El Sayed1, Rania A. Ahmed2, Shimaa M. Desoky3*

1Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki Giza, Egypt

2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, Suez, Egypt

3Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez University, Suez, Egypt


Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrosis virus (SlNPV) has been considered as a vital and safe alternative to chemical insecticides. It is effectively used in biological control of Spodoptera littoralis which is considered the most destructive and detrimental economic pest in Egypt. However, its slow speed of action limits its application among other bio-control agents. So, great attention was directed to solve this problem by using insecticide synergists. In this study the toxicity of both SlNPV and the insecticide synergist pipronyl butoxide (PBO) was investigated against 2nd and 4th instar S. littoralis larvae. Different concentrations of the tested viral isolate used (106, 107, 108, 109 and 1010 POB/ml) showed high mortality percentage ranging from 60 to 93% and 56 to 83% for the two tested instar larvae respectively 10 days post treatment. The three PBO concentrations used (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%) revealed weak toxic effect as they produced 13, 20 and 26% mortality rate for the three tested concentrations respectively 4 days post treatment. To examine the biosafety of the three PBO concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%), alone or in combination with SlNPV; in vivo animal studies, and in vitro cell line studies were applied. In vivo evaluations included histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in Caspase-3, Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), tumor necrosis factor – alpha (TNF-α) in hepatic and renal tissues, plus serum assessments of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The sulforhodamine B (SRB) cytotoxicity assay has been applied on OEC (Oral epithelial cell) and Vero (Green monkey kidney) cell lines. Results revealed that 0.1% PBO concentration was safe and didn’t induce any pathogenicity, as a dose concentration – dependent decreased pathological changes by comparing 0.3%, 0.2% PBO treated rats . Furthermore, SlNPV was safe to rat tissues and cells and PBO didn’t alter the safe nature of SlNPV on mammalian cells. According to the results of histopthological bio-safety, 0.1% of PBO was applied to 4th instar larvae for estimation its effect on larval enzyme activity and the results proved significant differences in the metabolic tested enzymes between the control and treated larvae with inhibition in both of Actylcholin esterase (AchE), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), Alpha esterases (α-esterases), Beta esterases (B- esterases), and Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and stimulation in Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and Multi-function oxidases (MFO). Moreover, 0.1% of PBO has been mixed with viral LC50 for 2nd and 4th instar larvae and the results showed highly synergistic effect of PBO as 100 and 96 % mortality rate respectively fourth day post treatment.


Keywords: Biological control, Nucleopolyhedrosis virus, Spodoptera littoralis, Pipronyl butoxide, Synergistic agents, Histopathological biosafety

Exposure to arsenic induces histomorphological alterations in testis of rabbits

Riaz Hussain Pasha1*, Anas Sarwar Qureshi2, Adnan Ali3, Saif-Ur-Rehman4, Muhammad Akram Khan5

1Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences (Histology), Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Project, Technical Unit-Building Disaster Resilience in Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan

4Department of Parasitology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

5Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan


With the expansion and development of industrial technology, frequent application of various synthetic chemicals like pesticides, insecticides and arsenic has led to contamination of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem across the globe. Among different synthetic chemicals arsenic poisoning has become a huge threat to ground water in many parts of the world. Therefore, this study was planned to examine the adverse effects of sodium arsenite on the morphology (gross and microscopic structure) of testis in rabbits. A total of 20 adult male rabbits were procured and randomly divided into two groups. Group (A) served as control and rabbits in group (B) were exposed to sodium arsenite orally (@ dose of 10mg/kg/day for a period 60 days. Results indicated significant (p<0.05) lower values of testicular weight, scrotal length and width, testicular volume, volume occupied by 10 seminiferous tubules and volume of the individual Leydig cells in treated rabbits. The exposure induced degenerative changes in testis including wavy contour of seminiferous tubules, vacuolization in the germinal epithelium and germ cell loss was recorded in the treated group. In conclusion, it was observed that arsenic may induce male reproductive effects by negatively affecting the testicular volume, Leydig cell population and volume of the Leydig cells.

 Keywords: Arsenic toxicity, Rabbit testis, Histomorphology, Pakistan

Identification of non-coding RNAs in the hyper thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8 through comparative genomics and in-silico analyses

Rahma Alshamrani1, Muhammad Huzaifa Arshad2, Munazza Gull3, Muhammad Zohaib Nawaz4, Sana Malik2*

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Bioenergy Research Centre, Department of Bioinformatics & Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Institute of Marine Microbes and Ecospheres, College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China


Thermotoga maritima is a hyperthermophile with the potential to produce thermostable commercial enzymes which can be used for saccharification of plant biomass for subsequent fermentation to bioproducts. The molecular mechanism involved in the hyper thermostability in this bacterium is still not well-understood. It is known that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulate and modulate the gene expression of various biological processes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, hence coordinate the adaptation processes in response to environmental stimuli in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To understand the role of small ncRNAs in the hyper thermostability of T. maritima, an in silico-based approach was employed involving the identification of the ncRNAs in this bacterium on a genome-wide scale. A novel pipeline was constructed which involved a combination of various bioinformatics algorithms. In total, 20804 orthologous groups were predicted on the genome of T. maritima and 20 other bacteria (reference genomes) by the OrthoMCL tool. By using the “Perl” and “Bash” languages 258 orthologous IGR datasets were created. Among these datasets, small ncRNAs were identified by employing RNAz and RNA Infernal tools. Total 28 ncRNA candidates were predicted by the RNAz tool and 9 candidates were confirmed as novel cis-regulatory small ncRNAs in T. maritima MSB8 by Infernal tool and were named as Tmn (T. maritima ncRNAs). This work provides novel insights into the role of ncRNAs in the stress adaptability of MSB8 and can give a much better understanding of the lifestyle of this bacterium after validation of the data through wet-lab approaches. Having a clear understanding of the thermo-tolerance mechanism, the MSB8 can be exploited in the future for the commercial production of thermostable compounds and biohydrogen.

Keywords: Thermotoga maritima, Small non-coding RNAs, Genome-wide detection, Thermostability, Plant biomass, Saccharification