Category Archives: b_original_articles

Original Articles

The effectiveness of Furcraea plants in controlling golden apple snail and their effects on the non-target organism at the rice field

Mohd Rohaizad Md Rejab, Nur Karimah Abdul Manam, Nur Syahirah Fauzi, Salmah Mohamed, Norhayati Ngah*

Faculty of Bioresourses and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia



Golden Apple Snail (GAS) is regarded as a serious invertebrate pest at the rice field. Most of the farmers prefer synthetic molluscicide, which delivers fast and effective responses, to control this pest. However, the synthetic molluscicide application negatively affects the farmers’ health and ecosystem. Therefore, the greener pest management technique is needed to eliminate this pest. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Furcraea plants in killing GAS, and their effects on the non-target organisms, which were catfish and rice seedlings. The results showed that F. gigantea was more effective in controlling GAS compared to F. foetida and F. selloa. In controlled condition, the application of 27.59 g of F. gigantea in 1.2 liter of water killed at least 90% of GAS population within 24 hours. The F. gigantea could kill at least 80% of GAS population at most for 3 days after the application. When applied in the field, F. gigantea cut leaves resulted in 100% mortality to GAS, but at the same time did not kill the catfish. The application of F. gigantea cut leaves did not affect the chlorophyll content, and shoot to root ratio of rice plant, but enhanced the plant height and dry weight compared to the synthetic molluscicide.


Keywords: Golden Apple Snail, Rice field, Furcraea plant, Non-target organism

Gastric ulcer prevention, harmlessness and antioxidant activity of astaxanthin extracted from a new Algerian strain of Haematococcus pluvialis

Sadoud Meryem, Bouamar Sarah, Bouziane Nabil, Medjkane Meriem, Riazi Ali*

Laboratory of Beneficial Microorganisms, Functional Food and Health, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Nature and Life Science, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, Mostaganem, 27000 Algeria



Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid (3, 3’ dihydroxy-β carotene-4, 4’-dione) with multiple biological properties of interest. It is produced by a microalga, Heamatococcus pluvialis, in substantial amounts especially under stressful conditions such as nitrate starvation and high-light intensity. The present study investigated the gastric ulcer prevention, harmlessness, and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide-extracted (DMSO) astaxanthin (DMSO-AE) of a newly isolated Haematococcus pluvialis Algerian strain. The experiment was carried out using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Changes in behavior, physical appearance, convulsion, and death rate were regularly monitored during the first 3h and after the next 24h. Antioxidant activity of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE was evaluated with DPPH (2, 2’diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) method. Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in mice treated with 250 and 500µg of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE/Kg BW, when compared to the negative and the positive control groups. Histopathological examination of stomach sagittal sections of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE pretreated mice did not show any modification of tissue architecture. There was no evidence of toxicity or changes in the behavior or the mortality rate of the mice at the administrated dose of 500 mg H. pluvialis DMSO-AE/Kg BW. The DPPH scavenging activity of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE used at a concentration of 200µg/mL, was about 89.97% with an IC50 value of 25.82µg/mL. These results highlighted the astaxanthin protective effects on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and lipid peroxidation which open up the prospects for the use of this carotenoid in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry.


Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis, Astaxanthin, Gastric ulcer, Antioxidant activity, Mice

The effect of rice straw mulch and cow urine on growth, yield, quality on sweet corn and pest population density

Darwin H. Pangaribuan1*, Setyo Widagdo1, Agus Muhammad Hariri2, Safrianirmasari Siregar1,

Muhammad Iben Sardio1

1Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia



Organic matter such as paddy straw mulch and cow urine could be used to improve the soil structure. The study aims to determine the effect of rice straw mulch and cow urine application on growth, yield, quality, and population of sweet corn pests.  This study used a 2 x 4 factorial randomized block design with three replications.  The first factor is rice straw mulch consisting of 2 levels, namely, with mulch and without mulch, and the second factor is the concentration of cattle urine composed of 4 levels, namely 2.5 ml L-1, 5.0 ml L-1, 7,5 ml L-1, 10.0 ml L-1.  The results showed that rice straw mulch and cow urine increased sweet corn’s growth, yield, and quality.  The maximum yield of 17.87 t ha-1 was achieved in the treatment of straw mulch accompanied by cattle urine 10.0 ml L -1.  In comparison, the results of 15.33 t ha-1 were achieved in the treatment without rice straw mulch accompanied by 10.0 ml L -1 cow urine.  The intensity of corn planthopper pests (Delphacidae family) ranged from 40-40.4% in 7 WAP and between 44.5 – 51.1% in 8 WAP and was not consistently affected by mulch treatment or the level of concentration of cattle urine.


Keywords: Liquid fertilizers, Nitrogen uptake, Organic farming, Postharvest, Soil structure

Biochemical and spectroscopic analysis of the effect of UV on the pigmentation of the red algae Gracilaria dentata, Hypnea musciformis and Centroceras clavulatum

Andrews Danquah1*, Isaac Kojo Angnangsoore Galyuon2, Christian Adler Phares, 1Emmanuel Plas Otwe

 1Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

2Department of Mathematics and Science Education, College of Distance Education, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

3Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana




Red algae are multicellular organisms that belong to the family Rhodophyceae. Majority of them are found at a depth of 40 m, where only short-wavelength visible light penetrates in any significant intensity and can be absorbed by red algae. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of Gracilaria dentata, Hypnea musciformis and Centroceras clavulatum to components of solar spectrum and their survival. Specifically, effects of UV-A, UV-B and PAR on pigmentations of Gracilaria dentata, Hypnea musciformis and Centroceras clavulatum were investigated under laboratory conditions.  Thalli of the algae were exposed either to unfiltered solar radiation or solar radiation filtered through WG 295, WG 320, and GG 400 cut-off filters. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation revealed that all the organisms had allophycocyanin as accessory pigment in addition to phycoerythrin and phycocyanin.  The phycoerythrin occurred in monomers, trimers, and hexamers.  Results from SDS-PAGE analyses of the protein profile of the organisms revealed a loss of high molecular weight proteins and that of low molecular weight proteins (a and b monomers), indicating a breakdown of the phycobilisomal complex and impaired energy transfer from accessory pigments to the reaction centres of photosystems.  Although the photosynthetic pigments of the organisms were drastically degraded, Hypnea musciformis appeared to be more resistant compared to Gracilaria dentata and Centroceras clavulatum. The SDS-PAGE analyses clearly indicated that organisms exposed to unfiltered solar radiation and PAR+UV-A+UV-B were destroyed as shown by the polypeptide bands intensities. Hypnea musciformis, the least bleached, could be used as a reference resistant organism for future studies. The adverse effects of the various components of UV radiation on photosynthetic pigmentation and composition of phycobiliproteins of the red algae indicate the potential deleterious effects of UV-radiation on marine organisms.


Keywords: Solar radiation, Red algae, Proteins, Photosynthetic pigments, SDS-PAGE

Antimicrobial potential of banana peel: A natural preservative to improve food safety

Nadia Shaukat1, Umar Farooq2*, Kashif Akram3, Afshan Shafi2, Zafar Hayat4, Ambreen Naz2, Ayesha Hakim5, Khizar Hayat2, Samra Naseem6, Muhammad Zaki Khan2
1Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
2Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
3Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
4Department of Animal Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
5Department of Computer Sciences, MNS- University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
6Department of Mathematics and Statistics, MNS- University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


The bacterial pathogens not only cause food borne illness and disturbance in the metabolic process of human body rather also cause the severe disorders leading to mortality. The present research was designed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of banana peel against food borne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the extracts possessed significant antimicrobial potential against both Gram-negative (S. typhus & E. coli) and Gram-positive (B. subtilus & S. aureus) strains. The ethanolic extracts revealed maximum antimicrobial potential against S. typhus (16.27±0.01 mm zone of inhibition) and S. aureus (17.15±0.01 mm zone of inhibition) at 40°C, which was very close to the antimicrobial potential of the standard antibiotics (Amoxicillin & Ciprofloxacin). The results concluded that banana peel would be a suitable choice to use as a natural preservative in food items to enhance the food safety.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Banana peel, Food borne pathogens, Antibiotic.

Algal composition in ecosystem of rice field under the application of herbicides and insecticides

Hasnun Nita Ismail1*, Normawaty Mohammad Noor2, Zuhairi Ahmad2, Wan Nurul Hidayah Wan Anuar1

1Faculty of Applied Science, University Technology of MARA Perak Branch Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

2Kuliyyah of Science, International Islamic University, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia


The ecosystem of rice fields is subjected to fluctuations between dry and wet conditions. Therefore, it contains a unique biodiversity of aquatic organisms. The present study was conducted in the rice field to assess the algal composition and changes in algal population after the application of herbicides and insecticides. The physicochemical parameters were measured in situ while algal identification and examination were investigated through microscopy. The results showed that there were insignificant changes in terms of water chemistry except for the temperature. Algal examination revealed the composition of 4 phyla (Euglenophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta) with 18 genera in the rice field. Despite the heavy application of herbicides and insecticides in the rice field, Euglenophyta significantly bloomed in the entire length of study where Euglena and Trachelomonas were the most dominant genera. Phylum of Bacillariophyta slightly bloomed during control and after the application of herbicides with the most dominant genus was Nitszchia. The application of herbicides and insecticides significantly affected the abundance of Chlorophyta even though the total abundance was below than 100 ind/mL. The Cyanophyta were the rarest algae in the ecosystem with only a single genus found, Oscillatoria. Conclusively, although the herbicides and insecticides affected the abundance of algae, but it did not induce a shift in algal community. The ecosystem of rice field supports a sustainable growth of Euglenophyta when compared to other phyla.

Keywords: Algae, Herbicides, Insecticides, Physicochemical parameters, Rice fields

Chemical composition and In vitro study of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Sargassum oligocystum Montagne (Sargassaceae, Ochrophyta)

Eldrin DLR. Arguelles*

Philippine National Collection of Microorganisms (PNCM), National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (BIOTECH), University of the Philippines Los Baños College, Laguna, Philippines


Seaweeds are marine organisms capable of producing diverse biomolecules and other important bioactive compounds with potential pharmacological uses. Proximate composition analysis of S. oligocystum showed high ash, carbohydrate, and protein content with an estimated value of 39.01±0.16%, 21.43±0.37%, and 19.13 ± 0.19% respectively. The macroalga has a phenolic content (TPC) of 30.94 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g. In terms of antioxidant efficiency, high copper reduction capacity (IC50 = 6.97 μg GAE/ml) and potent radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 28.5 μg GAE/ml) were exhibited by S. oligocystum extract, which is more effective than ascorbic acid (control). Also, S. oligocystum extract showed potent antibacterial activities towards Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Bacillus cereus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 μg/ml and 250 μg/ml, respectively. This investigation is a pioneering study in the Philippines documenting the use of S. oligocystum as an alternative source of bioactive substances that can be used as novel therapeutic agents in disease treatment.


Keywords: Biological activity, Marine, Polyphenols, Philippines, Seaweeds

Antimicrobial potentials of mucus mucin from different species of giant African land snails on some typed culture pathogenic bacteria

Funmilayo Abimbola Okeniyi1*, Oghenebrorhie Mavis Oghenochuko1, Samuel Oyewale Olawoye1, Razaq Adekunle Animashahun1, Abigail Gbemisola Adeyonu2, Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor3

1Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omu -Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omu -Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

3Department of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria


The study aims at evaluating the antibacterial activities of mucus mucin from three species of the giant African land snails; Archachatina marginata, Achatina achatina, and Achatina fulica. Snail slime was collected from forty-five snails comprising the three species of snails from the southwestern region of Nigeria. The antibacterial potential and bacteria growth rate (in hours) of the mucus mucin were determined using agar well diffusion method and liquid broth. Acetic acid (acid), ammonium bicarbonate (alkaline), and water (aqueous) were each used to extract the slime. The result showed that mucus secretions from the three snail species differed in color, degree of the sliminess, and volume.  Snail mucus extract had antimicrobial effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The inhibitory effects of mucus extracts differed depending on the treatment method and storage time, with acid extracts having a higher inhibitory capacity regardless of snail species or storage time. A. marginata’s mucus secretions had a stronger antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis when compared to mucus from A. achatina and A. fulica. The zone of inhibition of the mucus mucin in solid agar ranged between 24.0–19.5mm for A. marginata and ranged between 21.0-17.5mm and 21.0–15.0mm for A. achatina and A. fulica, within 2-72 storage hours). Mucus mucin seems to lose its antibacterial potential with time; however, the antibacterial capability of the giant African snail species could provide the much-needed solution to antibiotic resistance.


Keywords: Land snail, Mucous mucin, Antibacterial activity, Pathogenic bacteria, Antibiotic resistance

Screening of Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP. accessions from Togo for their reaction to Callosobruchus maculatus F.

Emmanuel Israel Affram1*, Victor Olawale Adetimirin2, Christian Fatokun3, Ousmane Boukar4

1Pan African University Life and Earth Science Institute, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Crop and Horticultural Sciences, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

3Cowpea Breeding, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria

4Cowpea Breeding, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kano, Nigeria


Post-harvest losses in cowpea are mostly caused by the infestation of Callosobruchus maculatus, a storage pest. It can cause up to 100% loss of untreated produce. Host Plant Resistance (HPR), an important component of integrated pest management, has potential for sustainable management of C. maculatus. The objective of this study was to assess a recently collected cowpea germplasm from Togo for resistance to C. maculatus. A total of 200 cowpea accessions from the five regions of Togo and five checks were screened for resistance to C. maculatus using a no-choice assay. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Data were collected on average number of eggs laid (ANEL), average number of adult emergence (ANAE), number of holes per seed (NHPS), initial and final seed weight (ISW and FSW), median development period (MDP), percentage adult emergence (PAE), and percentage weight loss (PWL), and two indices of resistance computed viz. insect growth index (G.I.) and Dobie’s susceptibility index (DSI). Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation and stepwise multiple regression analysis. A total of 51 accessions were moderately resistant, among which RS009 and RP218 had the least DSI score. The remaining accessions (149) were susceptible. DSI was significantly correlated with ANAE, PWL and NHPS, and had a significant and negative correlation with MDP. The results of the stepwise multiple regression showed ANAE, PWL and MDP were the better predictors of cowpea bruchid resistance and accounted for 87.7% of the observed variation in DSI scores.


Keywords: Cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, Resistance and Dobie susceptibility index

Halophyte quinoa: a potential hyperaccumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation

Muhammad Ghous1, Shahid Iqbal1,2*, Muhammad Amir Bakhtavar1,2, Fahim Nawaz1, Tanveer ul Haq3,Shahbaz Khan4

1Department of Agronomy, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

2Institute of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology MNS-University of Agriculture Multan.

3Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan

4National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan


Agricultural soils are becoming contaminated with heavy metals due to industrialization and increase in anthropogenic activities. Phytoremediation of heavy metals is an environment-friendly technique for reclamation contaminated soils. Quinoa is halophyte with excellent nutritional qualities and can also be used for the reclamation of polluted soil. This study was executed to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of heavy metals in older and younger leaves of quinoa. Six genotypes of quinoa were cultivated on artificially heavy metals polluted soil in controlled block with use of sewage wastewater at MNS University of Agriculture Multan, Pakistan. Leaves samples were analyzed to evaluate the concentration of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maximum amount of heavy metals were accumulated in older leaves Q-76, Q50 and Q-82 but Q-76 genotype was higher accumulator. In case of yield, Q-7 and Q-76 were best performers with maximum seed yield, biomass, main panicle length and width. It can be concluded that Q-76 genotype was best among the six for producing higher yield with better extraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni) from polluted soil.


Keywords: Heavy metals, Phytoextraction, Quinoa, Reclamation