Category Archives: b_original_articles

Original Articles

β -glucan and antioxidant activities of four edible mushroom extracts from Thailand

Chanida Kupradit1*, Araya Ranok1, Seksan Mangkalanan1, Chompoonuch Khongla1, Sumalee Musika1

1Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan,  Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000, Thailand


The commercial mushroom extracts from Thailand, Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Volvariella volvacea, could be sources of β-glucan and antioxidant. The objective of this research was to evaluate the β-glucan content and antioxidant activities of the mushroom extracts prepared from different extraction conditions. Various solvents, including water, ethanol, acid, and alkali were used for the mushroom extraction. The mushroom extracts were evaluated for their β-glucan content, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant properties. Among all extraction conditions, the alkaline extracted (BE) P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju showed high level of β-glucan content with 25.82 ± 3.87% w/w and 23.08 ± 0.56% w/w, respectively. Large amounts of total phenolic compounds were obtained from V.  volvacea and L. squarrosulus extracted with water at 60oC (W60) as 38.07 ± 2.53 and 34.78 ± 5.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively.  Excellent scavenging of ABTS radicals and FRAP assay were also observed in W60 of V.  volvacea as 67.12 ± 4.41 and 36.46 ± 3.44 mg trolox equivalent/g extract, respectively. The metal chelating effect of P. ostreatus was the highest at 66.13 ± 1.63 mg EDTA equivalent/g extract but was not significantly different from V.  volvacea (63.76 ± 0.51 mg EDTA equivalent/g extract) (p > 0.05). In conclusion, alkaline extraction was the most suitable for β -glucan and metal chelating activity extracts whereas water extraction was suitable for antioxidant extracts. These simple extraction conditions could be applied in producing high bioactive compounds and antioxidant active ingredients from local mushrooms for further addition in food and health products.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, β-glucan, Phenolic compound, Extraction, Mushroom

Cabbage and Swiss chard yield, irrigation requirement and soil chemical responses in zeolite-amended sandy soil

Olwetu Antonia Sindesi1, Bongani Ncube2*, Muinat Nike Lewu3, Azwimbavhi Reckson Mulidzi3, Francis Bayo Lewu1

1Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Private Bag X8, Wellington 7654, South Africa

2Centre for Water and Sanitation Research, Faculty of Engineering & the Built Environment, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville 7535, Cape Town, South Africa

3Soil and Water Science Programme, Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa


Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) are important vegetables for food and nutrition in many parts of the world. Like many other crops, vegetable production is affected by poor soil fertility and shortages of irrigation water. Climate change-related drought has led to shortages of irrigation water in many countries, including South Africa. Farmers have used amendments such as inorganic fertilisers, organic manure, and compost to improve soil fertility. However, organic soil conditioners fall short in providing stable non-decomposable soil amendments, and inorganic fertilisers are expensive. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch, to assess the effect of zeolite (a soil conditioner) on cabbage and Swiss chard yield, water, and nutrient retention ability of the soil. Zeolite to sandy soil (zeolite: sandy soil) was applied in the ratio of 0:100%, 10:90%, 20:80% and 30:70%. Both cabbage and Swiss chard yields increased, irrigation requirements decreased, and soil acidity was ameliorated due to zeolite application. Cabbage yields were improved by the residual effects of zeolite, while the Swiss chard yield increase was due to vigorous vegetative growth of Swiss chard in zeolite-amended treatments, which led to more N and water utilisation, particularly in the second season. The study also highlighted the potential of zeolite in ameliorating the pH of acidic soils, as well as the water and nutrient-saving ability of zeolite, which are major challenges for crop production in sandy soils. However, there is a need to carry out further studies to find the cost-effective application rates of zeolite under on-farm conditions.

Keywords: Soil nutrients, Leafy vegetables, Sandy soil, Irrigation, Soil conditioner

Hepatoprotective effect of sandfish “Scincus scincus” extract on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Ramzi Lamraoui1,2, Messaoud Hachemi1, Djalel Eddine Gherissi2*, Fatima Laabassi1, Dounia Djellal1, Naima Kadrine3, Souhila Haddad4, Sameh-Echourouk Saoudi1, Zineb Chouit5, Zineb Djellal1, Meriem Fellahi1, Faicel Chacha6

1Department of Biology of Living Organisms, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University of Batna 2, Batna (05110), Algeria

2Laboratory of Animal Productions, Biotechnologies and Health, Institute of Agronomic and Veterinary Sciences, University of Souk-Ahras, BP 41000, Algeria

3Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Batna 1, Batna, Algeria

4Laboratory of Biomathematics, Biophysics, Biochemistry and Scientometry, University of Bejaia, Algeria

5Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Jijel, Algeria

6Biotechnology Research Center, PO E73 .NU N° 03 Constantine, Algeria


Hepatotoxicity is defined as injury to the liver or impairment of the liver function after exposure to various risk factors. This study was planned to investigate hypothesis of hepatoprotective effect of sandfish (Scincus scincus) consumed for its health virtuous by local Saharan peoples from Algeria. For this purpose, sandfish extract benefits against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced liver toxicity in rats was evaluated. The rats (n=23) were divided into 4 groups; the control group (n= 5) received a vehicle, the extract group (n= 5) received via gavage sandfish extract (100mg/kg), Cadmium group (n= 6) received CdCl2 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), cadmium +extract group(n= 7) received after the single injection of CdCl2(1mg/kg) the sandfish extract (100 mg/kg, orally).The experimentation was performed over 56 days. Body weight, relative liver weight (LW) and biochemical parameters namely glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) were measured. Glutathione (GSH) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) activities were measured to evaluate the changes in antioxidative system and lipid peroxidation activity in liver tissues. Relative LW, MDA, ALT and TB were significantly increased by CdCl2 treatment. The treatment with sandfish extract after CdCl2 injection reduced significantly ALT, AST and TB. The GSH level was significantly altered (0.19±0.05 mg/g) by Cd treatment, which was recovered (0.43±0.08 mg/g) after that by sandfish extract gavages. In conclusion, inclusion of sandfish in rat diet showed significant evidences of hepatoprotective effect in response to acute Cd hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters, Cadmium, GSH, Hepatoprotective effect, Scincus scincus

Screening barley genotypes in terms of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics under normal and water deficit stress conditions

Roghayeh Fatemi1, Mehrdad Yarnia1*, Soleman Mohammadi2, Ebrahim Khalil Vand1, Bahram Mirashkari1

1Department of Agronomy, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2Seed and plant improvement research Department, West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran


This study aimed to evaluate promising lines and commercial barley cultivars in terms of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics under normal and water deficit conditions. The experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. According to the results, water deficiency significantly reduced the chlorophyll index (34.64 %), leaf relative water content (RWC) (15.11%), the leaf area index (42.90%), the number of seeds per spike (6.04%), 1000- grain weight (60.19%), biological yield (37.46%), grain yield (42.79%), starch (6.15%), and grain ash (20.16%) content while increasing superoxidase (33.89%) and catalase (CAT) (50.0%) enzyme activity and the grain protein content (19.58%) compared to normal conditions. In both environmental conditions, the highest grain yield was attributed to M-88-2 and M-86-5 lines and the Jonoob cultivar. However, the M-88-2 line had higher chlorophyll content, relative water content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and grain ash content in both environmental conditions compared to the Jonoob cultivar. Under normal conditions grain yield showed a positive and significant phenotypic correlation with 1000-grain weight. Furthermore, under water deficit conditions, we detected a positive phenotypic correlation between the grain yield and leaf RWC as well as the number of spikes per square meter and a positive phenotypic and genetic correlation with the biological yield. According to the results of the present study, the promising M-88-2 line can be used in future breeding programs for drought resistance as well as its quantitative and qualitative characteristics.

Keywords: Barley, Drought stress, Grain yield, Genotypes

The effectiveness of Furcraea plants in controlling golden apple snail and their effects on the non-target organism at the rice field

Mohd Rohaizad Md Rejab, Nur Karimah Abdul Manam, Nur Syahirah Fauzi, Salmah Mohamed, Norhayati Ngah*

Faculty of Bioresourses and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia



Golden Apple Snail (GAS) is regarded as a serious invertebrate pest at the rice field. Most of the farmers prefer synthetic molluscicide, which delivers fast and effective responses, to control this pest. However, the synthetic molluscicide application negatively affects the farmers’ health and ecosystem. Therefore, the greener pest management technique is needed to eliminate this pest. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Furcraea plants in killing GAS, and their effects on the non-target organisms, which were catfish and rice seedlings. The results showed that F. gigantea was more effective in controlling GAS compared to F. foetida and F. selloa. In controlled condition, the application of 27.59 g of F. gigantea in 1.2 liter of water killed at least 90% of GAS population within 24 hours. The F. gigantea could kill at least 80% of GAS population at most for 3 days after the application. When applied in the field, F. gigantea cut leaves resulted in 100% mortality to GAS, but at the same time did not kill the catfish. The application of F. gigantea cut leaves did not affect the chlorophyll content, and shoot to root ratio of rice plant, but enhanced the plant height and dry weight compared to the synthetic molluscicide.


Keywords: Golden Apple Snail, Rice field, Furcraea plant, Non-target organism

Gastric ulcer prevention, harmlessness and antioxidant activity of astaxanthin extracted from a new Algerian strain of Haematococcus pluvialis

Sadoud Meryem, Bouamar Sarah, Bouziane Nabil, Medjkane Meriem, Riazi Ali*

Laboratory of Beneficial Microorganisms, Functional Food and Health, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Nature and Life Science, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, Mostaganem, 27000 Algeria



Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid (3, 3’ dihydroxy-β carotene-4, 4’-dione) with multiple biological properties of interest. It is produced by a microalga, Heamatococcus pluvialis, in substantial amounts especially under stressful conditions such as nitrate starvation and high-light intensity. The present study investigated the gastric ulcer prevention, harmlessness, and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide-extracted (DMSO) astaxanthin (DMSO-AE) of a newly isolated Haematococcus pluvialis Algerian strain. The experiment was carried out using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Changes in behavior, physical appearance, convulsion, and death rate were regularly monitored during the first 3h and after the next 24h. Antioxidant activity of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE was evaluated with DPPH (2, 2’diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) method. Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in mice treated with 250 and 500µg of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE/Kg BW, when compared to the negative and the positive control groups. Histopathological examination of stomach sagittal sections of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE pretreated mice did not show any modification of tissue architecture. There was no evidence of toxicity or changes in the behavior or the mortality rate of the mice at the administrated dose of 500 mg H. pluvialis DMSO-AE/Kg BW. The DPPH scavenging activity of H. pluvialis DMSO-AE used at a concentration of 200µg/mL, was about 89.97% with an IC50 value of 25.82µg/mL. These results highlighted the astaxanthin protective effects on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and lipid peroxidation which open up the prospects for the use of this carotenoid in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industry.


Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis, Astaxanthin, Gastric ulcer, Antioxidant activity, Mice

The effect of rice straw mulch and cow urine on growth, yield, quality on sweet corn and pest population density

Darwin H. Pangaribuan1*, Setyo Widagdo1, Agus Muhammad Hariri2, Safrianirmasari Siregar1,

Muhammad Iben Sardio1

1Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia

2Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Lampung, Indonesia



Organic matter such as paddy straw mulch and cow urine could be used to improve the soil structure. The study aims to determine the effect of rice straw mulch and cow urine application on growth, yield, quality, and population of sweet corn pests.  This study used a 2 x 4 factorial randomized block design with three replications.  The first factor is rice straw mulch consisting of 2 levels, namely, with mulch and without mulch, and the second factor is the concentration of cattle urine composed of 4 levels, namely 2.5 ml L-1, 5.0 ml L-1, 7,5 ml L-1, 10.0 ml L-1.  The results showed that rice straw mulch and cow urine increased sweet corn’s growth, yield, and quality.  The maximum yield of 17.87 t ha-1 was achieved in the treatment of straw mulch accompanied by cattle urine 10.0 ml L -1.  In comparison, the results of 15.33 t ha-1 were achieved in the treatment without rice straw mulch accompanied by 10.0 ml L -1 cow urine.  The intensity of corn planthopper pests (Delphacidae family) ranged from 40-40.4% in 7 WAP and between 44.5 – 51.1% in 8 WAP and was not consistently affected by mulch treatment or the level of concentration of cattle urine.


Keywords: Liquid fertilizers, Nitrogen uptake, Organic farming, Postharvest, Soil structure

Biochemical and spectroscopic analysis of the effect of UV on the pigmentation of the red algae Gracilaria dentata, Hypnea musciformis and Centroceras clavulatum

Andrews Danquah1*, Isaac Kojo Angnangsoore Galyuon2, Christian Adler Phares, 1Emmanuel Plas Otwe

 1Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana

2Department of Mathematics and Science Education, College of Distance Education, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

3Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture Sciences, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana




Red algae are multicellular organisms that belong to the family Rhodophyceae. Majority of them are found at a depth of 40 m, where only short-wavelength visible light penetrates in any significant intensity and can be absorbed by red algae. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of Gracilaria dentata, Hypnea musciformis and Centroceras clavulatum to components of solar spectrum and their survival. Specifically, effects of UV-A, UV-B and PAR on pigmentations of Gracilaria dentata, Hypnea musciformis and Centroceras clavulatum were investigated under laboratory conditions.  Thalli of the algae were exposed either to unfiltered solar radiation or solar radiation filtered through WG 295, WG 320, and GG 400 cut-off filters. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation revealed that all the organisms had allophycocyanin as accessory pigment in addition to phycoerythrin and phycocyanin.  The phycoerythrin occurred in monomers, trimers, and hexamers.  Results from SDS-PAGE analyses of the protein profile of the organisms revealed a loss of high molecular weight proteins and that of low molecular weight proteins (a and b monomers), indicating a breakdown of the phycobilisomal complex and impaired energy transfer from accessory pigments to the reaction centres of photosystems.  Although the photosynthetic pigments of the organisms were drastically degraded, Hypnea musciformis appeared to be more resistant compared to Gracilaria dentata and Centroceras clavulatum. The SDS-PAGE analyses clearly indicated that organisms exposed to unfiltered solar radiation and PAR+UV-A+UV-B were destroyed as shown by the polypeptide bands intensities. Hypnea musciformis, the least bleached, could be used as a reference resistant organism for future studies. The adverse effects of the various components of UV radiation on photosynthetic pigmentation and composition of phycobiliproteins of the red algae indicate the potential deleterious effects of UV-radiation on marine organisms.


Keywords: Solar radiation, Red algae, Proteins, Photosynthetic pigments, SDS-PAGE

Antimicrobial potential of banana peel: A natural preservative to improve food safety

Nadia Shaukat1, Umar Farooq2*, Kashif Akram3, Afshan Shafi2, Zafar Hayat4, Ambreen Naz2, Ayesha Hakim5, Khizar Hayat2, Samra Naseem6, Muhammad Zaki Khan2
1Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
2Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS-University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
3Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
4Department of Animal Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
5Department of Computer Sciences, MNS- University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan
6Department of Mathematics and Statistics, MNS- University of Agriculture, Multan, Pakistan


The bacterial pathogens not only cause food borne illness and disturbance in the metabolic process of human body rather also cause the severe disorders leading to mortality. The present research was designed to investigate the antimicrobial potential of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of banana peel against food borne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhus and Escherichia coli. The results showed that the extracts possessed significant antimicrobial potential against both Gram-negative (S. typhus & E. coli) and Gram-positive (B. subtilus & S. aureus) strains. The ethanolic extracts revealed maximum antimicrobial potential against S. typhus (16.27±0.01 mm zone of inhibition) and S. aureus (17.15±0.01 mm zone of inhibition) at 40°C, which was very close to the antimicrobial potential of the standard antibiotics (Amoxicillin & Ciprofloxacin). The results concluded that banana peel would be a suitable choice to use as a natural preservative in food items to enhance the food safety.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Banana peel, Food borne pathogens, Antibiotic.

Algal composition in ecosystem of rice field under the application of herbicides and insecticides

Hasnun Nita Ismail1*, Normawaty Mohammad Noor2, Zuhairi Ahmad2, Wan Nurul Hidayah Wan Anuar1

1Faculty of Applied Science, University Technology of MARA Perak Branch Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak, Malaysia

2Kuliyyah of Science, International Islamic University, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia


The ecosystem of rice fields is subjected to fluctuations between dry and wet conditions. Therefore, it contains a unique biodiversity of aquatic organisms. The present study was conducted in the rice field to assess the algal composition and changes in algal population after the application of herbicides and insecticides. The physicochemical parameters were measured in situ while algal identification and examination were investigated through microscopy. The results showed that there were insignificant changes in terms of water chemistry except for the temperature. Algal examination revealed the composition of 4 phyla (Euglenophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta) with 18 genera in the rice field. Despite the heavy application of herbicides and insecticides in the rice field, Euglenophyta significantly bloomed in the entire length of study where Euglena and Trachelomonas were the most dominant genera. Phylum of Bacillariophyta slightly bloomed during control and after the application of herbicides with the most dominant genus was Nitszchia. The application of herbicides and insecticides significantly affected the abundance of Chlorophyta even though the total abundance was below than 100 ind/mL. The Cyanophyta were the rarest algae in the ecosystem with only a single genus found, Oscillatoria. Conclusively, although the herbicides and insecticides affected the abundance of algae, but it did not induce a shift in algal community. The ecosystem of rice field supports a sustainable growth of Euglenophyta when compared to other phyla.

Keywords: Algae, Herbicides, Insecticides, Physicochemical parameters, Rice fields